|MRI image showing a bright spot where multiple sclerosis has damaged myelin in the brain
Multiple sclerosis (abbreviated multiple scerosis mutiple sclerosis MS, also known as disseminated sclerosis) is a chronic, inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). MS can cause a multiplesclerosis variety of symptoms, including changes in multiple sclrosis sensation, visual problems, muscle weakness, depression, multiple scoerosis difficulties with coordination and speech, severe fatigue, and pain. Although many patients lead full multiple sclerosos and rewarding lives, MS can cause impaired mobility and disability multiple slerosis in the more severe cases.
Multiple sclerosis affects neurons, the cells of the brain and spinal cord that carry information, create thought and perception and multiple sclerosi muliple sclerosis allow the brain to control the body. Surrounding and protecting some of these neurons is a multible sclerosis fatty layer known as the myelin sheath, which helps neurons carry electrical signals. MS multiple sclerois causes gradual destruction of myelin (demyelination) and transection of neuron axons in multipe sclerosis patches throughout the brain and spinal cord, causing various symptoms muultiple sclerosis depending upon which signals are interrupted. The name multiple sclerosis refers to the multiple scars (or multple sclerosis scleroses) on the myelin sheaths. multile sclerosis It is thought that MS results from attacks by an individual's immune system on multiple sclarosis the nervous system and is therefore categorized as an autoimmune multiple sclerisis disease.
Multiple sclerosis may take several different forms, with new symptoms occurring in discrete attacks or slowly accruing over time. Between attacks, symptoms multiplr sclerosis may resolve multiple sclerossis completely, but permanent neurologic problems often persist. Although much is known about how MS causes damage, its exact cause remains unknown. MS mulyiple sclerosis currently does not have a cure, though several treatments multiple schlerosis are available which may slow the appearance of new symptoms. MS primarily affects adults, with an multiple scelrosis age of onset typically multiple schlorosis between 20 and 40 years, and is more common in women multiple sclorsis than in men.
- 1 Common multiple scerlosis symptoms
- 2 Diagnosis
- 3 Disease course multiple scoliosis and clinical subtypes
- 4 Factors triggering a relapse
- 5 Pathophysiology
- 5.1 How multiple multiple scleroses sclerosis causes damage
- 5.2 Pathophysiology research
- 6 Why multiple multiple scelerosis sclerosis occurs
- 6.1 Environmental
- 6.2 Genetic
- 7 Treatment
- 7.1 Management multiple scelorsis of acute attacks
- 7.2 Management multiple sclerosis of relapsing-remitting MS
- 7.3 Management of symptoms of multiple sclerosis progressive MS
- 7.4 Management of demyelination without a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis symptoms MS
- 7.5 Management of the effects of MS
- 7.6 Therapies early symptoms multiple sclerosis under investigation
- 7.7 Side effects of medications for multiple sclerosis treatment relapsing-remitting MS
- 8 Prognosis
- 9 Epidemiology
- 10 History
- 11 Multiple multiple sclerosis signs symptoms sclerosis in film and television
- 12 See multiple sclerosis society also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Individuals with multiple sclerosis may onset symptoms of multiple sclerosis experience a wide variety of symptoms. The initial attacks are often transient, mild (or asymptomatic), and multiple sclerosis filing for disability self-limited. They often do not prompt a health multiple sclerosis diagnosis care visit and sometimes are only national multiple sclerosis society identified in retrospect once the diagnosis has been made based on further attacks. The most common mri image for multiple sclerosis initial symptoms reported are: changes in multiple sclerosis and lyme disease sensation in the arms, legs or face (33%), complete or partial vision loss (optic neuritis) (16%), weakness (13%), double vision (7%), unsteadiness multiple sclerosis pictures when walking (5%), and balance problems (3%). Fifteen percent information on multiple sclerosis of individuals have multiple symptoms when they first multiple sclerosis in children seek medical attention. Most people find their initial MS symptoms occur over a period of hours to weeks. For stem cell multiple sclerosis some people the initial MS attack multiple sclerosis foundation is preceded by infection, trauma or strenuous physical effort.
Other symptoms multiple sclerosis chat rooms and physical findings common in multiple sclerosis are flickering eye movements (nystagmus), speech difficulties, tremor, clumsiness of the hands, multiple sclerosis headache abnormal muscle multiple sclerosis lesions spasms, and bladder and bowel difficulties. Cognitive impairments are also common, such as difficulty benign multiple sclerosis performing multiple tasks at once, difficulty following detailed instructions, loss of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis short term memory, emotional instability, and fatigue. Emotional symptoms are common and can be the fibromyalgia with multiple sclerosis normal response to having a debilitating disease or the result of damage to multiple sclerosis + delirium the nerves that generate and control emotions. The most common condition, clinical multiple sclerosis anxiety depression medications depression, is a product of both causes. Feelings such sign of multiple sclerosis as anger, anxiety, frustration, and hopelessness are also common, and suicide is a very real book on multiple sclerosis threat. People with MS may also experience a range of end stage multiple sclerosis acute and chronic pain syndromes.
Three clinical entities warrant further discussion because affected individuals are often eventually diagnosed with MS. (However, multiple sclerosis definition MS is multiple sclerosis new treatment only one of several potential causes for these entities.)
- Optic neuritis
- Individuals typically multiple sclerosis signs and symptoms experience rapid onset of pain in one eye, followed by blurry vision in part or all of the visual tamia multiple sclerosis field of that eye. This is a result of involvement of the optic nerve by alpha lipoic acid for multiple sclerosis MS. Only 10% to 50% of left ventricular dysfunction and multiple sclerosis patients (depending on the population studied) with optic neuritis go on to multiple sclerosis & incontinence develop MS. The blurred vision usually resolves within six months, but individuals are often left with less symptoms multiple sclerosis vivid color vision (especially red) in the affected eye.
- Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
- Individuals usually multiple sclerosis cure notice binocular diplopia (double multiple sclerosis drug vision with both eyes open) when looking to one side. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia occurs when MS affects a part of the primary progressive multiple sclerosis brain stem called the medial longitudinal fasciculus, treatment for multiple sclerosis which is responsible for communication between the two eyes. This results in info on multiple sclerosis the failure of the medial rectus muscle to contract appropriately, multiple sclerosis center so that the eyes do not move equally (called disconjugate gaze).
- Transverse myelitis
- Individuals typically develop multiple sclerosis fatigue rapid onset of numbness, weakness, bowel or bladder dysfunction, and/or multiple sclerosis foundations loss of muscle function, typically in the lower half of the body. This is the result of MS attacking the treatments for multiple sclerosis spinal cord. As many as 80% of individuals with what is multiple sclerosis transverse myelitis are left with lasting alpha lipoic acid and multiple sclerosis disabilities, even though there is usually some improvement during the first two years.
Multiple sclerosis effects of multiple sclerosis is difficult to diagnose in its early stages. In fact, definite diagnosis of MS cannot be made until there multiple sclerosis early symptoms is evidence of at least two anatomically separate demyelinating events occurring at multiple sclerosis exercise least thirty days apart. The multiple sclerosis in canada McDonald criteria represent international efforts to standardize the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis society of canada MS using clinical data, laboratory data, and radiologic data.
- Clinical data alone may be sufficient for a diagnosis of MS. If an individual has suffered two separate episodes of neurologic tell me symptoms of multiple sclerosis symptoms characteristic of MS, and the individual also has consistent abnormalities on diagnosing multiple sclerosis physical examination, a diagnosis of MS can be made with maxine messenger multiple sclerosis clinic no further testing. Since some multiple sclerosis + stroke people with MS seek medical attention after only one attack, other testing may hasten the multiple sclerosis chat room diagnosis and allow earlier initiation of therapy.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spine is often used to evaluate severe multiple sclerosis individuals annette funicello multiple sclerosis with suspected MS. MRI shows areas of demyelination as bright lesions on T2-weighted images or FLAIR (fluid disseminated multiple sclerosis attenuated inversion recovery) sequences. Gadolinium contrast famous people with multiple sclerosis is used to demonstrate active plaques on T1-weighted images. Because MRI can reveal lesions which occurred previously but produced no clinical symptoms, living multiple sclerosis it can provide the evidence of chronicity mild multiple sclerosis needed for a definite diagnosis of MS.
- Testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can multiple sclerosis canada provide evidence of chronic inflammation of the central nervous multiple sclerosis chemotherapy system. The CSF is tested for oligoclonal bands, which are immunoglobulins found in multiple sclerosis medication 85% to 95% of people with definite MS (but also acid alpha lipoic multiple sclerosis found in people with other diseases).  Combined with MRI and clinical data, definition multiple sclerosis the presence of oligoclonal bands can help make a definite diagnosis of MS. Lumbar puncture is the procedure used to graph of multiple sclerosis collect a sample of CSF.
- The brain multiple scleroses test of a person with MS often responds less actively to stimulation of the optic multiple sclerosis and dehydration nerve and sensory nerves. These brain multiple sclerosis national ms society responses can be examined using Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Decreased activity on either test can multiple sclerosis picture reveal demyelination which may be otherwise asymptomatic. Along with other data, these multiple sclerosis statistics exams can national multiple sclerosis help find the widespread nerve involvement required for a definite diagnosis of MS.
Another test which people with multiple sclerosis may become important in the future is measurement of antibodies against myelin proteins such as myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein tumefactive multiple sclerosis (MOG) and myelin basic protein alternative treatment for multiple sclerosis (MBP). As of 2005, however, there is no established role for these tests back pain and multiple sclerosis in diagnosing MS.
The signs and symptoms of MS can be similar to other medical problems, such as healthy eating a guide for people with multiple sclerosis stroke, brain inflammation, infections such as Lyme disease (which can produce identical hearing loss multiple sclerosis MRI lesions and CSF abnormalities), tumors, and other autoimmune problems, such as lupus. Additional testing may be needed multiple sclerosis and vitamin d to help distinguish MS from these other problems.
Disease course and clinical subtypes
Graph representing the different types of multiple sclerosis
The course of MS multiple sclerosis icq is difficult to predict, and the disease may at times either lie dormant or multiple sclerosis jewelry progress steadily. Several subtypes, or patterns of progression, have been described. Subtypes use multiple sclerosis prognosis the past course of the disease in an attempt multiple sclerosis sign and symptom to predict the future course. A person diagnosed with a particular subtype may, for unclear types of multiple sclerosis reasons, switch from one subtype to yoga and multiple sclerosis another over time. Subtypes are important not only for prognosis but also for therapeutic decisions. cyclophosphamide and multiple sclerosis In 1996 the United States National Multiple Sclerosis Society standardized the following diagnosis of multiple sclerosis four subtype definitions:
- Relapsing-remitting describes the initial course of 85% to 90% of flu shots and multiple sclerosis individuals with MS. This subtype is characterized by unpredictable attacks (relapses) followed by periods of fluctuating vision and multiple sclerosis months to years of relative quiet (remission) with no new homeopathic cures for multiple sclerosis signs of disease activity. Deficits suffered during the attacks may either resolve or may multiple sclerosis and death be multiple sclerosis and depression permanent. When deficits always resolve between attacks, this is referred to as multiple sclerosis and hearing "benign" MS.
- Secondary progressive
- Secondary progressive describes around 80% of those with initial relapsing-remitting MS, who then begin to have neurologic decline between their acute multiple sclerosis forum attacks without any definite periods of remission. multiple sclerosis information This decline may include new neurologic symptoms, worsening cognitive function, or other deficits. Secondary multiple sclerosis personal stories progressive is the most common multiple sclerosis society florida type of MS and causes the greatest amount of disability.
- Primary progressive
- Primary progressive describes the police officers with multiple sclerosis approximately 10% of individuals who never have remission after their initial MS symptoms. Decline occurs alpha lipoic acid multiple sclerosis continuously without clear attacks. The primary progressive subtype alternative medicine and multiple sclerosis tends to affect people who are older at disease onset.
- Progressive relapsing
- Progressive relapsing describes those individuals who, from the c-reactive protein multiple sclerosis onset of their MS, have a steady neurologic decline causes of multiple sclerosis but also suffer superimposed attacks.
Factors triggering a relapse
Multiple sclerosis relapses are child with multiple sclerosis often unpredictable and can occur without warning children with multiple sclerosis with no obvious inciting factors. Some attacks, however, are preceded by common triggers. cognitive therapy for multiple sclerosis In general, relapses occur more frequently during spring and summer than during autumn and evoked potentials multiple sclerosis winter. Infections, such as the common cold, influenza, and gastroenteritis, increase the risk for a relapse. Emotional and joan didion multiple sclerosis physical stress may also military medical retirement multiple sclerosis trigger an attack, as can severe illness of any multiple scleroses kind. Statistically, there is no good evidence that either trauma or surgery trigger relapses. People with multiple sclerosis alternative medicine treatment MS can participate in sports, but they should probably avoid extremely strenuous exertion, such as marathon running. Heat can multiple sclerosis copaxone transiently increase symptoms, which is known as Uhthoff's phenomenon. This is multiple sclerosis disability why some people with multiple sclerosis medications MS avoid saunas or even hot showers. However, heat is not an established trigger of multiple sclerosis pregnancy relapses.
Pregnancy can directly affect the susceptibility for relapse. The last three months of pregnancy offer multiple sclerosis symptom multiple sclerosis a natural protection against relapses. However, during the first few multiple sclerosis treatment centers months after delivery, the risk for a relapse is increased 20%–40%. Pregnancy does not seem to influence long-term multiple sclerosis video yoga disability. Children born national multiple sclerosis society treatments to mothers with MS are not at increased risk for birth defects nih progressive multiple sclerosis or other problems.
Many potential triggers have been examined and found not to influence relapse rates in MS. Influenza vaccination theodore cercos national multiple sclerosis society or type of multiple sclerosis is safe, does not trigger relapses, and can therefore be recommended for people with MS. zocor multiple sclerosis There is also no evidence that hepatitis B, varicella, tetanus, buy cheap multiple sclerosis treatment or Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG - immunization for tuberculosis) increases the risk for relapse.
Although much is known about how multiple sclerosis causes damage, fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis the reasons why multiple sclerosis occurs are not known.
How multiple sclerosis causes damage
Multiple sclerosis is list local multiple sclerosis society branches a disease in which the body's immune system attacks the myelin surrounding nerve cells. Myelin is medical journals online and multiple sclerosis a fatty substance which covers multiple sclerosis advances in treatment the axons of nerve cells and is multiple sclerosis and fatigue treatment important for proper nerve conduction. A special subset of white blood cells, called T cells, plays a key multiple sclerosis and occupational therapy role in the development of MS. Under normal circumstances, these lymphocytes can distinguish between multiple sclerosis and vitemin d self and non-self. However, in a person with MS, these cells recognize healthy parts multiple sclerosis awareness poster of the central nervous system as foreign and attack them as if they were multiple sclerosis best treatment an invading virus.
In MS, multiple sclerosis chat certain T cells trigger inflammatory processes when they encounter myelin, stimulating other immune cells and soluble factors like cytokines and multiple sclerosis children antibodies. Normally, there multiple sclerosis early symptom is a tight barrier between the blood and brain, called the blood-brain barrier, built up of endothelial multiple sclerosis latitude study cells lining the blood vessel walls. The inflammatory processes triggered by the T cells multiple sclerosis mri create leaks in the blood-brain barrier. These leaks, in multiple sclerosis ms turn, cause a number of other damaging effects such as swelling, activation of macrophages, multiple sclerosis pain and more activation of cytokines multiple sclerosis society az events and other destructive proteins such as matrix metalloproteinases. The final result is destruction of myelin, multiple sclerosis specialist called demyelination.
Repair processes, called remyelination, also play an important role in MS. Remyelination multiple sclerosis stress is one of the reasons why, especially in early phases new treatment for multiple sclerosis of the disease, symptoms tend to decrease or disappear temporarily. Nevertheless, nerve damage and irreversible loss of neurons stopping multiple sclerosis occur early in symptoms of benign multiple sclerosis MS. Often, the brain is able to compensate for some of this damage, due to an ability called neuroplasticity. MS symptoms develop the multiple sclerosis society as the cumulative result of multiple lesions in the brain and cause of multiple sclerosis spinal cord. This is why symptoms celebrity multiple sclerosis can vary greatly between different individuals, depending on where their chiropractic treatment and multiple sclerosis lesions occur.
The oligodendrocytes that originally formed a myelin sheath cannot completely rebuild a destroyed myelin sheath. However, the brain can citrus county, florida + multiple sclerosis recruit stem cells, which migrate from other colon hydrotherapy and multiple sclerosis unknown regions of the brain, differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes, and rebuild the cost for treatment with multiple sclerosis myelin sheath. These new myelin sheaths are often not as effective as the original ones. Repeated attacks lead craniosacral therapy multiple sclerosis to successively less effective remyelinations, until a scar-like diagnosis is a treatment multiple sclerosis neurological plaque is built up around the damaged axons. Under laboratory conditions, stem cells epilepsy and multiple sclerosis are quite capable of differentiating and remyelinating axons; it is therefore feline and multiple and sclerosis suspected that inflammatory conditions or axonal damage somehow inhibit stem cell differentiation live cell therapies and multiple sclerosis in the body.
Until recently, lumbar puncture multiple sclerosis most of the data available came from post-mortem brain samples and animal models of the disease, such as mri and multiple sclerosis the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis multiple sclerosis + divorce (EAE), an autoimmune disease that rodents can develop, and which is considered a possible animal model for multiple sclerosis.
In 1998, multiple sclerosis and celebrity or famous the National Multiple Sclerosis Society and the multiple sclerosis and stress Mayo Clinic launched "The Lesion Project" to describe MS lesions as accurately as possible and to develop an accurate model of the evolution of the disease. They have used multiple sclerosis causes brain biopsies apart from the multiple sclerosis facts post-mortem samples. Four different damage patterns have been identified in the multiple sclerosis lipitor scars of the brain tissue, but the meaning of this fact remains controversial. For multiple sclerosis news some researchers it means that MS multiple sclerosis personal story is a heterogeneous disease. Other teams maintain that the shape of the scars can change from one type to other and multiple sclerosis scholarship this could be a marker multiple sclerosis support of the disease action time.
Four patterns were identified
- Pattern I
- The scar multiple sclerosis therapy presents T-cells and macrophages around blood vessels, with preservation of oligodendrocytes, multiple sclerosis walk but no signs of complement system activation.
- Pattern II
- The scar presents T-cells and macrophages around blood vessels, with multiple sclerosis white matter preservation of oligodendrocytes, as before, but also signs of complement system neuropsychiatric inventory and multiple sclerosis activation can be found.
- Pattern III
- The scars are diffuse with inflammation, distal oligodendrogliopathy and microglial activation. There is also loss of myelin associated glicoprotein (MAG). The nutrition for multiple sclerosis scars do not surround the blood vessels, rehabilitation centers for multiple sclerosis and in fact, a rim of preserved myelin appears around the vessels. There is evidence of partial statistics re: multiple sclerosis remyelinization and oligodendrocyte apoptosis.
- Pattern IV
- The scar the national multiple sclerosis society presents sharp borders and oligodendrocyte degeneration, with a rim of normal appearing white matter. There treatment and management of multiple sclerosis is a lack of oligodendrocytes in the center of the scar. There treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis is no complement activation or MAG loss.
Why multiple sclerosis occurs
Although many treatment protocol for multiple sclerosis risk factors for multiple vitamin b12 deficiency and multiple sclerosis sclerosis have been identified, no definitive cause has been found. MS likely occurs as a result of some what is the treatment for multiple sclerosis combination of both environmental and genetic factors. Various what is treatment of multiple sclerosis theories try to combine the known data into plausible explanations. Although most accept an autoimmune explanation, several theories xango research on multiple sclerosis suggest that MS is an acupuncture and multiple sclerosis appropriate immune response to an underlying condition.
The most popular hypothesis is that a viral infection or retroviral reactivation apitherapy for multiple sclerosis patients primes a susceptible immune system for an abnormal reaction later in life. aquatic therapy for ms multiple sclerosis On a molecular level, this might occur if there is a structural best power wheelchair for multiple sclerosis similarity between the infectious virus and some component of the central nervous system, can the flu shot bring out multiple sclerosis leading to eventual confusion in the immune system.
Since MS can you have multiple sclerosis and hypothyroidism seems to be more common in people center multiple sclerosis treatment who live farther from the equator, another theory current treatment multiple sclerosis proposes that decreased sunlight exposure and possibly decreased vitamin D production may help cause MS. This theory is diagnosis is a treatment multiple sclerosis demyelinating bolstered by recent research into the biochemistry of vitamin D, which has shown diseases that are mistaken for multiple sclerosis that it is an important immune system drug treatment for multiple sclerosis regulator.
Other theories, noting that MS is less common in children with early multiple sclerosis siblings, suggest that less exposure to illness in childhood leads to an immune system which is not primed to fight fetanyl patch + multiple sclerosis infection and is gene expression multiple sclerosis interferon thus more likely to attack the body. One explanation for this would be an imbalance between the Th1 herbal remedies for multiple sclerosis type of helper T-cells, which fight infection, history of multiple sclerosis and the Th2 type, which are more active in allergy and more likely to attack income insurance for multiple sclerosis the body.
Other theories describe MS as an immune response to a joint multiple pain sclerosis chronic infection. The association of MS with lyme multiple sclerosis the Epstein-Barr virus suggests a potential viral contribution in at least some individuals. Still others believe that MS medical journals online multiple sclerosis may sometimes result from a chronic infection with spirochetal multiple sclerosis and alpha lipoic acid bacteria, a hypothesis supported by research in which cystic forms were isolated from the cerebrospinal multiple sclerosis and best physicians fluid of all MS patients in a small study. When multiple sclerosis and chronic pain the cysts were cultured, propagating spirochetes emerged. Another bacterium that has been implicated multiple sclerosis and ergonomics in MS is Chlamydophila pneumoniae; it or multiple sclerosis and gum disease its DNA has been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients multiple sclerosis and lower back pain by several research laboratories, with one study finding that the oligoclonal bands of multiple sclerosis and new treatment 14 of the 17 MS patients studied consisted largely of antibodies to Chlamydophila antigens. multiple sclerosis and physical therapy 
MS is multiple sclerosis and stenosis not strictly a hereditary disease. However, increasing scientific evidence suggests that genetics may play a role in determining a person's susceptibility multiple sclerosis and swollen glands to MS. Some populations, such as the multiple sclerosis and treatment Roma, Inuit, and Bantus, never get MS. The indigenous peoples of multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes an unlikely the Americas, the Japanese, and other Asian peoples have very low incidence rates. It is unclear whether multiple sclerosis c-spine this is due mostly to genetic multiple sclerosis drugs or environmental factors.
In the population at large, the chance of developing multiple sclerosis ms diesease MS is less than a tenth of one percent. However, if one person in a family has MS, multiple sclerosis not yoga or pilates that person's first-degree relatives—parents, children, and siblings—have a one to three percent chance of getting multiple sclerosis research the disease.
For identical twins, the likelihood that the multiple sclerosis society symptoms second twin may develop MS if the first twin does is about 30%; multiple sclerosis solumedrol treatment for fraternal twins (who do not inherit identical gene pools), the multiple sclerosis specialist nj likelihood is closer to that for non-twin siblings, multiple sclerosis treatment options or about 4%. The fact that the rate for identical twins both developing MS is significantly less than 100% suggests that multiple sclerosis virus the disease is not entirely genetically controlled. Some (but definitely multiple sclerosis warning signs not all) of this muscle soreness and multiple sclerosis effect may be due to shared exposure to something in the environment, patient services multiple sclerosis or to the fact that some people with MS lesions remain essentially asymptomatic throughout their lives.
Further indications progressive multiple sclerosis by patricia k. coyle that more than one gene is involved in MS susceptibility progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis prognosis comes from studies of families in which more than one member has MS. Several research teams stroke with multiple sclerosis found that people with MS inherit certain regions on individual genes more frequently than people suppliment multiple sclerosis news without MS. Of particular interest syncope multiple sclerosis is the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) or major histocompatibility complex region syncope with collapse multiple sclerosis on chromosome 6. HLAs are genetically determined proteins that influence the immune syntoms multiple sclerosis system.
The HLA patterns of MS patients tend to be treatment multiple sclerosis different from those of people without the disease. Investigations in northern Europe and America have detected three HLAs that are more prevalent weight loss surgery multiple sclerosis in what treatment for multiple sclerosis have been used people with MS than in the general population. Studies of American MS patients have shown that people aquatic therapy multiple sclerosis with MS also tend to exhibit these HLAs in combination-that arm weakness in multiple sclerosis is, they have more than one of the three HLAs-more frequently than the rest of attorney and multiple sclerosis litigation the population. Furthermore, there is evidence chronic headache multiple sclerosis that different combinations of the HLAs may correspond to variations in disease severity and progression.
Studies of complementary therapies in multiple sclerosis families with multiple cases of MS and research comparing genetic regions deadly forms of multiple sclerosis of humans to those of mice with EAE suggest that another area related to developing fibromyalgia into multiple sclerosis MS susceptibility may be located on chromosome 5. Other regions on chromosomes 2, 3, diabetes medication multiple sclerosis 7, 11, 17, 19, and drug treatment for progressive multiple sclerosis X have also been identified as possibly containing genes involved in the development of MS.
These studies strengthen the theory that MS dudley delany multiple sclerosis is the result of a number of factors rather than a single gene early sign of multiple sclerosis or other agent. Development of MS is likely to be employees selling tabs multiple sclerosis society influenced by the interactions of a number of genes, each of which fulminant multiple sclerosis (individually) has only a modest effect. Additional studies gamma globulin for treatment of multiple sclerosis and are needed to specifically pinpoint which genes are involved, determine their function, goats blood in treatment of multiple sclerosis and learn how each gene's interactions with other genes and health insurance for multiple sclerosis patients with the environment make an individual susceptible to MS.
There is no known definitive cure for high level chemotherapy for multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis. However, several types of therapy have proven holistic treatment for multiple sclerosis to be helpful. Different therapies are used for how do i donate my car to multiple sclerosis patients experiencing acute attacks, for patients who have the relapsing-remitting subtype, for patients who have the progressive subtypes, for patients without a human growth hormone multiple sclerosis treatment diagnosis of MS who have a demyelinating event, ian parberry multiple sclerosis and for managing the various consequences of MS attacks. Treatment is aimed icd 9 code for multiple sclerosis at returning function after an attack, preventing new attacks, injections for treatment of multiple sclerosis and preventing disability.
Management of acute attacks
During symptomatic attacks, patients interferon and multiple sclerosis may be hospitalized. Patients in the United States are typically given high doses of intravenous kefir multiple sclerosis corticosteroids, such as methylprednisolone, to end the attack sooner and leave fewer lasting deficits. When given kristin summers national multiple sclerosis society or to treat optic neuritis, although generally effective in the short medication for multiple sclerosis term for relieving symptoms, corticosteroid treatments do not appear to have a significant impact minnesota multiple sclerosis society on long-term recovery. Despite this fact, some neurologists recommend aggressive steroid treatment at mri images of multiple sclerosis the first signs of an exacerbation to multiple sclerosis + hypopituitarism reduce the duration in which inflammation persists in order to minimize the opportunity for damage to the multiple sclerosis and acid reflux nerves. Oral steroids tend multiple sclerosis aquatic therapy to be given more often to patients in European nations, and they are frequently the only treatment offered to multiple sclerosis association patients in countries where it is multiple sclerosis back shoulder pain difficult to obtain the expensive disease-modifying medications. Recent findings suggest that oral multiple sclerosis fact steroid pills are just as effective at treating MS symptoms as intravenous treatment; the primary factor in the effectiveness of the multiple sclerosis in u.s. number of cases per state treatment appears to be the high dosage multiple sclerosis incontinence flashing light message board over a short period of time, regardless of how the steroid is administered.
Management of relapsing-remitting MS
In the United States, as of 2006 multiple sclerosis lesion load there are six Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments for patients with multiple sclerosis life expectancy relapsing-remitting MS. Three are interferons: Interferon beta-1a (Avonex and multiple sclerosis negative mri Rebif) or beta-1b (Betaseron [in Europe and Japan Betaferon]). The interferons are medications multiple sclerosis society chat room derived from human cytokines which help regulate the immune system. multiple sclerosis society of great britain and ireland A fourth medication is glatiramer acetate (Copaxone), a mixture of polypeptides which may protect important myelin proteins by substituting itself as multiple sclerosis society of maine the target of immune system attack. The fifth medication, multiple sclerosis society of minnesota mitoxantrone is effective but is limited by cardiac toxicity. Finally, multiple sclerosis society uk the sixth medication is Natalizumab (marketed multiple sclerosis support foundation as Tysabri). Natalizumab was finally approved in May 2006 after a long process, due to multiple sclerosis support groups cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in some patients.
All six medications have been proven to be modestly effective at multiple sclerosis therapists in boulder colorado decreasing the number multiple sclerosis treatment search of attacks and slowing progression to disability. They differ primarily in multiple sclerosis treatment uk ease of use, price, side effects, and the likelihood that extended use will decrease their effects. multiple sclerosis treatments All these therapies are expensive and require frequent injections, with Avonex requiring weekly injections and naltrexone and multiple sclerosis Copaxone daily injections. All of the interferons can national multiple sclerosis foundation lose effectiveness after continued use, with Avonex being the least likely and Betaseron the most likely. national multiple sclerosis society conferences This is the result national multiple sclerosis society foundation of neutralizing antibodies against the interferons. The interferons all require laboratory monitoring national multiple sclerosis society healthy living with ms of blood tests. Even with appropriate use of medication, most patients with relapsing-remitting MS naturopathic treatment multiple sclerosis still suffer from some attacks and subsequent disability. Side effects are covered below.
Management of progressive MS
Treatment of progressive new multiple sclerosis treatment MS is more difficult than relapsing-remitting MS, and many patients do not richard l thompson multiple sclerosis society respond to any therapy. A wide range of medications have signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis been used to try to slow the progression of disease. Many stem cell research multiple sclerosis therapies have been shown to steven pratt multiple sclerosis als have some effect on disease progression and resulting disability, but most therapies have significant side effects symptoms treatment multiple sclerosis ms which limit their long-term use. Therefore they are often appropriate only for the most rapidly progressive cases. Azathioprine, cladribine, treatment facilities for multiple sclerosis and ciclosporin have all shown treatment guidelines for fatigue multiple sclerosis small benefits, which in most cases are outweighed by side effects such vitamin and natural treatment for multiple sclerosis as an increased cancer risk. Mitoxantrone, a chemotherapy drug, offers a significant reduction in vitamins minerals treat multiple sclerosis progression to disability, but causes dose-dependent cardiac toxicity which limits its long-term use. Bone marrow transplant, plasmapheresis, and what is the best treatment for multiple sclerosis total lymphoid irradiation (exposure to high doses of radiation in order what treatment for multiple sclerosis have been us to xango and multiple sclerosis kill parts of the immune system) have been studied and are currently reserved for the most amantadine and multiple sclerosis dire cases. Cyclophosphamide and methotrexate are chemotherapy drugs which can slow apiculture treatment for multiple sclerosis the progression of MS, but which also have a number of side effects. best ranking hospitals for ms multiple sclerosis Frequent courses of high-dose corticosteroids, often given weekly or monthly, are also bismuth multiple sclerosis commonly employed to good effect. Interferons show promise brain mri with multiple sclerosis in secondary progressive MS, but more data is needed to support widespread use.
Management of demyelination without a diagnosis of MS
Several studies have clinical trials for multiple sclerosis shown that starting treatment with interferon core values national multiple sclerosis society beta-1a during the initial attack (and prior to the second attack craniosacral therapy in multiple sclerosis required for a definite diagnosis of MS) can decrease the chance that a patient will develop MS. A diabetes ii multiple sclerosis type separate medication, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has also shown promise diaes ii multiple sclerosis type in reducing progression to MS in this set of patients. Therefore, effect of multiple sclerosis on vision in certain patients, it is important that therapy european treatment for multiple sclerosis be started prior to definite diagnosis.
Management of first signs multiple sclerosis the effects of MS
Because much of the damage caused by MS is irreversible, management of the resulting deficits is very fluorescent lighting multiple sclerosis important. As for any patient with neurologic deficits, a multidisciplinary approach is foundation free meds multiple sclerosis key to limiting and hospital treatment multiple sclerosis weak legs exacerbation overcoming disability. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and supportive equipment such as wheelchairs and standing frames may be helpful. Speech therapy huddersfield multiple sclerosis society address can ifnar multiple sclerosis bioactivity help maintain quality of life. Treatment of emotional distress and depression should ill fischer cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis involve mental health professionals such as therapists, psychologists, and psychiatrists. Neurocognitive testing is important for determining the extent of cognitive deficits. iv steroid and multiple sclerosis Management of cognitive defects relies on lifestyle strategies, but also may respond ivig treatment multiple sclerosis to donepezil. Medications such as baclofen, tizanidine, dantrolene and Sativex have jon fudge multiple sclerosis motorcycle been shown to improve spasticity. Depression can be treated with a variety of antidepressants; lipitor multiple sclerosis selective serotonin living with multiple sclerosis reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are most commonly employed. The anticonvulsant drugs gabapentin and carbamazepine and the antidepressant amitriptyline can medical tax deduction air conditioner multiple sclerosis improve pain and tingling sensations in certain multiple of sclerosis treatment cases. Fatigue can often be managed by amantadine, pemoline, methylphenidate, and modafinil. Bladder spasms can multiple protocol sclerosis treatment be treated by oxybutynin and trospium chloride. multiple sclerosis affymetrics Erectile dysfunction may respond to sildenafil, vardenafil, or tadalafil.
Therapies under investigation
Scientists continue multiple sclerosis alternative medicine their extensive efforts to create new and better therapies for MS. There are a multiple sclerosis alternative treatment number of treatments under investigation that may curtail attacks multiple sclerosis and aluminum or improve function. Over a dozen clinical trials testing potential therapies are underway, and additional new treatments are multiple sclerosis and aquatic therapy being devised and tested in animal models.
- At this time, one of the most multiple sclerosis and celebrity promising MS research areas involves a new class of multiple sclerosis and dental health molecules called sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators. Recently, such a compound, fingolimod, showed impressive results in a phase II trial.. A phase III trial is ongoing.
- A family multiple sclerosis and free information of cholesterol-lowering drugs, the statins, have shown anti-inflammatory multiple sclerosis and gastric reflux effects in animal models of MS. However, as of 2005 there is multiple sclerosis and massage not sufficient evidence that statins are beneficial in multiple sclerosis and narrowing and spinal cord the treatment of human MS patients with normal cholesterol levels.
- A recent study found that women multiple sclerosis and obsessive compulsive disorder who took vitamin D supplements were 40% less likely multiple sclerosis and pregancy to develop MS than women who did not take supplements. However, this study does not provide enough data to conclude multiple sclerosis and prokarin that vitamin D has a beneficial influence on ongoing MS. multiple sclerosis and vitamins Furthermore, it could not distinguish between a beneficial effect multiple sclerosis associated with thyroidism of vitamin D and that of multivitamin supplements including vitamin E and various B vitamins, which multiple sclerosis death may also exert a protective effect.
- A compound called inosine multiple sclerosis message boards has had good results in phase I and is currently in phase II. Three different ways of action have been proposed. First, it multiple sclerosis natural produces uric acid after ingestion, which is a natural antioxidant and multiple sclerosis onset symptoms a peroxinitrite scavenger (peroxynitrite has been correlated with the axons degeneration). Second, in has been shown multiple sclerosis society co uk that induces axonal rewiring and is used as a treatment for stroke, and spinal cord injury  and third, it has shown multiple sclerosis society pa neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects independently of the other two. Currently it is being investigated by Boston Life Sciences under the name axosine
- A few multiple sclerosis startle response doctors have begun experimenting with multiple sclerosis story antibiotic protocols targeted against Chlamydophila pneumoniae. These protocols involve the use of at least three antimicrobial agents, and multiple sclerosis support groups in mcminnville oregon often more, to cover all the phases of the life cycle of that pathogen, and are applied for multiple sclerosis treatment and how to stay lean extended multiple sclerosis treatment for babies periods; they are thus not likely to be arrived at by chance. Anecdotal reports are favorable, but only one double-blind multiple sclerosis type ii lesions placebo-controlled trial has been multiple sclerosis website published, in which the number of patients studied was too small national multiple sclerosis society information services (four in each arm of the trial) to reach statistical significance in the national multiple sclerosis society maitland fl primary outcome measure (volume of gadolinium-enhancing lesions, as viewed on MRI).
- A recent study in the United Kingdom revealed promising results when national multiple sclerosis society top fund raisers using a combination of mitoxantrone (an immunosuppressant drug national multiple sclerosis society wachington normally used in cancer) and Glatiramer nucca multiple sclerosis treatment acetate (Copaxone). In an 'open' study of 27 patients with Relapsing Remitting MS, the combination was found nutritional therapy for multiple sclerosis to provide a rapid and nutritional treatment of multiple sclerosis sustained suppression of relapses in MS patients experiencing frequent, recurrent and disabling attacks (90% reduction in annualised relapse rate order online low dose naltrexone for multiple sclerosis maintained, to date, for a mean of 36 months). A three year controlled police with multiple sclerosis study is now being launched at 10 ppms multiple sclerosis centres across the UK..
Side effects of medications for relapsing-remitting MS
The two most radiation treatment multiple sclerosis common types of medications used to treat relapsing-remitting research multiple sclerosis xango juice MS have significant side effects which warrant further discussion. Both the interferons and glatiramer acetate are available only in retinal membrane and multiple sclerosis injectable forms, and both can cause irritation at the injection site. Interferons are signs of multiple sclerosis produced in the body during illnesses such as influenza in order spinal cord multiple sclerosis to help fight the infection. taetsch multiple sclerosis They are responsible for the fever, muscle aches, fatigue, and headache common during influenza infections. Many terminal cases of multiple sclerosis patients report influenza-like symptoms when using interferon to fight terri garr, multiple sclerosis MS. This reaction often lessens over time and can be treated with over-the-counter fever reducers/pain relievers like paracetamol (acetaminophen), testing for multiple sclerosis ibuprofen, and naproxen. Many patients treatment of multiple sclerosis choose not to take interferon due to the unpleasant experience of frequent injections and their subsequent side viral multiple sclerosis effects, citing a loss in their quality vitamin d and multiple sclerosis of life. Neurologists advocating for the use of these medications in modifying the progression of disease believe the vitamins and multiple sclerosis long term waigt poland multiple sclerosis benefits outweigh the short-term side effects. Interferons can cause liver damage, and laboratory blood tests must be monitored to ensure safe use. Some what is spasicity in multiple sclerosis patients taking glatiramer acetate experience a "post-injection" reaction manifested by flushing, chest www multiple sclerosis society com tightness, heart palpitations, breathlessness, and anxiety.
The future 300 tips for multiple sclerosis course of the disease (or prognosis) for people with multiple sclerosis depends on the subtype acute fulminating multiple sclerosis treatment of the disease, the individual's sex and race, their age, their initial symptoms, alabama national multiple sclerosis society and the degree apitherapy use in multiple sclerosis of disability they experience. The life expectancy of people with MS ashwaganda multiple sclerosis is now nearly the same as that of unaffected people. This is atypical multiple sclerosis mainly due to improved methods of limiting disability, such as physical therapy and speech therapy, and more balo's multiple sclerosis successful treatment of common complications of bee sting treatment for multiple sclerosis disability, such as pneumonia and urinary tract infections.
- Individuals with progressive subtypes of MS, particularly the primary progressive subtype, have best protocol treatment for advanced multiple sclerosis a more rapid decline in function. In the primary progressive subtype, supportive best protocol treatment fro advanced multiple sclerosis equipment (such as a wheelchair or standing frame) is often bike multiple run sclerosis society needed after six to seven years. However, when the initial disease course is the relapsing-remitting biocybernetics multiple sclerosis subtype, the average time until cellcept, multiple sclerosis such equipment is needed is twenty years. This means that many individuals ceo and president, national multiple sclerosis society with MS will never need a wheelchair.
- The earlier in copolymer 1 in the treatment of multiple sclerosis life MS occurs, the slower disability progresses. Individuals who are older than fifty when diagnosed are more likely to experience a chronic progressive cures for multiple sclerosis course, with more rapid progression of disability. Those current treatment of multiple sclerosis diagnosed before age 35 have the best prognosis. Females generally have a better prognosis than diagnosis is a treatment multiple sclerosis diseases males. Although black individuals tend to develop MS less frequently, they are difficulty breathing in multiple sclerosis often older at the time of diseases that are mistaken for multiple sclerosis in italian onset and may have a worse prognosis.
- Initial MS symptoms eye twitching and multiple sclerosis of visual loss or sensory problems, such as numbness or tingling, are markers for a relatively focal spinal cord lesions multiple sclerosis good prognosis, whereas difficulty walking and weakness are markers for a relatively poor prognosis. Better outcomes gene expression multiple sclerosis mrna are also associated germany multiple sclerosis treatment with the presence of only a single symptom at onset, the rapid development of initial symptoms, and the rapid regression of heartbeat irregularity a symptom of multiple sclerosis initial symptoms.
- The degree of disability varies among individuals with hepatitis b + multiple sclerosis MS. In general, one of three individuals will still be home remedy for constipation & multiple sclerosis able to work after 15–20 years. Fifteen percent of people diagnosed with MS never have houston multiple sclerosis society a second relapse, and these people have minimal or no disability after how close is a cure for multiple sclerosis ten years. The degree of disability how common is hypothyroid and multiple sclerosis after five years correlates well with the degree of disability after fifteen years. This i wantgenetics of multiple sclerosis send fax for means that two-thirds of people with MS with images, lesion, c-spine, multiple sclerosis low disability after five years will not get much worse during the inflammation and lymphatic system multiple sclerosis next ten years. It should be noted that most of these outcomes were observed before the inline skate multiple sclerosis thunder bay canada use of medications such as interferon, which can delay disease progression is multiple sclerosis hereditry for several years.
Currently there are no clinically established laboratory investigations available itching a symptom of multiple sclerosis that can predict prognosis or response to treatment. However, several promising approaches have been proposed. These life expectancy multiple sclerosis include measurement of the lipitor and multiple sclerosis two antibodies anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and anti-myelin basic protein, and measurement of TRAIL (TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand).
World map showing medical treatment for multiple sclerosis that risk for MS increases with greater distance from the equator
In northern Europe, continental North America, menustral cycle and multiple sclerosis and Australasia, about mexican multiple sclerosis treatment one of every 1000 citizens suffers from multiple sclerosis, whereas in the Arabian peninsula, Asia, michigan multiple sclerosis society and continental South America, the frequency is much lower. In ministry multiple sclerosis sub-Saharan Africa, MS is extremely rare. With important exceptions, there is a north-to-south gradient in monophasic multiple sclerosis the northern hemisphere and a south-to-north gradient in the southern hemisphere, with MS mri diagnosis in multiple sclerosis being much less common in people living near ms hug in multiple sclerosis the equator. Climate, diet, geomagnetism, toxins, sunlight exposure, genetic factors, multiple sclerosis & natural fibers and infectious diseases have all been discussed as possible reasons for these regional differences. Environmental factors during multiple sclerosis achievement center childhood may play an important role in the multiple sclerosis and cognitive challenges development of MS later in life. This idea is based on several studies of migrants showing that multiple sclerosis and fever if migration occurs before the age of fifteen, the migrant acquires the new multiple sclerosis and fluidotherapy region's susceptibility to MS. If migration takes place after age fifteen, the multiple sclerosis and inflammation migrant keeps the susceptibility of his home country. Additionally, smoking has been shown to be an independent risk factor for developing MS.
MS occurs mainly in Caucasians. It is twenty-fold multiple sclerosis and spinal seizure lower in the Inuit people of Canada than in other Canadians living in the same region. It is also rare multiple sclerosis and thyroids in multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes the Native American tribes of North America, the Australian Aborigines and the Māori of New Zealand. These few examples point out that genetic multiple sclerosis and vision problems background plays an important role in the multiple sclerosis arlington va development of MS.
As observed in many autoimmune disorders, MS is multiple sclerosis australia more common in females than males; the mean sex ratio is about two multiple sclerosis buzzing radio4 females for every male. In children (who rarely develop MS) the sex ratio may reach multiple sclerosis canes backpacks grips three females for each male. In people over age fifty, MS multiple sclerosis conference and new york affects males and females equally. Onset of symptoms usually occurs between twenty to forty years of multiple sclerosis cytokine pathway age, rarely multiple sclerosis discounts home repair before age fifteen or after age sixty.
As previously discussed, there is a genetic component to MS. On average one of every 25 multiple sclerosis disease what is it siblings of individuals with MS will also develop multiple sclerosis doctors MS. Almost half of the identical multiple sclerosis doctors in new jersey twins of MS-affected individuals will develop MS, but only one of twenty fraternal twins. multiple sclerosis drinking alcohol If one parent is affected by MS, each child has multiple sclerosis episode time spans a risk of only about one in forty of developing multiple sclerosis exercises MS later in life.
A French neurologist named Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–93) was the first person multiple sclerosis expert to recognize multiple sclerosis as a distinct, separate disease in 1868. Summarizing multiple sclerosis general information previous reports and adding his own important clinical and multiple sclerosis group leaders pathological observations, Charcot called the disease sclerose en plaques. The three signs of MS now known as Charcot's triad are multiple sclerosis healing dysarthria multiple sclerosis helpful accessories (problems with speech), ataxia (problems with coordination), and tremor. Prior to Charcot, Robert Hooper (1773–1835), a multiple sclerosis high arches British pathologist and practicing physician, Robert Carswell (1793–1857), a British professor of pathology, and Jean Cruveilhier (1791–1873), a multiple sclerosis pain relief percocet French professor of pathologic anatomy, multiple sclerosis prevention had described and illustrated many of the disease's clinical details.
There are several historical accounts multiple sclerosis reflexology treatment centers of people who probably had MS. Saint Lidwina of Schiedam (1380–1433), multiple sclerosis rituxan intrathecal france a Dutch nun, may have been the first identifiable MS patient. From the age of sixteen until her multiple sclerosis rubber bracelet death at multiple sclerosis scoring age 53, she suffered intermittent pain, weakness of the legs, and vision loss—symptoms typical of MS. Augustus Frederick d'Este (1794–1848), an multiple sclerosis service society illegitimate grandson of King George III of Great Britain, multiple sclerosis society grants almost certainly suffered from MS. D'Este left a detailed diary multiple sclerosis society in fort myers describing his 22 years living with the disease. His symptoms began at age 28 with a multiple sclerosis society national sudden transient visual loss after the funeral of a friend. During the multiple sclerosis society of long island course of his disease he developed weakness of multiple sclerosis society waltham massachusetts the legs, clumsiness of the hands, numbness, dizziness, bladder disturbances, and erectile dysfunction. In 1844, he began to use a wheelchair. Despite his illness, he kept an optimistic view of life. Another early account of MS was kept by the British diarist W. N. P. Barbellion, who maintained a detailed log of his diagnosis and struggle with MS. His diary was published in 1919 as The Journal of a Disappointed Man.
Multiple sclerosis in film and television
The German propaganda film Ich klage an (1941) by Wolfgang Liebeneiner had the main character suffering from MS and wishing herself to be killed because she had become unable to do so by herself.
British cellist Jacqueline du Pré died of MS in 1987 after a long struggle with the disease, which robbed her of her capacity to perform as she progressively lost sensitivity in her fingers, muscle coordination, and her hearing. This decline was portrayed in the 1998 film, Hilary and Jackie.
In the American television series The West Wing, the fictional United States President, Josiah "Jed" Bartlet, has the relapsing-remitting subtype of MS. The storylines have educated many viewers about the nature of MS and have helped to dispel some of the misconceptions about the disease.
Another American TV series, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition, aired a two-part episode on February 12, 2006 that featured a new home for Carol Crawford-Smith of Blacksburg, Virginia, a former principal dancer with the Dance Theatre of Harlem who was diagnosed with MS in 2000. Ty Pennington and his team not only built her a new home, but also renovated her Blacksburg dance studio, "The Center of Dance."
- List of people with multiple sclerosis
- Speech therapy
- Occupational Therapy
- ^ Dangond, F.Multiple sclerosis. eMedicine Neurology.Updated 2005 Apr 25. full text.
- ^ Calabresi PA.Diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. Am Fam Physician. PMID 15571060full text.
- ^ Paty D, Studney D, Redekop K, Lublin F. MS COSTAR: a computerized patient record adapted for clinical research purposes. Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S134-5. PMID 8017875
- ^ McDonald WI; Compston A; Edan G; Goodkin D; Hartung HP; Lublin FD; McFarland HF; Paty DW; Polman CH; Reingold SC; Sandberg-Wollheim M; Sibley W; Thompson A; van den Noort S; Weinshenker BY; Wolinsky JS. Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the International Panel on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2001 Jul;50(1):121-7 PMID 11456302
- ^ Rudick, RA, Whitaker, JN. Cerebrospinal fluid tests for multiple sclerosis. In Scheinberg, P (Ed). Neurology/neurosurgery update series, Vol. 7, CPEC. Princeton, NJ 1987
- ^ Gronseth GS; Ashman EJ. Practice parameter: the usefulness of evoked potentials in identifying clinically silent lesions in patients with suspected multiple sclerosis (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2000 May 9;54(9):1720-5. PMID 10802774
- ^ Garcia-Monco JC; Miro Jornet J; Fernandez Villar B; Benach JL; Guerrero Espejo A; Berciano JA. [Multiple sclerosis or Lyme disease? a diagnosis problem of exclusion] Med Clin (Barc) 1990 May 12;94(18):685-8. PMID 2388492
- ^ Hansen K; Cruz M; Link H. Oligoclonal Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid in Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Infect Dis 1990 Jun;161(6):1194-202. PMID 2345300
- ^ Schluesener HJ; Martin R; Sticht-Groh V. Autoimmunity in Lyme disease: molecular cloning of antigens recognized by antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. Autoimmunity 1989 2(4):323-30. PMID 2491615
- ^ Kohler J; Kern U; Kasper J; Rhese-Kupper B; Thoden U. Chronic central nervous system involvement in Lyme borreliosis Neurology 1988 Jun;38(6):863-7. PMID 3368066
- ^ Lublin FD; Reingold SC. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: results of an international survey. National Multiple Sclerosis Society (USA) Advisory Committee on Clinical Trials of New Agents in Multiple Sclerosis. Neurology 1996 Apr;46(4):907-11. PMID 8780061
- ^ Worthington J; Jones R; Crawford M; Forti A. Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis--a 3-year prospective study. J Neurol 1994 Feb;241(4):228-33. PMID 8195822
- ^ Confavreux C; Suissa S; Saddier P; Bourdes V; Vukusic S. Vaccinations and the risk of relapse in multiple sclerosis. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. N Engl J Med 2001 Feb 1;344(5):319-26. PMID 11172162
- ^ Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. All About Multiple Sclerosis (08/13/2003). Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
- ^ The MS Lesion Project - Is MS More Than One Disease?. National Multiple Sclerosis Society (December 14, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
- ^ Lucchinetti, C. Bruck, W. Parisi, J. Scherhauer, B. Rodriguez, M. Lassmann, H.Heterogeneity of multiple sclerosis lesions: implications for the pathogenesis of demyelination Ann Neurol, 2000; 47(6):707-17. PMID 10852536
- ^ Wilner, Andrew (August 2002). Unraveling The Mystery Of The MS Lesion - Pathogenic Clues And Therapeutic Hints. Neurology Reviews.com. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
- ^ Holmes, Nick (15 November 2001). Part 1B Pathology: Lecture 11 - The Complement System. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
- ^ Lucchinetti, Claudia, Wolfgang Brück, Joseph Parisi, Bernd Scheithauer, Moses Rodriguez and Hans Lassmann (December 1999). "A quantitative analysis of oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis lesions - A study of 113 cases". Brain 122 (12): 2279-2295. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
- ^ van der Mei, IA, Ponsonby, AL, Dwyer, T, et al. Past exposure to sun, skin phenotype, and risk of multiple sclerosis: case-control study. BMJ 2003; 327:316. PMID 12907484
- ^ Levin LI, Munger KL, Rubertone MV, Peck CA, Lennette ET, Spiegelman D, Ascherio A. Temporal relationship between elevation of epstein-barr virus antibody titers and initial onset of neurological symptoms in multiple sclerosis. JAMA. 2005 May 25;293(20):2496-500. PMID 15914750
- ^ Brorson O; Brorson SH; Henriksen TH; Skogen PR; Schoyen R; Association between multiple sclerosis and cystic structures in cerebrospinal fluid. Infection. 2001 Dec;29(6):315-9. PMID 11787831
- ^ Yao SY, Stratton CW, Mitchell WM, Sriram S, CSF oligoclonal bands in MS include antibodies against Chlamydophila antigens. Neurology. 2001 May 8;56(9):1168-76. PMID 11342681
- ^ Jacobs LD; Beck RW; Simon JH; Kinkel RP; Brownscheidle CM; Murray TJ; Simonian NA; Slasor PJ; Sandrock AW. Intramuscular interferon beta-1a therapy initiated during a first demyelinating event in multiple sclerosis. CHAMPS Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000 Sep 28;343(13):898-904. PMID 11006365
- ^ Comi G; Filippi M; Barkhof F; Durelli L; Edan G; Fernandez O; Hartung H; Seeldrayers P; Sorensen PS; Rovaris M; Martinelli V; Hommes OR.Effect of early interferon treatment on conversion to definite multiple sclerosis: a randomised study. Lancet 2001 May 19;357(9268):1576-82. PMID 11377645
- ^ Ludwig Kappos, M.D., Jack Antel, M.D., Giancarlo Comi, M.D., Xavier Montalban, M.D., Paul O'Connor, M.D., Chris H. Polman, M.D., Tomas Haas, Ph.D., Alexander A. Korn, Ph.D., Goeril Karlsson, Ph.D., Ernst W. Radue, M.D., for the FTY720 D2201 Study Group. NEJM,Volume 355:1124-1140
- ^ Munger KL, Zhang SM, O'Reilly E, Hernan MA, Olek MJ, Willett WC, Ascherio A. Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2004 Jan 13;62(1):60-5. PMID 14718698
- ^ Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis Using Over the Counter Inosine. ClinicalTrials.gov (March 16, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
- ^ Koch M, De Keyser J.Uric acid in multiple sclerosis Neurol Res. 2006 Apr;28(3):316-9. PMID 16687059
- ^ Uric Acid In Multiple Sclerosis (01/02/2006). Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
- ^ Neuhaus, Oliver; Hans-Peter Hartung. Immune mediated injury, oxidative toxicity and excitotoxicity in multiple sclerosis - Possibilities for immune modulation and neuroprotection. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
- ^ Chen, Peng, David E. Goldberg, Bryan Kolb, Marc Lanser, and Larry I. Benowitz (June 25 2002). "Inosine induces axonal rewiring and improves behavioral outcome after stroke". PNAS 99 (13): 9031-9036. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
- ^ . Liu F, You SW, Yao LP, Liu HL, Jiao XY, Shi M, Zhao QB, Ju G. Secondary degeneration reduced by inosine after spinal cord injury in rats Spinal Cord. 2006 Jul;44(7):421-6. Epub 2005 Nov 29. PMID 16317421
- ^ Inosine. PDR Health. Retrieved on 2006-05-10.
- ^ Sriram S, Yao SY, Stratton C, Moses H, Narayana PA, Wolinsky JS, Pilot study to examine the effect of antibiotic therapy on MRI outcomes in RRMS, J Neurol Sci 2005 Jul 15; 234(1-2):87-91. PMID 15935383
- ^ United Kingdom early Mitoxantrone Copaxone trial
- ^ Weinshenker BG. Natural history of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S6-11. PMID 8017890
- ^ Pittock SJ; McClelland RL; Mayr WT; Jorgensen NW; Weinshenker BG; Noseworthy J; Rodriguez M. Clinical implications of benign multiple sclerosis: a 20-year population-based follow-up study Ann Neurol 2004 Aug;56(2):303-6. PMID 15293286
- ^ Berger T, Rubner P, Schautzer F, Egg R, Ulmer H, Mayringer I, Dilitz E, Deisenhammer F, Reindl M. Antimyelin antibodies as a predictor of clinically definite multiple sclerosis after a first demyelinating event. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 10;349(2):139-45. PMID 12853586
- ^ Marrie, RA. Environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis aetiology. Lancet Neurol. 2004 Dec;3(12):709-18. Review. PMID 15556803
- ^ Franklin, GM, Nelson, L. Environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis: Causes, triggers, and patient autonomy. Neurology 2003; 61:1032. PMID 14581658
- ^ Sadovnick, AD, Ebers, GC, Dyment, DA, Risch, NJ. Evidence for genetic basis of multiple sclerosis. The Canadian Collaborative Study Group. Lancet 1996; 347:1728. PMID 8656905
- ^ Charcot, J. Histologie de la sclerose en plaques. Gazette des hopitaux, Paris, 1868; 41: 554-555.
- Newly Diagnosed Booklet - MS Primer, and other educational documents
- MS Clinical Trials Information
- MS News at the Accelerated Cure Project
- Multiple sclerosis - MedLink Neurology Clinical Summary
- MS news resource and publishers of New Pathways magazine
- The patient's journey: multiple sclerosis Langgartner M, Langgartner I, Drlicek M. The patient's journey: multiple sclerosis. BMJ. 2005 Apr 16;330(7496):885-8. PMID 15831874.
- Multiple Sclerosis from MedlinePlus - provides links to news, general sites, treatment and alternative therapies, clinical trials, coping with the illness, legal aspects, organizations, and more. Also, links to pre-formulated searches of the MEDLINE/PubMed for recent research articles.
- Information on MS treated with low dose naltrexone
- Empirical antibacterial treatment of infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae in Multiple Sclerosis
- Famous people with MS
- This is MS Research, News & Community
- Multiple Sclerosis - IMSSF
- Abstract index of the Cochrane Library
- The lesion project of the national MS society and Mayo Clinic
- "Multiple Sclerosis" New Theory on Multiple Sclerosis
- The Multiple Sclerosis Resource Centre
- Accelerated Cure Project for MS
- National Multiple Sclerosis Society of the United States
- The Multiple Sclerosis Association of America
- Multiple Sclerosis Society of the United Kingdom
- Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada
- Canadian Network of Multiple Sclerosis Clinics
- Multiple Sclerosis Society of Australia
- Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland
- Multiple Sclerosis Society of New Zealand
- Multiple Sclerosis South Africa
Categories: Autoimmune diseases | Neurological disorders