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syphilis in the news

Chilliwack sees 'dramatic' jump in syphilis 

The Chilliwack Progress - Oct 09 5:31 PM
A "dramatic" increase in the number of syphilis cases in Chilliwack this year has regional health officials worried.

Syphilis concern is highlighted 
BBC News - Oct 06 1:01 PM
An awareness campaign of the health risks of syphilis on Teesside is launched after a rise in cases.

Shock syphilis outbreak 
Hartlepool Mail - Oct 09 6:15 AM
THE MAIL today launches a bid to save services at the University Hospital of Hartlepool.... A SCHOOL has received a boost in its bid to gain extra funding....

Columbus facts to float your boat 
Fort Worth Star-Telegram - Oct 09 1:13 AM
Got the day off? Thank the explorer Christopher Columbus, rogue though he might have been.

syphillis

 

 

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Syphilis
Depression-era U.S. poster syphillis advocating early syphilis treatment
ICD-10 A50.-A53.
ICD-9 090-097

Syphilis is a sexually syphalis transmitted infection (STI) caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. Syphilis has many alternate syphlis names, including "syph", "the Pox" syphllis (or "great pox", to distinguish it from smallpox), "lues" (hence luiphobia, or syphilus fear of syphilis), and the "freedom disease."

The route of transmission of syphilis is almost invariably by sexual syphils contact; however, there are examples of direct contact infections (see yaws) and of sypholis congenital syphilis (transmission from mother to child in utero).

The signs syphills and symptoms of syphilis are myriad; before the advent of serological testing, diagnosis was more difficult and the disease syhilis was dubbed the "Great Imitator" because it was so often confused spyhilis with other diseases.

Syphilis can be treated with penicillin or other antibiotics. syphiliss Statistically, oral treatment is dramatically less sypilis effective than other treatments, because patients tend not to complete the syphilix course. The oldest, and still most effective, method is to inject benzathine penicillin into each sphilis buttock (procaine is added to make the pain bearable); the syphiliis dose must be given half in each buttock because the amount given would be too syhpilis painful if given in a single injection.

Another treatment syphili is to administer several tablets of azithromycin (which has a long duration siphilis of action) orally under observation. This latter course may soon be obsolete, as strains of syphilis resistant to syphilis azithromycin have developed, and accounted for 56% of San Francisco syphilis symptoms infections in 2004.[1] Other treatments are less effective pictures of syphilis as the patient is required to take pills several times a day.

If not treated, syphilis can syphilis pictures cause serious effects such as damage to the nervous system, heart, or brain. Untreated syphilis can be tuskegee syphilis study fatal.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Etymology
  • 3 Stages syphilis rash secondary syphilis of syphilis
    • 3.1 Primary syphilis
    • 3.2 Secondary syphilis
    • 3.3 Tertiary stages of syphilis syphilis
    • 3.4 Latent syphilis
    • 3.5 Congenital tuskegee syphilis syphilis
    • 3.6 Neurosyphilis
  • 4 Testing
  • 5 Treatment
    • 5.1 History
    • 5.2 Current what is syphilis treatment
  • 6 Syphilis symptoms of syphilis in art and tuskegee syphilis experiment literature
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

History

There are two thoughts on the origin of syphilis: the Columbian tertiary syphilis and pre-Columbian theories. There are ongoing debates in latent syphilis anthropological and historical fields about the validity of either theory.

The pre-Columbian theory holds that syphilis syphilis images symptoms are described by Hippocrates in Classical Greece in its venereal/tertiary form. Some passages in syphilis pics the Bible could refer to syphilis, especially Exodus 20:5 where the sins of syphilis powerpoint the father are treatments for syphilis visited unto the third and fourth generation. There are other suspected syphilis findings tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in negro male for pre-contact Europe, including at a 13-14th century Augustinian friary in the northeastern English port of Kingston upon Hull. congenital syphilis The anthropological evidence is contested by those who follow the Columbian theory.

The Columbian Exchange theory holds syphilis disease that syphilis was a New World disease brought back by Columbus. syphilis mouth The syphilis treatment first well-recorded outbreak of what we know as syphilis occurred in Naples in 1494. a positive syphilis means a positive hiv There is some documentary evidence to link Columbus's crew to the outbreak. Supporters of diarrhea with syphilis the Columbian theory find syphilis lesions on pre-contact Native Americans. Again, all emedicine and syphilis the anthropological evidence is heatedly discussed on both sides of the Columbian/pre-Columbian debate. (Baker, et al.)

Alfred Crosby has history of syphilis argued that neither side has the full story. Syphilis is syphilis and peripheral vision loss a form of Yaws, which has existed in the Old World cost in 3rd world countries to treat syphilis since time immemorial. Crosby argues that syphilis is a specific form picture of syphilis of Yaws that had evolved in the New recommendations about syphilis World and was brought back to the old, "the differing ecological conditions produced different types of treponematosis and, in time, syphilis testing closely related effects of syphilis but different diseases". (ref:225 Crosby)

The epidemiology of the first syphilis epidemic indicates that the male syphilis disease was either new or a mutated form of an earlier disease. The disease swept across Europe from its secondary syphilis rash early epicenter at Naples. The syphilis history early form was much more virulent than the disease of today, the incubation period was shorter, only a few syphilis treatment hiv months, and the symptoms were more a manual of tests for syphilis severe. In addition, the disease was more frequently fatal than description of syphilis it is today. By 1546, the disease had evolved into the form hiv positive test and syphilis test we know now.

Syphilis had many different names. Great pox was used during the 16th century link between hiv positive test and syphilis to distinguish it from smallpox. Great pox produced a similar rash in its early stages to pictures of cured syphilis smallpox (variola), but has no relation to the smallpox signs of syphilis virus. However the name is misleading, as smallpox was a far more deadly disease. Because of the statistics of contracting syphilis outbreak in the French army, it was first called morbus gallicus, or the syphilis and skin rash French disease. In that time the Italians also called it the "Spanish syphilis sores disease", the French called it the la maladie amoxycillin syphilis anglaise ("the English disease") and "Italian disease" or "Neapolitan disease", the Russians behaviours that assist in preventing syphilis called it the "Polish disease", and the Arabs called it the "Disease of the Christians". The early syphilis term "lues" was also used.

A number of famous how common is syphilis in australia historical personages, including Charles VIII and Ivan images of syphilis the Terrible, have been alleged to have had syphilis. Guy de Maupassant and Friedrich Nietzsche are both thought to have iowa syphilis been driven insane and ultimately killed by meaning of syphilis the disease. Al Capone contracted syphilis as a young natural skin care syphilis man. By the time he was incarcerated at Alcatraz, it syphilis graph reached its third stage, neurosyphilis, making him confused and disoriented. The painter Paul Gauguin is also said to have suffered from syphilis.

The insanity syphilis origin caused by late-stage syphilis was once one of syphilis sores pics the more common forms of dementia; this was known as the general paresis of the syphilis white patches insane.

See also: List of notable people identified as bovine syphilis probably syphilitic

Etymology

"Syphilis" is (somewhat inaccurate) cephalexin syphilis Greek for "lover of swine" (sus-philos) or "one who makes love" (sym-philos). It was the eyeglasses in the treatment of syphilis name of the protagonist in an epic poem written in Latin by the Italian physician and poet, hydro syphilis Girolamo Fracastoro, entitlted Syphilis sive morbus gallicus (Latin for "Syphilis or The French Disease") (1530). miss evers' boys tuskegee syphilis pictures In the poem, Syphilis was mohammed syphilis a shepherd who first contracted the disease, sent as a plague by the god Apollo, as punishment for nazrul syphilis the defiance Syphilis and his followers showed him.

Stages of syphilis

Different manifestations occur at each stage of the disease:-

Primary syphilis

Chancres on penis due peripheral vision loss and syphilis to primary syphilitic infection

Primary syphilis is manifested after an incubation period of 10-90 days (the average symptoms syphilis is 21 days) with a primary sore. During the syphilis + hepititis c initial incubation period, individuals are asymptomatic. The sore, called a chancre, is syphilis cancer a firm, painless skin ulceration localized syphilis chancre picture at the point of initial exposure to the bacterium, often on the penis, vagina syphilis detected in semen or rectum. Local lymph node swelling can occur. The syphilis during the civil war primary lesion may persist for 4 to 6 weeks and then syphilis jokes heal spontaneously.

Secondary syphilis

Secondary syphilis manifested syphilis macular rash pictures on labia

Secondary syphilis is characterized by a skin rash that syphilis picture appears 1-6 months (commonly 6 to 8 weeks) after the primary infection. This is a symmetrical reddish-pink non-itchy rash syphilis pktp testing on the trunk and extremities, which unlike most other kinds of rash involves the palms syphilis poem by giovanni fracastoro of the hands and the soles of the feet; in moist areas of syphilis rash pictures the body syphilis skin lesion secondary the rash becomes flat broad whitish lesions called condylomata lata. Mucous patches may syphilis sore also appear on the genitals or in the mouth. A patient with syphilis is most contagious when he or syphilis spirochete microbe she has secondary syphilis.

Other symptoms common at this stage include syphilis test results fever, sore throat, malaise, weight loss, headache, tertiary stage of syphilis meningismus, and enlarged lymph nodes. Rare manifestations include an acute meningitis that occurs in about 2% of patients, hepatitis, the tuskegee syphilis study renal disease, hypertrophic gastritis, patchy proctitis, ulcerative treatment for syphilis colitis, rectosigmoid mass, arthritis, periostitis, optic neuritis, iritis, and uveitis.

Tertiary syphilis

Tertiary syphilis occurs from as early where did syphilis originate as one year after the initial infection but can african americans and syphilis experiment take up to ten years to manifest - though cases have been reported where this stage bush syphilis has occurred fifty years after initial infection. This stage is characterised by causes of syphilis gummas, soft, tumor-like growths, readily seen in the skin and mucous membranes, congenital syphilis & hearing loss but which can occur almost anywhere in the diagnosis of syphilis body, often in the skeleton. Other characteristics of untreated syphilis include Charcot's joints (a degeneration of emedicine syphilis joint surfaces resulting from loss genital syphilis of proprioception), and Clutton's joints (bilateral knee effusions). The more severe manifestations include neurosyphilis how do i know if i have syphilis and cardiovascular syphilis.

Neurological complications at this stage include generalized paresis of the insane which how is syphilis transmitted results in personality changes, changes in emotional affect, hyperactive reflexes, and Argyll-Robertson pupils, a diagnostic hydro syphilis site edu sign in images or pictures of syphilis which the small and irregular pupils constrict in response to focusing the eyes, but not to light; motility of syphilis spirochete Tabes dorsalis, also known as locomotor ataxia, a disorder of the spinal cord, often nurse dilema in the tuskegee syphilis study results in a characteristic shuffling gait.

Cardiovascular complications include aortic aortitis, aortic aneurysm, aneurysm of sinus paracelsus and syphilis of Valsalva, and aortic regurgitation, and are a frequent cause of peripheral vison and syphilis death. Syphilitic pictures of people with syphilis aortitis can cause de Musset's sign (a bobbing of the head that de prevalence of syphilis Musset first noted in Parisian prostitutes).

Latent syphilis

Latent syphilis renaissance, syphilis is defined as having serologic proof of infection without signs or symptoms of disease. Latent syphilis is stage one of syphilis further described as either early or late. Early latent syphilis statistics of syphilis is defined as having syphilis for one year or less from time of initial infection without signs or syphilis and skin tags symptoms picture symptoms of disease. Late latent syphilis, syphilis cancre then, is infection for greater than one year but having no clinical syphilis doctor general evidence of disease. The distinction is important for two reasons, therapy and risk for transmission.

In practice, the time of initial syphilis male prison morbidity infection is often not known syphilis microbe and in this case should then be presumed syphilis microbe and effects to be late for the purpose of therapy. Early latent syphilis may be treated with a single IM injection syphilis sore picture of a long-acting penicillin. Late latent syphilis, however, requires three such injections, syphilis symptoms pictures each a week apart. For infectiousness, however, late latent syphilis is not considered contagious while early syphilis white patches pics latent is. Thus, if the duration of infection is not known, one should syphilis with babies presume the patient is early and test for hiv syphilis test included contagious.

Congenital syphilis

Congenital syphilis is syphilis present in utero and at birth, transmisssion syphilis and occurs when a child is born to a mother with secondary or tertiary syphilis. Fetus in treating syphilis the utero is most liable to treatment at each stage of syphilis be infected with syphilis after the fifth month. According to the CDC, tuskegee syphilis experiments pictures 40% of births to syphilitic mothers are stillborn, 40-70% of the survivors will what are the effects of syphilis be infected, and 12% of these will subsequently die prematurely. what is the syphilis microbe Manifestations of congenital syphilis include abnormal x-rays; Hutchinson's teeth (centrally notched, widely-spaced peg-shaped upper central incisors); mulberry molars who discovered syphilis (sixth year why is treatment for syphilis molars with multiple poorly developed cusps); frontal bossing; saddle nose; poorly 18th century treatments for syphilis developed maxillae; enlarged liver; enlarged spleen; petechiae; other skin rash; anemia; lymph node enlargement; jaundice; pseudoparalysis; and snuffles, the name given to rhinitis a positive syphilis means hiv in this situation. Rhagades, linear aero syphilis scars at the angles of the mouth and nose result from bacterial infection of skin lesions. born with syphilis Death from congenital syphilis is usually through pulmonary hemorrhage. Affected children are cause of syphilis highly infectious until about 2 years of cerebrospinal syphilis age.

Neurosyphilis

Neurosyphilis refers to a site of infection involving the neurologic system. As such, neurosyphilis may compare and contrast hiv and syphilis occur at any stage of syphilis. Neurosyphilis in patients with HIV infection is conclusion about syphilis well described. Reports of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected persons congenital syphilis picture are similar to cases reported before the HIV epidemic. The precise extent and significance of cure for syphilis neurologic involvement in HIV-infected patients do you always get a rash with syphilis with syphilis, reflected by either laboratory or clinical criteria, remain incompletely characterized. Furthermore, the alteration of host immunosuppression by doctor in tuskegee syphilis experiment ART in recent years has further complicated such early sighns of syphilis characterization.

Approximately 35% to 40% of persons with secondary syphilis have asymptomatic CNS early signs of syphilis involvement, as demonstrated by any of the following on CSF examination: an abnormal cell count, protein level, or glucose effects of syphilis on the brain level; or demonstrated reactivity fibronectin syphilis to Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) antibody test. Acute syphilitic meningitis usually occurs within the first 2 florence nightingale syphilis years of infection; 10% of cases are diagnosed at the time of the secondary rash. Patients hiv and syphilis present with headache, meningeal irritation, and cranial nerve abnormalities, typically how contagious is syphilis involving cranial nerves at the how many people have syphilis base of the brain. Meningovascular syphilis occurs a few months to 10 years (average, 7 years) after the primary infection. image syphilis sores Unlike the sudden onset of thrombotic or embolic stroke syndromes, meningovascular infants with syphilis syphilis is associated with prodromal symptoms lasting weeks to months before investigations in syphilis focal deficits of a vascular syndrome are identifiable. is syphilis communicable in the first stage Prodromal symptoms include unilateral numbness, paresthesias, extremity weakness, headache, vertigo, insomnia, and psychiatric abnormalities such as is syphilis the same in male and female personality changes. The focal deficits jadish herxheimer reaction to antibiotic for syphilis initially are intermittent or progress slowly over a few days.

Testing

It was only in the 20th century that effective tests and lot of pictures on syphilis treatments for syphilis were male syphilis treatment developed.

In 1906, the first effective test for syphilis, the Wassermann test, was developed. Although it had nurse ethical dilema in the tuskegee syphilis study some false positive results, it was a major advance in the prevention of syphilis. By nurse rivers and the tuskegee syphilis stdy allowing testing before the acute symptoms origins of syphilis of the disease had developed, this test allowed the prevention of transmission of syphilis to others, peripheral vison loss and syphilis even though it did not provide a cure for those infected. In photos of babies with congential syphilis the 1930s the Hinton test, developed by William Augustus Hinton, and based photos of syphilis on flocculation, was shown to have fewer photos of syphilis disfigurement false positive reactions than the Wasserman test. Both of these early tests pics of syphilis have been superseded.

Present-day syphilis tests, such as the pictures of herpes syphilis Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) tests, while useful, are still not completely specific, as many other conditions can cause pictures of rash caused by syphilis a pictures pf syphilis positive result. Tests based on monoclonal antibodies and immunofluorescence, including Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) and pregnant women with syphilis Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption (FTA-ABS), are more specific, but are still unable to rule out rabbit syphilis related treponomal infections such as yaws and skin disorders syphilis neck shoulders pinta. However, a simple microscopy of chancre fluid using dark stages of syphilis and symptoms ground illumination provide a quick and effective test.

In one of the best-documented episodes of unethical human medical experimentation in the twentieth century, the statistics of syphilis in northern ireland Tuskegee syphilis study continued to study the subject of tuskegee syphilis experiment lifetime course of syphilis in a group of African Americans long after effective treatments for syphilis were symptms of syphilis available.

In the July syphilis alabama 17, 1998 issue of the journal Science, a group of biologists reported syphilis and skin tags symptoms and pictures complete sequencing of the genome of T. pallidum.

Treatment

History

There were originally no effective treatments for syphilis. The most syphilis babies syphilis buy online common in use were guaiacum and mercury: the use of mercury gave rise to the saying "A night in syphilis chancre the arms of Venus leads to a lifetime on Mercury". Though no proper studies were syphilis contest done to prove it, mercury may have been an effective means to treat syphilis definition syphilis. It was administered multiple syphilis emedicine ways including by mouth and by rubbing it on the syphilis epidemology skin. One of the more fascinating methods was fumigation, in which the patient was placed in a syphilis experiment closed box with his head sticking out. Mercury was placed in the syphilis free box and a fire was started syphilis from kissing under the box which caused the mercury to vaporize. It was a gruelling process for the patient and the least effective for syphilis general delivering mercury to syphilis in uk the body.

As the disease became better understood, more effective treatments were found, beginning with the use of the arsenic-containing drug Salvarsan from syphilis integration general 1910, and later, Neosalvarsan.

Unfortunately, these syphilis integration risk drugs were not 100% effective, especially in late disease. It had been observed that some who develop high syphilis karen blixen fevers could be cured of syphilis. Thus, for a brief syphilis laboratory time malaria was used syphilis late as treatment because it produces prolonged and high fevers. This was considered an acceptable syphilis looks like risk because the malaria could later be treated with quinine syphilis microscope pictures which was available at that time. Malaria as a treatment for syphilis syphilis outbreak was usually reserved for late disease, especially neurosyphilis, and then followed by either Salvarsan syphilis outbreak in waterford, wi or Neosalvarsan as adjuvunct therapy.

These treatments were finally rendered obsolete by syphilis renaissance france the discovery of penicillin, and its widespread manufacture after World War II allowed syphilis to be syphilis rhymes effectively cured for the first time.

Current treatment

The first choice treatment for Primary, secondary, and early syphilis shirt latent infection remains penicillin, in the form syphilis stage treatments of Benzathine penicillin G, 2.4 MU IM in a single dose. Individuals who syphilis stages have severe allergic reactions to penicillin (e.g., anaphylaxis) may be effectively treated with oral tetracyclines (100 syphilis study mg syphilis survey journal orally twice a day for 14 days). Ceftriaxone may be considered as an alternative therapy, although the optimal dose syphilis titres is not yet defined and close syphilis untreated clinical and serologic follow-up is essential. If ceftriaxone is used for the treatment of early syphilis vector syphilis, some experts recommend 1 g daily, given intramuscularly or intravenously, for 8 to 10 syphilis window period days. (47,159,160)

For late latent and infections theory holds that syphilis disease form called treatment of unknown duration- If the CSF examination yields no evidence of neurosyphilis, then a total of 7.2 million units of benzathine penicillin transmission of syphilis G is recommended (administered as treatment of syphilis 3 doses of 2.4 million units by intramuscular injection weekly for 3 successive weeks). If allergic, then tetracyclines may be tuskagee syphilis study used for this tuskeegee syphilis study stage also, but for 28 days instead of the normal 14.

For patients diagnosed with neurosyphilis (including tuskegee syphilis experiment + discussion question ocular or auditory syphilis with or without positive LP results), aqueous crystalline tuskegee syphilis experiment discussion penicillin G is the treatment of choice (administered as 18-24 million units intravenously per day; tuskegee syphilis experiment, research outcomes ie, 3-4 million units every 4 hours or continuous infusion was syphilis the cause of death of gen. george washington for 10-14 days). If intravenous administration is impossible, then aqueous what are symptoms of syphilis procaine penicillin G is an alternative what is the source of syphilis (administered as 2.4 million units intramuscularly daily plus probenecid 500 mg by mouth 4 times daily for 14 days). Procaine what pathogen causes syphilis injections are painful, however, and patient compliance may be difficult to ensure. To approximate the when test for hiv is syphilis test included 21-day course of therapy for late latent disease and to address concerns about slowly dividing treponemes, most experts now recommend 3 weekly doses of benzathine penicillin G (total 7.2 million units intramuscularly) after the completion of a 14-day course of aqueous crystalline or aqueous procaine penicillin G for neurosyphilis. No oral antibiotic alternatives are recommended for the treatment of neurosyphilis, but in special circumstances the only alternative that has been studied is ceftriaxone 2 g intramuscularly for 14 days.

Alternative regimens (eg, tetracyclines) are not well studied in HIV infection and a careful follow-up is recommended. Tetra-cyclines are contraindicated in pregnancy. Skin testing or desensitization to facilitate therapy with penicillin is recommended in pregnant patients and for treatment of latent syphilis and neurosyphilis in other patients with HIV infection. Follow-up includes clinical evaluation at 1 to 2 weeks followed by clinical and serologic evaluation at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months after treatment.

Oral Azithromycin given as a single dose of 2 g has been used successfully to treat syphilis in a pilot study of 328 patients in Tanzania (Riedner 2005), but resistance to azithromycin (eg, as high as 56% in San Francisco in 2004)[2] has made it an unacceptable alternative.

HIV-infected patients with early syphilis may have a higher risk of neurologic complications and a higher rate of treatment failure with currently recommended regimens. The magnitude of these risks, however, although not precisely defined, is probably small.

Before administering any treatment, clinicians should warn all patients about the possibility of a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, which occurs most often in secondary syphilis and with penicillin therapy, and may be more common in HIV-infected patients.[3] This reaction is characterized by fever, fatigue, and transient worsening of any mucocutaneous symptoms, and usually subsides within 24 hours. These symptoms can be alleviated with acetaminophen and should not be mistaken for drug allergy. In addition, clinicians should inform HIV-infected patients that currently recommended regimens may be less effective for them than for patients without HIV infection and that close serologic follow-up is therefore essential.

Syphilis in art and literature

There are references to syphilis in William Shakespeare's play Measure for Measure, particularly in a number of early passages spoken by the character Lucio. For example, Lucio says "[...] thy bones are hollow"; this is a reference to the brittleness of bones engendered by the use of mercury which was then widely used to treat syphilis.

Jonathan Swift's poetry mentions syphilis as a condition of prostitution which reaches the highest ranks of society. See, for example, "A Beautiful Young Nymph Going To Bed" and "The Progress of Beauty".

William Hogarth's A Harlot's Progress, a series of six paintings (1731, now lost) and engravings (1732) shows the story of Moll Hackabout, a country girl who moves to London, becomes a prostitute, and eventually dies of a venereal disease, widely interpreted as being syphilis.

Some critics have argued that the character of Edward Rochester's first wife, Bertha, in Charlotte Brontë's novel Jane Eyre, suffers from the advanced stages of syphilitic infection, general paresis of the insane, and point to corroborative evidence within the text to substantiate this view.

Henrik Ibsen's controversial (at the time) play Ghosts has a young man who is suffering from a mysterious unnamed disease. Though it is never named, the events of the play make it plain that this is syphilis, an inheritance from his dissolute father. Dr Rank in Ibsen's play A Doll's House also has inherited syphilis.

The novel Candide by Voltaire describes Candide's mentor and teacher, Pangloss, as having contracted syphilis from a maidservant he slept with; the syphilis has ravaged and deformed his body. Pangloss explains to Candide that syphilis is 'necessary in the best of worlds' because the line of infection - which he explains - leads back to Christopher Columbus. If Columbus had not sailed to America and brought back syphilis, Pangloss states, the Europeans would not have been able to enjoy 'New World wonders' such as chocolate. (One of the purposes of the novel was to satirize Leibniz's philosophy as Pangloss's disingenuous rose-tinted viewpoint.) Pangloss eventually loses an eye and an ear to the syphilis before he is cured.

The artist Kees van Dongen produced a series of illustrations for the anarchist publication L'Assiette au Beurre showing the descent of a young prostitute from poverty to her death from syphilis as a criticism of the social order at the end of the 19th century.

Also, in Charles Dickens' novel Tale of Two Cities, references are made that allude to the main character, Sydney Carton, having syphilis.

Mention must be made of the anonymous American medical students' description of syphilis in a series of early 20th-century American limericks, using medical terminology to ghastly comic effect. It was first published in Journal of the American Medical Association January 1942: [4]

Thomas Disch in his novel Camp Concentration describe a fictional strain of syphilis that enhances intelligence but is lethal.

In Thomas Mann's novel Doktor Faustus, the Faust character, Adrian Leverkühn, acquires his genius for musical composition from the neurological effects of syphilis.

In Dick Francis' novel, Bonecrack the character Enso Rivera is suffering from megalomania caused by syphilis.

The Russian Author Leo Tolstoy suffered from syphilis during his youth, which was cured using arsenic treatment [1]

Neal Stephenson's trilogy The Baroque Cycle has multiple characters and historical figures who have syphilis, most notably James II of England and Jack Shaftoe; the latter is cured of the disease by running a high fever.

See also

  • Other treponematous diseases:-
    • Yaws is a tropical disease characterized by an infection of the skin, bones and joints; it is caused by a spirochete bacterium, Treponema pallidum, sp. pertenue, also called Treponema pertenue
    • Pinta - caused by Treponema carateum
    • Bejel - caused by Treponema endemicum
  • Rapid Plasma Reagin

References

  1. ^ A. N. Wilson, "Tolstoy: A Biography," http://www.amazon.com/Tolstoy-Biography-N-Wilson/dp/0393321223/sr=1-1/qid=1157902690/ref=sr_1_1/103-5801230-9691031?ie=UTF8&s=books.


External links

  • UCSF HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter: Syphilis and HIV
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Infections Resource Center from the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals
  • "A New Gold Standard For Syphilis?" Poster Presentation for European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 2004 Spring Symposium
  • Kipkeepers, Pox and Gleet Vendors: A Rapid History of Syphilis
  • POX: Genius, Madness, and the Mysteries of Syphilis
  • Secrets of the Dead (PBS): The Syphilis Enigma
  • Syphilis and AIDS: Lessons from history
  • "Syphilis fact sheet" from the Center for Disease Control
  • The chapter on syphilis from a book on Dermatology and Venerology — contains some good pictures
  • The treatment of dementia paralytica by malaria inoculation (A Nobel Prize lecture, December 13, 1927)
  • Homosexual men boost increase in syphilis rate
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Factsheet
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