For other uses, see Alcohol (disambiguation).
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a alchol hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. The general alcohal formula for a simple acyclic alcohol is CnH2n+1OH.
In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-kuḥūl: الكحول) refers almost always to acohol ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, a strongly-smelling, colorless, volatile alcool liquid formed by the fermentation of alchool sugars. It also often refers to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). This alcoho sense underlies the term alcoholism (addiction to alcohol). lcohol Other forms of alcohol are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol or alcohlo by the suffix -ol, as in isopropanol.
- 1 Structure
- 1.1 Primary, alohol secondary, and tertiary alcohols
- 1.2 Methanol & ethanol
- 2 Uses
- 3 Sources
- 4 Nomenclature
- 4.1 Systematic alcohl alcphol allcohol names
- 4.2 Etymology
- 5 Physical and chemical properties
- 6 Toxicity
- 7 Preparation alcoohol of alcohols
- 7.1 Laboratory
- 7.2 Industrial
- 8 Reactions alcohool alchohol of alcohols
- 8.1 Deprotonation
- 8.2 Nucleophilic substitution
- 8.3 Dehydration
- 8.4 Esterification
- 8.5 Oxidation
- 9 See alchohal alcoha also
- 10 References
- 11 External acohal links
The functional alcohol group of an alcohol is a hydroxyl group bonded to an sp³ hybridized carbon. It can fetal alcohol syndrome therefore be regarded alcohol abuse as a derivative of water, with an alkyl group replacing one of the hydrogens. If an aryl alcohol 120% group is present rather than an alkyl, alcohol 120 the compound is generally called a phenol rather than an alcohol. Also, if the hydroxyl group is alcohol poisoning bonded to one of the sp² hybridized carbons alcohol addiction of an alkenyl group, the compound is referred to as isopropyl alcohol an enol. The oxygen in an alcohol has a bond angle of around 109° (c.f. effects of alcohol 104.5° in water), and two nonbonded electron pairs. The O-H alcohol detox bond in methanol (CH3OH) is around 96 picometres long.
Primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols
There are three alcohol effects major subsets of alcohols- 'primary' (1°), 'secondary' (2°) and 'tertiary' (3°), based denatured alcohol upon the number of brad paisley alcohol carbons the C-OH carbon (shown in red) is bonded to. Methanol is the simplest 'primary' alcohol. The simplest secondary calories in alcohol alcohol is isopropanol (propan-2-ol), and a simple tertiary alcohol is alcohol withdrawal tert-butanol (2-methylpropan-2-ol).
The phenols with parent compound phenol have a hydroxyl group (attached to a benzene ring) just like alcohol alcohol alcohols but differ sufficiently drug and alcohol treatment center in properties to warrant a separate treatment.
Methanol & ethanol
The simplest and most commonly used alcohols facts about alcohol are methanol (common name methyl alcohol) and ethanol emotional problems and alcohol (ethyl alcohol), with the structures shown above. Methanol was formerly obtained by the beer alcohol content distillation of wood and called "wood alcohol." alcohol treatment It is now a cheap commodity, the chemical product of carbon monoxide reacting with sugar alcohol hydrogen under high pressure. In common usage, "alcohol" often refers to ethanol or "grain alcohol still alcohol." Methylated spirits ("Meths"), also called "surgical spirits," is a form of ethanol rendered alcohol and zoloft undrinkable by the addition of methanol. Aside from its alcohol server class primary use in alcoholic beverages, ethanol is also used as alcohol withdrawal symptoms a highly controlled industrial solvent and raw material.
Alcohols are in wide drug 26 alcohol testing equipment sales jobs use in industry and science as reagents, solvents, and fuels. Ethanol and methanol can ethyl alcohol be made to burn more cleanly than gasoline or diesel. Because of its low toxicity and ability drugs and alcohol to dissolve non-polar substances, ethanol is alcohol brad paisley often used as a solvent in medical drugs, perfumes, and vegetable essences such alcohol server certification as vanilla. In organic synthesis, alcohols frequently serve as versatile intermediates. drug and alcohol rehab center In the kitchen, alcoholic beverages are added to dishes not only for alcohol license their inherent flavors, but also because the alcohol dissolves flavor compounds that water cannot.
Ethanol is commonly used drug alcohol rehab program in beverages to promote flavor, reduce social inhibitions, or induce a euphoric intoxication commonly known texas alcohol beverage commission as "drunkenness" or "being drunk." The consumption alcohol beverage license brokers of ethanol is illegal in some countries, mainly Islamic.
Ethanol is alcohol calories a drug, with potential for overdose or toxic poisoning if alcohol lending taken in excessive quantities. Alcoholism, the physiological or psychological dependency on ethanol, is one of the most common drug drug alcohol rehab addictions (caffeine causes chemical dependency, but not the mental longing known as alcohol facts addiction) in the world. Upon cessation or decrease of texas alcohol use, the physiological dependency can lead to physical withdrawal symptoms, alcohol as a depressant such as restlessness, trouble sleeping, "the shakes," or even death. For the alcohol detox center full article on this topic, see effects of alcohol on the body.
Ethanol for consumption has alcohol training class been regulated by taxation. Those who manufacture it for other purposes often avoid this expense by "denaturing" diabetes and alcohol it in a manner that renders it unfit for drinking. alcohol safety training A common way to do this is by zoloft and alcohol the addition of denatonium benzoate. "SD-40" and "SD alcohol detox symptom Alcohol" sometimes followed by "40-B" are designations that were established by the United States' Bureau rubbing alcohol of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms for this formulation.
Ethanol is often used as an antiseptic, to disinfect the homemade alcohol skin before injections are given, often along with iodine. Ethanol-based alcohol detox medication soaps are now becoming commonplace within restaurants and are alcohol detox program particularly convenient as they do not require drying due to the volatility of the molecule.
Methanol is commonly injected into detox from alcohol turbocharged and supercharged engines to cool the air intake charge. Doing this alcohol camp stove provides a denser air charge.
Many alcohols can be created by alcohol pictures fermentation of fruits alcohol shots or grains with yeast, but only ethanol is commercially produced characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome this way — chiefly for fuel and drink. Other alcohols are generally alcohol stove produced by synthetic routes from natural gas, petroleum, or coal feed stocks; for example, via acid catalyzed hydration of should christians drink alcohol alkenes. For more details see Preparation of alcohols.
In the alcohol detox home IUPAC system, the name of the alkane alcohol detox protocol chain loses the terminal "e" and adds "ol", e.g. "methanol" and "ethanol". When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl everclear alcohol vaporization of alcohol group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the "ol": propan-1-ol for CH3CH2CH2OH, propan-2-ol for CH3CH(OH)CH3. Sometimes, alcohol and lexapro the position number is written before the IUPAC name: 1-propanol and alcohol drug detox 2-propanol. If a higher priority group is present (such as an aldehyde, ketone or carboxylic acid), then alcohol metabolism it no alcohol is necessary to use the prefix "hydroxy", for example: 1-hydroxy-2-propanone (CH3COCH2OH).
Some examples of simple alcohols and how to name them:
Common names for alcohol bottles alcohols usually take alcohol and weight gain the name of the corresponding alkyl group and add the word "alcohol", e.g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol or tert-butyl alcohol. alcohol stoves Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol all inclusive cruise alcohol all inclusive cruise alcohol depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the 1st or 2nd certified alcohol and drug counselor carbon on the propane chain. freeze distilling alcohol Isopropyl alcohol is also occasionally called sec-propyl alcohol.
As mentioned above alcohols are classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°) or tertiary (3°), and common alcohol advertising names often indicate alcohol calorie counter this in the alkyl group prefix. For example (CH3)3COH is alcohol hydrometer a tertiary alcohol is commonly known as tert-butyl alcohol. This would be named 2-methylpropan-2-ol under IUPAC rules, indicating a propane buy alcohol online chain with methyl and hydroxyl groups both attached to the middle (#2) 98% isopropyl alcohol carbon.
An alcohol with two hydroxyl groups is alcohol and drugs commonly called a "glycol", e.g. HO-CH2-CH2-OH is ethylene glycol. The alcohol statistics IUPAC name is ethane-1,2-diol, "diol" indicating two hydroxyl groups, and 1,2 indicating their bonding positions. Geminal glycols drinking alcohol (with the two hydroxyls on the same carbon atom), such as ethane-1,1-diol, are generally unstable. For three zoloft alcohol or four groups, "triol" and "tetraol" are used.
The word "alcohol" almost certainly comes from the Arabic alcohol information language (the "al-" prefix being the Arabic definite article); however, the precise origin is unclear. It was introduced alcohol withdrawl into Europe, together with the art of alcohol anonymous distillation and the substance itself, around the 12th century by various European authors who translated alcohol related deaths and popularized antibiotics and alcohol the discoveries of Islamic alchemists 
A popular theory, found isopropyl alcohol msds in many dictionaries, is that it comes from الكحل alcohol and diabetes = ALKHL = al-kuhul, originally the name of very finely powdered antimony sulfide Sb2S3 used as an alcohol recovery antiseptic and benzyl alcohol eyeliner. The powder is prepared by sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite in a closed vessel. According how long does alcohol stay in your system to this theory, the meaning of alkuhul would have been first extended to distilled substances in general, and alcohol allergy then narrowed to ethanol. This conjectured etymology has been alcohol article drinking circulating in England since alcohol drinks 1672 at least (OED).
However, this derivation is suspicious since the current Arabic name for alcohol, الكحول = ALKHWL = al???, does not derive alcohol quotes from al-kuhul. The Qur'an in verse 37:47 uses the word الغول alcohol rehab = ALGhWL = al-ghawl — properly meaning "spirit" ("spiritual being") or "demon" — grain alcohol with how to make alcohol the sense "the thing that gives the wine its headiness". The word al-ghawl also originated the English word "ghoul", alcohol 120% 1.9.2 key and the name of the star Algol. This derivation would, of alcohol content course, be consistent with the use of "spirit" or "spirit of wine" as synonymous methyl alcohol of "alcohol" in most Western languages. (Incidentally, the etymology "alcohol" = "the devil" alcohol drink recipes was used in the 1930s by the U.S. alcohol detoxification Temperance movement for propaganda purposes.)
According to the second theory, the popular etymology and the spelling "alcohol" would not polyvinyl alcohol be due to generalization of the meaning of ALKHL, but rather signs of alcohol poisoning to Western alchemists and alcohol recipes authors confusing the two words ALKHL and ALGhWL, which have indeed been transliterated in many different and overlapping bureau of alcohol tobacco and firearms ways.
Physical and chemical properties
The hydroxyl alcohol and pregnancy group generally makes the alcohol molecule polar. Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to alcohol white paper one another and to other compounds. Two opposing solubility alcohol withdrawal treatment trends in alcohols are: the tendency of the polar OH to alcohol zoloft promote solubility in water, and of the carbon chain to resist long term effects of alcohol it. Thus, methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water because the hydroxyl group wins out over the short carbon chain. measuring percentage of alcohol Butanol, with a alcohol poisoning symptoms four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble because of a balance between the two trends. Alcohols of five or more carbons fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (Pentanol and higher) are effectively insoluble because of the hydrocarbon chain's symptoms of alcohol poisoning dominance.
Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols tend to alcohol inks have higher boiling points than comparable hydrocarbons and ethers. The boiling point of the alcohol test alcohol Ethanol is 78.29 °C, compared to 69 °C for the hydrocarbon Hexane (a common constituents of gasoline), and 34.6 alcohol testing °C for Diethyl ether. All simple alcohols are miscible in organic solvents. This alcohol treatment center hydrogen bonding means that effects of fetal alcohol syndrome alcohols can be used as protic solvents.
The lone pairs of electrons on alcohol + crime the oxygen of the hydroxyl group also makes alcohols nucleophiles.
Alcohols, like water, can show either acidic or basic alcohol drink grasshopper properties at alcohol effects zoloft the O-H group. With a pKa of around 16-19 they are generally slightly weaker acids than alcohol flasks water, but they are still able to react with strong bases such as sodium hydride or alcohol rehabilitation reactive metals such as sodium. The salts that result are called alkoxides, with the how long can alcohol be detected in urine general formula RO- M+.
Meanwhile the mixing alcohol zoloft oxygen atom has lone pairs of nonbonded electrons that render it weakly basic in the presence of strong pregnancy and alcohol acids such as sulfuric acid. For example, with princess cruise lines and alcohol methanol:
Alcohols can also undergo oxidation to give aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids, or they can be 100 % isopropyl alcohol dehydrated to alkenes. They can react to alcohol carbs form ester compounds, and they can (if activated first) undergo alcohol with zoloft nucleophilic substitution reactions. For more details see the reactions of alcohols section liver cancer alcohol below.
Alcohols often have an odor described as 'biting' that 'hangs' in types of alcohol the nasal passages. Ethanol in the form of alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since pre-historic times, for a variety alcohol and islam of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, alcohol detox symptoms religious, and recreational reasons. While infrequent consumption of ethanol in small quantities may be harmless or even beneficial, larger doses alcohol mixing zoloft result in alcohol non punch recipe a state known as drunkenness or intoxication (which may lead to a hangover the next day) and, depending on the alcohol protein soy wash dose and regularity alcohol weight gain of use, can cause acute respiratory failure or death and with chronic use has alcohol withdrawl symptoms medical repercussions. Alcohol has also been known to be a catalyst for reckless behaviors that may have undesirable results, buy brandy alcohol spirit online such as accidents, fighting, and unprotected sex. The LD50 of ethanol in fetal alcohol syndrome pictures rats 11,300 mg/kg. This ratio would no alcohol sign correspond to an 80kg (176.4lb) man drinking 65 shots of 80 proof alcohol, quote about alcohol although the LD50 does not necissarily translate directly to humans.
Other alcohols wood alcohol are substantially more poisonous than ethanol, partly because they take much longer to affects of alcohol be metabolized, and often their metabolism produces even more toxic substances. Methanol, or wood alcohol, for alcohol and chemical dependency counseling online classes instance, is oxidized by alcohol alcohol assessment dehydrogenase enzymes in the liver to the poisonous formaldehyde, which can cause blindness or alcohol eggnog recipe death.
An effective treatment to prevent formaldehyde toxicity after alcohol intoxication methanol ingestion is to administer ethanol. Alcohol dehydrogenase has a higher affinity for ethanol, thus preventing methanol from alcohol prices binding and acting as a substrate. Any remaining diabetes alcohol methanol will then have time to be excreted through the effects of alcohol on the brain kidneys. Remaining formaldehyde will be converted to formic acid and excreted.
Preparation of alcohols
Several methods exist for the preparation everclear grain alcohol of alcohols in the laboratory.
- Primary alkyl halides react with aqueous NaOH or fetal alcohol syndrom KOH mainly to primary alcohols in nucleophilic aliphatic substitution. (Secondary and especially picture of a liver that is affected by alcohol tertiary alkyl spinal cord injury and alcohol abuse halides will give the elimination (alkene) product instead).
- Aldehydes or ketones are reduced with sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride what is alcohol (after an acidic workup). Another reduction by aluminumisopropylates alcohol racing engines is the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction.
- Alkenes engage in an acid catalysed hydration reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst georgia sunday sales of alcohol which gives usually secondary or tertiary alcohols.
- The hydroboration-oxidation and oxymercuration-reduction of alkenes are more quantitative report on cirrhosis and alcohol reliable in organic synthesis.
- Grignard reagents react alcohol fermentation process with carbonyl groups to secondary and tertiary alcohols
- Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation is the asymmetric reduction of β-keto-esters
The formation of alcohol related crime not murder a secondary alcohol alcohol treatment facilities in new york counties via reduction and hydration is shown:
Industrially alcohols are produced in several alcohol withdrawel ways:
- By fermentation using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis alternative alcohol treatment of starch, in the presence of yeast and temperature of chlorine alcohol less than 37°C to produce ethanol. For instance the conversion of invertase to glucose and fructose or the dealing with drug and alcohol abuse conversion of glucose to zymase and dejar el alcohol ethanol.
- By direct hydration using ethene or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled fetal alcohol crude oil. Uses a catalyst of phosphoric acid under high temperature and pressure.
- Methanol is producted from water gas: It inhaling alcohol is manufactured from synthesis gas, where carbon monoxide and 2 equivalents of hydrogen gas low carb alcohol slang names for alcohol are combined to produce methanol using a copper, zinc oxide and aluminium oxide absynth alcohol catalyst at 250°C and a pressure of 50-100 atm.
Reactions of alcohols
Alcohols can alcohol advertisements behave as weak acids, undergoing deprotonation. The deprotonation reaction to produce alcohol and drug treatment centers an alkoxide salt is either performed with a strong base such as sodium hydride alcohol beverage control or n-butyllithium, or with sodium or alcohol beverages potassium metal.
- 2 R-OH + 2 NaH → 2 R-O-Na+ + H2↑
- 2 R-OH + 2Na → 2R-O−Na + H2
- E.g. 2 alcohol effects side zoloft CH3CH2-OH + 2 Na → 2 CH3-CH2-O−Na + H2
Water is similar in pKa to many alcohols, alcohol impaired driving so alcohol production with sodium hydroxide there is an equilibrium set up which usually lies alcohol proof to the left:
- R-OH + NaOH <=> R-O-Na+ + H2O (equilibrium to the alcohol syndrome signs and symptoms left)
It should be noted, though, that the bases used to deprotonate alcohols are alcohol tester strong themselves. The bases used and the alkoxides created are both highly moisture sensitive chemical reagents.
The acidity of alcohols is also affected ethanol alcohol sclerosing procedure by the overall stability of the alkoxide ion. Electron-withdrawing groups attached to liver processing of alcohol the carbon containing the hydroxyl group will serve to stabilize the alkoxide when mixing zoloft with alcohol formed, thus resulting in greater acidity. On the other hand, the presence pyloris and alcohol of electron-donating group will result residential alcohol treatment in a less stable alkoxide ion formed. This will sugar alcohols result in a scenario whereby the unstable alkoxide ion formed will tend to accept a proton to reform the zoloft alcohol use original alcohol.
With alkyl halides alkoxides give rise alcohol 120% crack to ethers in the Williamson ether synthesis.
The OH group is not a alcohol cancer liver good leaving group in nucleophilic substitution reactions, so neutral alcohols do not react alcohol carbs calories in such reactions. However if the oxygen is first protonated alcohol dependence to give R−OH2+, the leaving group (water) is much more stable, and nucleophilic substitution can take place. For alcohol detector instance, tertiary alcohols react with hydrochloric acid to produce tertiary alkyl halides, alcohol pregnancy where the hydroxyl group is replaced by a alcohol problems chlorine atom. If primary or secondary alcohols are to be alcohol related deaths in wyoming reacted with hydrochloric acid, an activator alcohol tobacco and firearms such as zinc chloride is needed. Alternatively the conversion may be performed directly using thionyl chloride.
Alcohols may likewise be converted to alkyl bromides alcoholimetros detector alcohol using hydrobromic acid or phosphorus alopecia areata alcohol tribromide, for example:
- 3 R-OH + PBr3 → 3 RBr + H3PO3
In the Barton-McCombie deoxygenation an alcohol is deoxygenated to an gelled alcohol fuel alkane with tributyltin hydride or a trimethylborane-water complex in a radical substitution alcohol addiction recovery reaction.
Alcohols are themselves alcohol and drug counselor certificate california nucleophilic, so R−OH2+ can react with ROH to produce ethers and alcohol commercials water in a dehydration reaction, although this reaction is rarely used alcohol content of beer except in the manufacture of diethyl ether.
More useful is the E1 elimination reaction of alcohols to produce alkenes. The reaction generally alcohol flask obeys Zaitsev's Rule, which alcohol free pledge states that the most stable (usually the most substituted) alkene is formed. Tertiary alcohols eliminate easily at just above alcohol injection room temperature, but primary alcohols require a higher temperature.
This is a alcohol online store diagram of acid catalysed dehydration of ethanol alcohol refractometer to produce ethene:
A more controlled elimination reaction is the Chugaev elimination with carbon disulfide and iodomethane.
To form alpha lipoic acid alcohol an ester from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid the reaction, buy whisky alcohol spirits online known as Fischer esterification, is usually performed at cetyl alcohol reflux with a catalyst of concentrated sulfuric acid:
- R-OH + R'-COOH → R'-COOR + H2O
In order distilling alcohol to drive the equilibrium to the right and produce a good effexor alcohol yield of ester, water is usually removed, either by prozac and alcohol an excess of H2SO4 or by using a Dean-Stark apparatus. Esters may also be prepared by aftercare alcohol drug rehabilitation treatment reaction of the alcohol 120 crack alcohol with an acid chloride in the presence of a base such as pyridine.
Other types of ester are prepared alcohol affect reaction time similarly- for example tosyl (tosylate) esters are made by reaction alcohol breath test of the alcohol with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in pyridine.
Primary alcohols alcohol detox diet generally give aldehydes or carboxylic acids upon oxidation, while alcohol laws secondary alcohols give ketones. Traditionally strong oxidants such as the dichromate alcohol lyrics ion or potassium permanganate are used, under acidic conditions, for example:
- 3 CH3-CH(-OH)-CH3 + K2Cr2O7 + 4 H2SO4 → 3 CH3-C(=O)-CH3 + Cr2(SO4)3 + alcohol poisioning K2SO4 + alcohol prohibition 7 H2O
Frequently in aldehyde preparations these reagents cause a problem alcohol stills of over-oxidation to the carboxylic acid. To avoid this, other reagents such as PCC, Dess-Martin periodinane, 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid, TPAP or alcohol thinning hair methods such as Swern oxidation and Corey-Kim oxidation are now preferred.
Alcohols with alcohol use a methyl group attached to alcohol use with zoloft the alcohol carbon can also undergo a haloform reaction (such as the iodoform reaction) in the presence alcohol withdrawal syndrome of the halogen and a base such as sodium hydroxide.
Tertiary alcohols resist oxidation, but can be oxidised by depression alcohol suicide reagents fetus and effects of alcohol such as 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone.
- Alcohol fuel
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- Link page to external chemical sources.
|Chemical class: Alcohol • Aldehyde • Alkane • Alkene • Alkyne • Amide • Amine • Azo compound • Benzene derivative • Carboxylic acid • Cyanate • Ester • Ether • Haloalkane • Imine • Isocyanide • Isocyanate • Ketone • Nitrile • Nitro compound • Nitroso compound • Peroxide • Phosphoric acid • Pyridine derivative • Sulfone • Sulfonic acid • Sulfoxide • Thioether • Thiol • Toluene derivative
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