The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes in the females of some animal species that menstration is associated with reproductive fertility.
This article concentrates on the menstrual cycle as mensturation mestruation it occurs in human beings.
- 1 Overview
- 2 The normal menstrual cycle in humans
- 2.1 Menstruation
- 2.2 Follicular menstuation phase
- 2.3 Ovulation
- 2.4 Luteal mentruation menstruatino phase
- 3 Physical experience of menstruation
- 4 The menstraution fertile window
- 5 Hormonal control
- 6 Hidden ovulation
- 7 The ovary as an egg-bank
- 8 The mensruation anovulatory menstrual cycle
- 9 Cycle menstrution abnormalities
- 9.1 Frequency
- 9.2 Flow
- 9.3 Duration
- 10 Contraception mnstruation menstrustion and menstruation
- 10.1 Hormonal options
- 10.2 Effects on menstruation
- 10.3 Control menstruation and flexibility
- 10.4 Other menstruation calendar contraceptive methods
- 11 Etymology and the lunar month
- 12 Menstrual menstruation pictures products
- 13 Culture and menstruation
- 14 Menstruation in pillules de contr?le des naissances d'errin de menstruation other mammals
- 15 References
- 16 Notes
- 17 External spotting before menstruation links
Only human beings and irregular menstruation the great apes experience a true menstrual cycle. Most average weight gain during menstruation placental mammals experience estrous instead. The menstrual cycle is under the control of the reproductive hormone system and free download menstruation calendar is necessary for reproduction. In women, menstrual cycles occur typically on a monthly menstruation stories basis between puberty and menopause.
During the menstrual cycle, the menstruation women sexually mature female body builds up the lining of the uterus with gradually increasing amounts neck and upper back pain during menstruation of oestrogen, and when this hormone reaches menstruation picture a critical level, estradiol is produced, and shortly thereafterward there is the stimulation of the ovaries with Follicle menstruation spotting Stimulating Hormone (FSH), and first menstruation stories luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicles begin developing, and within a few days one "matures" into an ovum or egg. The ovary then releases frequent menstruation this egg, (or occasionally what can i do about diarrhea during menstruation two, which might result in dizygotic, or fraternal/non-identical, twins) at the time of ovulation. (Identical twins form from a single egg, induce menstruation as a result of heavy menstruation the zygote splitting.) The lining of the uterus, the endometrium, peaks shortly there afterward in a synchronised fashion. menstruation clots After ovulation, this lining changes to prepare for potential conception and implantation of the menstruations fertilized egg to my menstruation lasted over 7 days. establish a pregnancy. The hormone progesterone rises after ovulation, and peaks shortly thereafter.
If fertilization and pregnancy do not ensue, the spotting 2 weeks after menstruation uterus sheds the lining, culminating with menstruation, which marks the low early menstruation point for estrogen first menstruation activity. This manifests itself to the outer world in the form of the menses (also menstruum): essentially part of the endometrium and blood products menstruation calculator that pass out of the body through the vagina. Although this menstruation video is commonly referred to as blood, it differs in composition from venous blood. parsley menstruation Menstrual cycles are counted from the stories about menstruation beginning of menstruation, because this is an outside sign that corresponds closely ask a doctor about irregular menstruations with the hormonal cycle. Menses, or bleeding and other download menstruation calendar menstrual signs may end at different points in the erratic menstruation new cycle.
Common usage refers to menstruation and menses as a period. This bleeding serves as a sign that a woman health education menstruation has not become pregnant. (However, this cannot be taken spotting during menstruation as certainty, as sometimes there is some bleeding in early pregnancy.) tampon menstruation pictures During the reproductive years, failure to menstruate may provide the first indication to a woman that she may have become free menstruation pictures pregnant. A woman might say that her "period is late" health women s menstruation when an expected menstruation has not started and she late menstruation might have become pregnant.
Menstruation forms a normal part of a natural cyclic process occurring in healthy women menstruation and diarrea between puberty and the menstruation at beginning of pregnancy end of the reproductive years. The onset of menstruation, known menstruation cessation as menarche, occurs at an average age of 12, but is normal anywhere between menstruation lyme disease 8 and 16. Factors such as heredity, diet and overall health can accelerate or delay the onset of menarche.
The condition precocious puberty menstruation nausea has caused menstruation to occur in girls as missed menstruation young as 8 months old. Some women experience their first period in their late teens. The last period, menopause, usually occurs between overabundant menstruation due to stress the signs your menstruation is near ages of 45 and 55. Deviations from this pattern deserve medical attention. Amenorrhea refers ask an online doctor about irregular menstruations to a prolonged absence of menses during the reproductive years of a woman for reasons other than pregnancy. For cessation of menstruation example, women with very low body constipation & menstruation fat, such as athletes, may cease to menstruate. The presence of menstruation does not prove that ovulation took place; women days in a menstruation cycle who do not ovulate may have menstrual cycles. fibroid tumors and late menstruation Those anovulatory cycles tend to take place less regularly and show first signs of menstruation greater variation in cycle length. In addition, the absence of menstruation also does not light menstruation prove that fertilization did take place, because hormone menstruation and ritalin disruptions in non-pregnant women can suppress bleeding on occasion.
The normal menstrual cycle menstruation and sinuses in humans
Women show considerable variation in the lengths of their menstrual cycles, and the menstruation and uterine biopsies length of the menstrual cycle differs menstruation irregularities in different animals (see below).
While cycle length may vary, 28 days is generally taken as representative menstruation questions of the average ovulatory cycle in women. Convention missed menstruation joint pain fatigue uses the onset of menstrual bleeding to mark the beginning of the cycle, so the first day of more frequent heavier periods menstruation bleeding is called "Cycle Day one".
One can divide the menstrual cycle into four most fertile time during menstruation phases:
Eumenorrhea denotes normal, negative pregnancy test no menstruation regular menstruation that lasts for a few days (usually 3 to 5 days, prostaglandin in menstruation but anywhere from 2 to 7 days is considered normal. The average blood loss during menstruation is 35 millilitres with 10-80 mL considered normal; many retrograde menstruation women also notice shed endometrium lining that signs of menstruation appears as tissue mixed with the blood. An aspirin and menstruation enzyme called plasmin — contained in the endometrium — tends to inhibit the blood from autism and menstruation clotting. Because of this blood loss, women have higher dietary requirements for iron black menstruation than do males to prevent iron deficiency. Many women experience uterine cramps, also bleeding after menstruation referred to as dysmenorrhea, during this time. A vast industry has grown cessation of menstruation caused by methamphetamine use to provide sanitary products to help women to manage their menses.
Through the delayed menstruation influence of a rise in Follicle stimulating endocrinology of menstruation hormone (FSH), five to seven tertiary-stage ovarian follicles are recruited for entry into the menstrual cycle. These follicles, fasting during menstruation that have been growing for the better part of a year in having menstruation during ectopic pregnancy a process known as folliculogenesis, health women s menstruation premenstrual syndrome compete with each other for dominance. In a signal cascade kicked off by luteinizing hormone (LH), the follicles secrete estradiol, a history of women mensus menstruation steroid that acts to inhibit pituitary secretion of FSH. With diminished FSH supply how long after taking blue cohosh should menstruation start light menstruation taking klonopin comes a slowing in growth that eventually leads to follicle death, known as atresia. The menstruation and menarche largest follicle secretes inhibin that serves as a finishing blow to less competent follicles by further suppressing FSH. This dominant follicle continues menstruation and urinalysis growing, forms a bulge near the surface of menstruation clips the ovary, and soon becomes competent to ovulate.
The follicles also secrete estrogens (of menstruation online which estradiol is a member). Estrogens initiate the formation of a navajo menstruation new layer of endometrium progesterone and delaying menstruation in the uterus, histologically identified as the proliferative endometrium. If fertilized, the embryo will implant itself prolonged menstruation within this hospitable flesh.
An ovary about to release an egg.
When the tissue loss during menstruation follicle has matured, it secretes enough estradiol to trigger the acute release of luteinizing hormone (LH). In the average cycle woman menstruation this LH surge starts around cycle day 12 and amount menstruation twins triplets may last 48 hours. arimidex and menstruation The release of LH matures the egg and weakens the wall of the follicle in the ovary. This process leads to autism menstruation ovulation: the release of the now mature ovum, the largest cell of the body black hawk bark for heavy menstruation (with a diameter of about 0.5 bloating and weight gain during menstruation mm). Which of the two ovaries — left or right — ovulates appears essentially random; no known left/right cessation of menstruation due to illegal drug use co-ordination exists. The Fallopian tube needs to capture clotting during menstruation the egg and provide the site for fertilization. A characteristic clear and stringy mucus exhibiting fluid retention during menstruation spinnbarkeit frozen shoulder menstruation develops at the cervix, ready to accept sperm from intercourse. In some women, ovulation features a characteristic pain called Mittelschmerz (German term meaning having two menstruations in one month 'middle pain') which history of menstruation lasts for several hours. The sudden change in hormones at the time of ovulation also how to postpone menstruation causes light mid-cycle bleeding for some women. Many women perceive india segregation due to menstruation the vaginal and cervical mucus changes at ovulation, particularly if they are monitoring themselves for signs of fertility. An unfertilized infertile days after menstruation egg will eventually disintegrate or dissolve in the uterus. Scientific irregular menstruations investigations have indicated mechanism of menstruation disorder that the olfactory acuity or the sense of smell is greatest during ovulation in women.
The corpus luteum is the solid body formed in the ovaries after menstruation after d c the egg has been released from the fallopian tube which continues to menstruation after giving birth grow and divide for a while. After ovulation, menstruation and the 19th century the residual follicle transforms into the corpus luteum under the support of the pituitary hormones. This menstruation bloating corpus luteum will menstruation brown produce progesterone in addition to estrogens for approximately the next 2 weeks. Progesterone plays a vital menstruation fanatic role in converting the proliferative endometrium into a secretory lining receptive for implantation menstruation problems after stop taking zoloft and supportive of the early menstruation videoed pregnancy. It raises the body temperature by one-half to one degree Fahrenheit (one-quarter to one-half more than 28 days cycle menstruation degree Celsius), thus women who record their temperature on a daily basis will notice that they have entered nausea menstruation the luteal phase. If fertilization of an egg navajo beliefs about menstruation has occurred, it will travel as an early blastocyst through the fallopian tube to the orthodox jewish woman menstruation attend events uterine cavity and implant itself ovulation and menstruation 6 to 12 days after ovulation. Shortly after implantation, the growing embryo will signal its existence passing solid tissue during menstruation to the maternal system. One very early signal consists of human chorionic phases of menstruation gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone that pregnancy tests can measure. pictures of menstruation This signal has an important role in maintaining the corpus luteum and premature ventricular contractions menstruation enabling it to continue to produce progesterone. In the absence of a pregnancy and without what causes a headache after menstruation period hCG, the corpus luteum demises and inhibin and progesterone levels fall. This will set the stage what is normal tissue loss during menstruation for the next cycle. Progesterone wolf menstruation withdrawal leads to menstrual shedding (progesterone withdrawal bleeding), and falling women menstruation inhibin levels allow FSH levels to rise to raise a new crop of follicles.
Physical experience of menstruation
In many absence of menstruation women, various intense sensations brought about by accepting the lack of menstruation the involved hormones and by cramping of the uterus can precede or accompany menstruation. Stronger sensations may include significant menstrual advanced menstruation pain (dysmenorrhea), abdominal pain, migraine headaches, depression and emotional sensitivity, and after birth menstruation changes in sex drive. Diarrhea or loose stools are common alimentation et menstruation for the first few days of aspirin and menstruation prolonged bleeding a woman's period.
Breast discomfort caused by bad headaches at beginning of menstruation premenstrual water retention is very common. The sensations experienced basal temperature during menstruation vary from woman to woman and from cycle to beginning menstruation cycle.
The fertile window
The length of the follicular phase — and consequently bleeding during menstruation the length of the menstrual cycle — may vary widely. The luteal calculator menstruation phase, however, almost always takes the same number of days. can menstruation last more than seven days Some women have a luteal phase of 10 days, others of 16 days (the average is 14 days), but for each can you get pregnant during menstruation individual woman, this length cease menstruation will remain constant. Sperm survive inside a woman for 3 days on average, clear jelly menstruation with survival time up to five days considered normal. A pregnancy resulting from clump in menstruation sperm life of eight days has been documented. The most fertile period cold sweats during menstruation (the time with the highest conceiving during menstruation likelihood of sexual intercourse leading to pregnancy) covers the time from some 5 days before ovulation could canning during menstruation make me sick until 1-2 days after ovulation. In an average 28 day cycle coumadin menstruation with a 14-day luteal phase, this corresponds to the second and the beginning of the cramps 4 days before menstruation third week of the cycle. Fertility diarrea and menstruation awareness methods of birth control attempt to determine the precise time of ovulation in order to drug to bring on menstruation find the relatively fertile and the dry days after menstruation relatively infertile days in the cycle.
People who have heard about the menstrual cycle and ovulation may commonly and mistakenly assume, duche menstruation for contraceptive purposes, that menstrual cycles always take a regular 28 days, and dull pain lower right side and absence menstruation that ovulation always occurs 14 each step of menstruation days after beginning of the menses. This assumption may lead early and late menstruation with prometrium to unintended pregnancies. Note too that not every bleeding event counts as a menstruation, and this can mislead effexor xr menstruation people in their calculation of the fertile window.
If a woman endocrine system menstruation wants to conceive, the most fertile time occurs fibromyalgia and menstruation between 19 and 10 days prior to the expected menses. Many women flush menstruation use ovulation detection kits that detect the presence of the LH surge in the urine to indicate the most frequen menstruation fertile time. Other ovulation gas occurs during menstruation detection systems rely on observation of one or more of the three primary fertility signs (basal body temperature, cervical fluid, and cervical position).
Among women headache menstruation living closely together, the headaches during menstruation onsets of menstruation may tend to synchronise somewhat. This McClintock health womens health menstruation amenorrhea effect was first described in 1971, and possibly explained by the action of pheromones in 1998. However, subsequent research has called this conclusion into question.
Extreme intricacies hemorrhoids bleed more during menstruation regulate the menstrual cycle. For many years, how are blood clots formed in menstruation researchers have argued over which regulatory system has ultimate control: the hypothalamus, the pituitary, or the ovary with its how can i stop my menstruation growing how long can a menstruation last follicle; but all three systems have to interact. In any scenario, the growing follicle has a critical role: how to stop menstruation for 1 week it matures the lining, provides the appropriate feedback to the hypothalamus and pituitary, and modifies hyperthyroidism menstruation the mucus changes at the cervix. inducing menstruation Two sex hormones play a role in the control of the menstrual cycle: estradiol and progesterone. While estrogen inducing menstruation in order to get pregnant peaks twice, during interrupt my menstruation follicular growth and during the luteal phase, progesterone remains virtually absent prior iron loss through menstruation to ovulation, but becomes critical in the luteal phase and during pregnancy. iroquois menstruation Many tests for ovulation check for the presence of progesterone. These sex hormones come under the influence of the pituitary iudheavy menstruationlength of menstruation gland, and both FSH and LH play necessary roles. FSH stimulates les m?decines parall??les de menstruation de douleur immature follicles in the ovaries to grow. LH triggers ovulation. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone of lost of menstruation the hypothalamus controls the pituitary, yet both the pituitary and the hypothalamus receive feedback from lupron and menstruation the follicle. lyrica & menstruation After ovulation the corpus luteum — which develops from the burst follicle and remains in the ovary — secretes both make up missed days of fasting due to menstruation estradiol and progesterone. Only if pregnancy occurs do hormones appear male menstruation in order to suspend the menstrual cycle, while production of estradiol and progesterone continues. Abnormal hormonal menstruation + stem cells + japanese regulation menstruation and heartburn leads to disturbance in the menstrual cycle.
Some women with neurological conditions experience increased activity of their conditions at about the menstruation and nausea same time every month. 80 percent of women with epilepsy menstruation and pms have more seizures than usual in the phase of their cycle menstruation and related to adalat oros when progresterone declines and estrogen increases.
Mice have been used as an experimental system to investigate possible mechanisms menstruation and women's oops by which levels of sex steroid hormones might regulate nervous menstruation dandelion system function. During the part menstruation diargram of the mouse estrous cycle when progesterone is highest, the level of nerve-cell GABA receptor subtype delta was high. Since these menstruation engineer GABA receptors are inhibitory, nerve cells with more delta menstruation engineer online receptors are less likely to fire than cells with lower numbers menstruation for men of delta receptors. During the part menstruation happy of the mouse estrous cycle when estrogen levels are higher than progesterone levels, the menstruation integration number of delta receptors decrease, increasing nerve cell activity, in turn increasing anxiety menstruation integration general and seizure susceptibility.
Unlike almost all menstruation light other species, the external physical changes of menstruation picturess a human female near ovulation are very subtle. A woman may sense her own ovulation while menstruation problems and progesterin it may remain indiscernible to others; this is considered to have sociobiological significance. In contrast, other species often signal menstruation reflux receptivity through heat. The great apes are the only other menstruation slight bleeding during implantation of ovum mammals to have hidden ovulation.
The ovary as an menstruation stopped egg-bank
Evidence suggests that eggs are formed from germ cells early in fetal life. menstruation stops and not menopause The number is reduced to an estimated 400,000 to 450,000 immature eggs residing in menstruation videos each ovary at puberty. The menstrual cycle, as a menstruation without ovulation biologic event, allows for ovulation of one egg typically each month. Thus over multiple menstruations her lifetime a woman will ovulate approximately 400 to 450 museam of menstruation times. All the other eggs dissolve by a necessity of menstruation process called atresia. As a woman's total egg supply is formed in fetal life, no menstruation to be ovulated decades later, it has been suggested that this long lifetime may onset of menstruation make the chromatin of eggs more vulnerable to division problems, ovulation without menstruation breakage, and mutation than the chromatin of sperm, which are paroxetine interferes menstruation produced continuously during a man's reproductive life. This possibility is supported parsley to induce menstruation by the observation that fetuses and infants of older mothers have higher rates of chromosome photos gratuites de menstruations abnormalities than those of older fathers.
The anovulatory menstrual cycle
Not all possible causes for two menstruations in month menstruations result from an ovulatory menstrual cycle (Anovulatory cycle - literally 'an-' absence of 'ovulation'). In some women, follicular post partum menstruation development may start but not complete, nevertheless estrogens will form and will progesterone and menstruation stimulate the uterine lining. Sooner or later the uterus will shed progesterone withdrawal test, induce menstruation this lining. As no ovulation and no progesterone involvement occurs, doctors call provera and no menstruation this type of bleeding an estrogen breakthrough bleeding, and provera, menstruation cannot always predict its duration sant? menstruations or frequency. Anovulatory bleeding commonly occurs prior to menopause (premenopause) or in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Infrequent or irregular ovulation steroids & menstruation is called oligoovulation.
The "normal menstrual cycle" occurs every 28 days ± 7 days.
The medical stress due to longer menstruation term for cycles with intervals of 21 days or fewer is polymenorrhea and, on sulfameth + menstruation the other hand, the term for cycles with sympathetic menstruation intervals exceeding 35 days is taking to your kids about menstruation oligomenorrhea (or amenorrhea if intervals exceed 180 days).
The normal menstrual flow amounts to 50 mL tamoxifen and menstruation ± 30 mL. It follows a "crescendo-decrescendo" pattern; that is, it starts at a moderate level, timing menstruation increases somewhat, and then slowly tapers. Sudden heavy topamax menstruation flows or amounts in excess of 80 mL (hypermenorrhea or menorrhagia) may ulcerative colitis and menstruation stem from hormonal disturbance, uterine abnormalities, including uterine leiomyoma or cancer, and other underarm swelling prior to menstruation causes. Doctors call the opposite phenomenon, using vandazole during menstruation of bleeding very little, hypomenorrhea.
The typical woman bleeds for three what causes clotting during menstruation to seven days at the beginning of each menstrual cycle.
Prolonged bleeding (metrorrhagia, also meno-metrorrhagia) no longer shows when to count first day for menstruation spoting a clear interval pattern. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding refers to hormonally caused bleeding abnormalities, typically anovulation. All where can i find free booklets on explaining menstruation these bleeding abnormalities need medical attention; they may indicate hormone imbalances, uterine white menstruation clots fibroids, or other why is menstruation mucus problems. As pregnant patients may bleed, a pregnancy test forms part of the evaluation of abnormal bleeding.
Contraception and menstruation
Estrogens and progesterone-like hormones make up the main active ingredients of birth control pills. Typically zyprexa menstruation they tend to mimic a menstrual cycle in appearance, but to suppress the critical event of the ovulatory cycle, namely ovulation. Normally, a woman takes hormone pills for 21 days, followed by 7 days of non-functional sugar pills or no pills at all; then the cycle starts again. During the 7 placebo days, a withdrawal bleeding occurs; this differs from ordinary menstruation, and skipping the placebos and continuing with the next batch of hormone pills may suppress it. (Two main versions of the pill exist: monophasic and triphasic. With triphasic pills, skipping of the placebos and continuing with the next month's dose can make a woman more likely to experience spotting or breakthrough bleeding.) In 2003 the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved low-dose monophasic birth control pills which induce withdrawal bleedings only every 3 months. Yet another version of the pill is the recently-released Loestrin Fe, which has only a four-day placebo "week" (the placebos are actually iron supplements intended to replenish iron lost via bleeding), the other three placebos being replaced with active hormone pills; this system is intended to help shorten the duration of a period.
Other types of hormonal birth control which affect menstruation include the vaginal Nuvaring and the transdermal patch (like the standard pill pack: used for three weeks, then given a one-week break for bleeding) and the shot (which can eliminate bleeding for several months at a time).
Effects on menstruation
All such methods are designed to regulate monthly bleeding. Because of this, they are often chosen by females who wish to regulate the frequency and length of their period, often for basic convenience and especially when such factors are irregular and problematic on their own. Hormonal contraception has also been shown to improve menstrual factors such as cramping, heavy bleeding, and other bothersome physical and emotional issues related to periods.
Control and flexibility
Hormonal methods which are controlled by the user day-to-day, including pills, the ring, and the patch, need not always be used according to the standard cycle/calendar. Their use can be rescheduled and altered in various ways to postpone or skip periods when desired for reasons of convenience (e.g., traveling or scheduled gynecological exams), personal enjoyment (such as expected sexual encounters or events like a wedding or dance), or health (including very painful periods or sensitivity to hormone fluctuations). Similarly, abrupt cessation of use can induce a breakthrough period mid-cycle.
Other contraceptive methods
IUDs are not designed to affect menstruation or breakthrough bleeding, but may exacerbate cramps or the heaviness of the flow due to their placement within the uterus. Tubal sterilization alone will not affect menstruation, though the ablation option often performed at the same time will cease menstruation. Hysterectomy will, of course, completely stop menstruation as it entails the removal of the uterus (and sometimes related organs). Fertility awareness methods do not affect the period in and of themselves, but involve careful observation of various kinds, of which the timing of the period is an essential factor.
Etymology and the lunar month
The terms "menstruation" and "menses" come from the Latin mensis (month), which in turn relates to the Greek mene (moon) and to the roots of the English words month and moon — reflecting the fact that the moon also takes close to 28 days to revolve around the Earth (actually 27.32 days). The synodical lunar month, the period between two new moons (or full moons), is 29.53 days long.
A 1975 book by Louise Lacey documented the experience of herself and 27 of her friends, who found that when they removed all artificial nightlighting their menstrual cycles began to occur in rhythm with the lunar cycle. She dubbed the technique Lunaception. Later studies in both humans and animals have found that artificial light at night does influence the menstrual cycle in humans and the estrus cycle in mice (cycles are more regular in the absence of artificial light at night), though none have duplicated the synchronization of women's menstrual cycles with the lunar cycle. One author has suggested that sensitivity of women's cycles to nightlighting is caused by nutritional deficiencies of certain vitamins and minerals.
Some have suggested that the fact that other animals' menstrual cycles appear to be greatly different from lunar cycles is evidence that the average length of humans' cycle is most likely a coincidence.
While some women allow their menses to flow freely, most women prefer to use some external means to absorb or catch their menses to prevent soiling their clothes. There are a number of different methods available.
- Sanitary napkins (Sanitary towels) or pads - Somewhat rectangular pieces of material worn in the underpants to absorb menstrual flow, often with "wings," pieces that fold around the panties, and/or an adhesive backing to hold the pad in place. Disposable synthetic pads are made of wood pulp or synthetic products, usually with a plastic lining and bleached. Some sanitary napkins, particularly older styles, are held in place by a belt-like apparatus, instead of adhesive or wings.
- Tampons - Disposable wads of treated rayon/cotton blends or all-cotton fleece, usually bleached, that are inserted into the vagina to absorb menstrual flow.
- Padettes - Disposable wads of treated rayon/cotton blend fleece that are placed within the inner labia to absorb menstrual flow.
- Disposable menstrual cups -- A firm, flexible cup-shaped device worn inside the vagina to catch menstrual flow. Disposable cups are made of soft plastic (like Instead).
- Reusable cloth pads are made of cotton (often organic), terrycloth, or flannel, and may be handsewn (from material or reused old clothes and towels) or storebought.
- Menstrual cups - A firm, flexible bell-shaped device worn inside the vagina to catch menstrual flow. Reusable versions include rubber or silcone cups (like the Keeper, DivaCup, Lunette, and Mooncup).
- Sea sponges - Natural sponges, worn internally like a tampon to absorb menstrual flow.
- Padded panties - Reuseable cloth (usually cotton) underwear with extra absorbent layers sewn in to absorb flow. (like Lunapads)
- Blanket, towel - Large reuseable piece of cloth, most often used at night, placed between legs to absorb menstrual flow.
In addition to products to contain the menstrual flow, pharmaceutical companies likewise provide products — commonly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) — to relieve menstrual cramps. Some herbs, such as dong quai, raspberry leaf and crampbark, are also claimed to relieve menstrual pain.
Culture and menstruation
Many religions have menstruation-related traditions. These may be bans on certain actions during menstruation (such as intercourse in orthodox Judaism and Islam), or rituals to be performed at the end of each menses (such as the mikvah in Judaism and the ghusl in Islam).
Menstruation in other mammals
A regular menstrual cycle as described here only occurs in the great apes. Menstrual cycles vary in length from an average of 29 days in orangutans to an average of 37 days in chimpanzees.
Females of other mammalian species go through certain episodes called "estrus" or "heat" in each breeding season. During these times, ovulation occurs and females become receptive to mating, a fact advertised to males principally in some way presumably mediated by pheromones. If no fertilisation takes place, the uterus reabsorbs the endometrium: no menstrual bleeding occurs. Significant differences exist between the estrus and the menstrual cycle. Some animals, such as domestic cats and dogs do produce a very short and mild menstrual flow. However, due to its small amount (and personal cleanliness in cats) it passes pet owners largely unnoticed.
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