meningitis
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meningitis in the news

Possible meningitis case at UL 

KATC3 - Oct 08 5:31 AM
LAFAYETTE, La. (AP) - Public health officials are investigating a possible case of bacterial meningitis at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, where an outbreak of the infection last semester was linked to two deaths.

Child Dies Of Bacterial Meningitis 
The WBAL Channel - Oct 06 1:39 PM
Baltimore County Health Department officials are reporting the death of a young child from bacterial meningitis.

Changes could save babies' lives 
Wanstead and Woodford Guardian - Oct 09 2:58 AM
THE word meningitis strikes horror into the hearts of parents but a new vaccine looks set to ease many parents' fears.

Child Dies Of Bacterial Meningitis 
The WBAL Channel - Oct 06 5:35 AM
TOWSON, Md. -- Baltimore County Health Department officials are reporting the death of a young child from bacterial meningitis. The death is believed to be the first from bacterial meningitis in the county this year.

menigitis

 

 

- viral meningitis

- meningitis

Meningitis
ICD-10 G00.-G03.
ICD-9 320-322
DiseasesDB 22543
MedlinePlus 000680
eMedicine med/2613  emerg/309 emerg/390

Meningitis is the menigitis inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain, usually due to bacterial or viral infections elsewhere in body that has spread into the blood menningitis and into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Other causes of meningitis meningitus such as fungal, protozoal, or certain menangitis non-infectious etiologies are much rarer. Meningitis should be distinguished from the condition encephalitis, the latter of mennigitis which is the inflammation of the brain itself. Meningitis can affect anyone in any age meningitas group, from the newborn to the elderly, although the specific meningtis cause may be different. Typical signs and symptoms of meningitis include fever, headache, stiff menngitis neck, photophobia, or vomiting. The most common cause of meningitis is viral meningittis (which in some cases can be resolved within a few days with swift treatment), therefore menongitis anyone suspected of having meningitis should be evaluated promptly. Also, bacterial meningitis can be very serious and memingitis immediate treatment is meningits necessary.

Contents

  • 1 Causes
    • 1.1 Infectious
      • 1.1.1 Risk Factors
    • 1.2 Non-infectious
  • 2 Pathophysiology
  • 3 Symptoms
    • 3.1 Complications
    • 3.2 Associated meingitis pictures of meningitis features
  • 4 Diagnosis
    • 4.1 CSF analysis in menengitis bacterial meningitis
  • 5 Treatment
    • 5.1 Specific menegitis treatments
      • 5.1.1 Viral meningitis
    • 5.2 Increased meningitis intracranial pressure
  • 6 Vaccination
  • 7 History
    • 7.1 The African Meningitis Belt
  • 8 References
  • 9 External viral meningitis links

Causes

Infectious

  • G02.0: Viruses are bacterial meningitis the most common cause of meningitis. Enterovirus accounts for meningitis symptoms the majority (75 to 90%) of all signs symptoms of meningitis cases of viral meningitis. Specific etiologies within the family Picornaviridae and other common viral causes of aseptic meningitis includes:
    • coxsackievirus
    • echovirus
    • poliovirus
    • human enteroviruses
    • arbovirus
    • lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
    • HIV
    • herpes simplex symptoms of meningitis virus type II

Less common and rare meningitis vaccine causes of viral meningitis includes herpes simplex virus type spinal meningitis symptoms I, varicella zoster virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza virus A or B, parainfluenza virus, mumps, rubella, and fungal meningitis West Nile virus.

  • G00.-G01.: Bacterial meningitis is the most common form of purulent CNS infection with incidence in the United States viral meningitis symptoms >2.5/100,000/yr. Currently, the cochlear implants meningitis most common organisms overall responsible for community-acquired meningitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae (~50%), meningitis recurrance Neisseria meningitidis (~25%), Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococci (~15%), and Listeria monocytogenes (~10%). Haemophilus influenzae now consists of < meningitis pictures 10% of all cases since the widespread use of the HiB aseptic meningitis vaccine. The causes can also be simplified by vioxx and meningitis the age of the patient affected (most common listed first):
    • less than 3 months --- Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes
    • 3 mo cryptococcal meningitis to 8 yrs --- Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae
    • 18 to meningococcal meningitis 50 yrs --- Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis
    • 50 yrs and magazine articles on meningitis older --- Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Gram-negative bacilli
    • Immunocompromised --- Listeria monocytogenes, Gram-negative bacilli, Cryptococcus neoformans (fungal)
    • Head trauma, post-neurosurgery, CSF shunt --- Staphylococcus spp, Gram-negative canine meningitis bacilli, Streptococcus pneumoniae

There is a geographic variation in symptoms of spinal meningitis the incidence of the bacteria, e.g. in rural Thailand the most common meningitis encephalitis symptoms cause is S. suis. Tuberculous meningitis may also be carcinomatous meningitis more prevalent in third-world countries.

Risk Factors

  • Pneumococcal meningitis due meningitis powerpoint to S. pneumoniae can be precipitated by many factors, the most important of feline meningitis which is Pneumococcal pneumonia. Additional risks include Pneumococcal sinusitis or otitis media, meningitis + e coli alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, splenectomy, hypogammaglobulinemia, and head trauma. Mortality remains ~20% despite antibiotic therapy.
  • Meningococcal meningitis due what is meningitis to N. meningitidis after nasopharyngeal colonization may be either asymptomatic is viral meningitis contagious or become systemically invasive, progressing to death within hours of symptomatic onset. The main host capability to eradicate N. meningitidis is pathophysiology of tb meningitis through production of antibodies and lysis of the bacterium by both the classic and alternative complement pathway. pneumoccocal meningitis Patients with impaired or deficient complement components, especially spiral meningitis the C5-9 lytic component, is highly susceptible to disseminated meningococcal infections.
  • Group B streptococci meningitis due to states that require meningitis vaccination S. agalactiae is an important cause of neonatal meningitis, the after effects of meningitis risk of which increases if the mother has positive neiseria meningitis vaginal colonization during birth and was not given antibiotics.
  • Listeria infection is mainly acquired through ingestion of contaminated viral meningitis + encephalitis foods. Reported foods at risk for Listeria contamination nursing care of a child with viral meningitis include milk, coleslaw, soft cheeses, and several ready-to-eat foods such as deli meat and uncooked hot eosinophilic meningitis dogs.
  • Gram negative bacilli infection is more common in those with chronic conditions how is the meningitis shot given such as diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, alcoholism, or chronic urinary tract infections.
  • Staphyloccocus infections such as those meningitis rash due to S. aureus is important in those who have had neurosurgery procedures such meningitis vaccine side effects as shunting for hydrocephalus or the use of Ommaya reservoir for intrathecal chemotherapy.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid leakage greatly nursing article on meningitis increases the risk of meningitis.
  • Viral meningitis infections may express symptoms of meningitis in children a higher incidence during certain seasonable variations:
    • Summer/Early fall -- arbovirus, enterovirus
    • Fall/Winter -- lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
    • Winter/Spring -- mumps
    • nonseasonal -- crytococcus meningitis Herpes simplex virus, HIV

Non-infectious

Non-infectious causes are rare, and may include:

  • Tumors (leukemia, dog sterile meningitis lymphoma, primary brain tumors, emedicine meningitis metastases)
  • CNS Sarcoidosis
  • Chemical compounds (lead poisoning)
  • Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever)
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome
  • Isolated granulomatous angiitis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Beh├žet's syndrome
  • Mollaret's meningitis
  • Drug hypersensitivity fox news and meningitis and western missouri medical center (Methotrexate)
  • Wegener's granulomatosis

Pathophysiology

Bacterial meningitis is usually caused by lymphocytic meningitis Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. These organisms initially attach to the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx and are then transported via vacuoles meningites into the bloodstream. They are able to avoid phagocytosis by steroid-responsive meningitis in dogs neutrophils and complement-mediated bactericidal activity because of their polysaccharide capsule. They then viral spinal meningitis reach the ventricles and directly infect the choroid plexus and gain access to the CSF. There, they ween spinal meningitis are able to rapidly divide because of enterovirus meningitis the absence of effective immune defenses since CSF contains relatively i want a picture now of meningitis small amounts of white blood cells, complement proteins, and immunoglobulins. The scarcity of illinois meningitis attorney the latter two components renders opsonization of bacteria ineffective, leading to impaired phagocytosis by neutrophils. Eventually, the bacteria meningitis bacteria are lysed, with release of cell wall products into the neisseria meningitis subarachnoid space. These substances --- including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), teichoic acid, and peptidoglycan brad pitt viral meningitis --- induce meningeal inflammation by stimulating cytokine release (such as TNF and IL-1) by CNS microglia, astrocytes, monocytes, endothelial celebrex meningitis cells, and leukocytes. In addition to meningeal inflammation, these cytokines daytona failure to diagnose meningitis attorney are responsible for the fever, headache, and increased intracranial pressure present secondary to the formation of the purulent exudate daytona failure to diagnose meningitis lawyer and obstruction of CSF flow through the ventricular system florida failure to diagnose meningitis attorney as well as inhibiting resorption of florida failure to diagnose meningitis lawyer CSF by the subarachnoid granulations. Because much of the symptoms of meningitis is due to the host inflammatory response rather than direct melbourne failure to diagnose meningitis attorney bacterial damage, this explains why symptoms melbourne failure to diagnose meningitis lawyer may persist even after adequate antibiotic therapy.

Interior view meningitis college student of a brain with meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae. Source: CDC

Purulent (suppurative) orlando failure to diagnose meningitis attorney leptomeningitis is a diffuse purulent inflammation. The leptomeninges (arachnoid and pia matter) contain purulent orlando failure to diagnose meningitis lawyer exudate (pus): leukocytes (neutrophils), fibrin, germs, proteins, necrotic debris. Blood vessels in the subarachnoidian space and those intracerebral are congested tb meningitis and neutrophil margination is present. [1]

Symptoms

Symptoms of meningitis the history of bacterial meningitis may progress either acutely, becoming fulminant within a few hours, or present subacutely over several days. The amoebic meningitis classical triad of meningitis are fever, headache, causes of spinal meningitis and nuchal rigidity ("neck stiffness") --- each presents in >90% of patients. Photophobia herpes meningitis (intolerance to light), chills, nausea, vomiting, may also occur. Seizures may occur in how long to recover meningitis about 20 to 40% of patients. Other signs include Kernig's information on viral meningitis sign and Brudzinski's sign. Although commonly tested, the sensitivity and specificity of Kernig's and Brudzinski's meningitis caused by listeria tests are uncertain.

  • Nuchal rigidity is the pathognomonic sign of meningeal irritation and is present when the neck meningitis incubation period is resistant to passive flexion.
  • Kernig's sign is elicited when patient is lying supine, meningitis shot with both hips and knees flexed. Meningeal irritation is present neisseria meningitidis meningitis if pain is elicited when the knees are passively extended.
  • Brudzinski's sign is elicited nursing care plan meningitis when the patient is lying supine, with both hips and pneumococcal meningitis knees flexed. Meningeal irritation is present if pain is elicited when the neck is passively flexed.

An important clue in meningococcal meningitis is stages of meningitis diffuse petechial rash about meningitis present on the trunk, lower extremities, mucous membranes, conjunctiva, and occasionally on the palms and soles.

Complications

An increased bacterial meningitis lawsuit personal injury attorneys san intracranial pressure is a known blindness due to meningitis and a potentially fatal complication of bacterial meningitis. The main sign of an increased ICP is an brain meningitis altered states of consciousness, which may vary from lethargy to confusion to coma. More than 90% of cases will present with CSF can nasal cocaine use cause meningitis opening pressure > 180 crypotococcal meningitis mmHg and some with > 400 mmHg. Other signs of increased ICP in addition to headache deaths caused byviral meningitis and vomiting include papilledema, sixth cranial nerve palsies, decerebrate posturing, and Cushing's reflex (bradycardia, meningitis at west branch hypotension, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration). The most fatal complication of ICP is brain herniation, which meningitis detection may present in 1 to 8% of cases.

Main article: meningitis risks at long beach state intracranial pressure

Associated features

Arthritis (bacterial infection of joints) meningitis vaccine harm occurs in around 7% of all cases of bacterial meningitis and 12% of cases of meningococcal meningitis.[1]

Diagnosis

Although diagnosis of meningitis nursing care of a child with aseptic meningitis as well as its specific etiology is important, laboratory testing takes time. Because bacterial meningitis is such nursing care plan on meningitis in children an urgent issue, treatment is usually instituted before a side effects of meningitis vaccine definite diagnosis is made.

  • When a patient is suspected of meningitis, blood culture should be drawn and spinal meningitis effects empiric antibiotics started immediately.
  • Diagnosis of meningitis can then be carried out with examination of CSF with a lumbar puncture spinel meningitis symptoms (LP). However, if the patient has had recent head trauma, is immunocompromised, have known malignant or staphylococcal meningitis CNS neoplasm, or have focal neurologic deficits such as papilledema or altered consciousness, survivors of meningitis a CT or MRI should be performed prior to texas meningitis attorney the LP in order to avoid a potentially fatal types of meningitis brain herniation during the procedure.
  • Otherwise, the CT or MRI should be performed after the who discovered meningitis LP, with MRI preferred over CT due to its cats meningitis superiority in demonstrating areas of cerebral edema, ischemia, and meningeal enhancement.

Antibiotics started within 4 hours of lumbar puncture will not empty sella syndrome and cryptococcal meningitis significantly affect lab results. The opening pressure is noted during the LP and the CSF gbs meningitis fluid sent for examination of white blood cell, red blood cell, glucose, protein, hypothermia - meningitis Gram stain, culture, and possibly latex icd-9 code aseptic meningitis agglutination test, limulus lysates, or PCR for bacterial DNA.

CSF analysis maine personal injury attorneys bacterial meningitis lawsuit in bacterial meningitis

  • Opening pressure: > 180 mmH2O
  • White blood cell: 10-10,000/uL with neutrophil predominance
  • Glucose: < meningitis & pregnancy 40 mg/dL
  • CSF glucose to serum glucose ratio: < 0.4
  • Protein: > 4.5 mg/dL
  • Gram stain: positive in >60%
  • Culture: positive meningitis flu in >80%
  • Latex agglutination: may be positive in meningitis hearing loss meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Group B Streptococci
  • Limulus lysates: positive in Gram-negative meningitis homeopathic vaccine meningitis

CSF cultures are usually positive in 30 meningitis in dogs to 70% of patients with viral meningitis and those with negative cultures will usually meningitis ivd have a positive CSF PCR test.

Treatment

Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and has a high mortality rate if untreated. All meningitis morbidity & mortality suspected cases, however mild, need emergency medical attention. Empiric antibiotics must be started immediately, even before meningitis picture rash the results of the lumbar meningitis research puncture and CSF analysis are known.

The choice of antibiotic depends on local meningitis shots advice. In most of the developed world, the most common organisms involved are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis: first meningitis transmission line treatment in the meningitis vaccination benefits UK is a third-generation cephalosporin (such as ceftriaxone or cefotaxime). In those under 3 years of age, over 50 years of meningitis vaccine effects age, or immunocompromised, ampicillin should be added to cover Listeria monocytogenes. In the U.S. meningitis vacine and uk and other countries with high levels of penicillin resistance, the first line choice meningitis vacine schedule and uk of antibiotics is vancomycin and a carbapenem (such as meropenem). In sub-Saharan mollarets meningitis Africa, oily chloramphenicol or new york meningitis lawyer ceftriaxone are often used because only a single dose is needed in most cases.

Staphylococci and gram-negative bacilli are common infective agents in patients who nursing journal articles only on meningitis have just had a neurosurgical procedure. Again, the choice of antibiotic depends on local patterns pathophysiology of meningitis nurse of infection: cefotaxime and ceftriaxone remain good choices in pictures of the meningitis belt in africa many situations, but ceftazidime is used when Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a problem, and signs and symptoms of meningitis intraventricular vancomycin is used for those patients with intraventricular shunts because of high rates of staphylococcal spinal meningitis medical journals infection. In patients with symptoms meningitis intracerebral prothetic material (metal plates, electrodes or implants, etc.) then sometimes chloramphenicol is the only antibiotic that will adequately cover infection by Staphylococcus aureus (cephalosporins tubercular meningitis in india and tuberculous meningitis carbapenems are inadequate under these circumstances).

Specific treatments

Once the results of the CSF analysis viral meningitis + pregnancy are known along with the Gram-stain and culture, empiric therapy may be switched to therapy aneurysm meningitis targeted to the specific causative organisms. bacteria meningitis Because antibiotic-resistance is a prevalent problem, information from drug susceptibility testing should also be bacterial meningitis lawsuit personal injury attorneys gathered.

  • Neisseria meningitidis can usually be treated with a 7-day course of IV antibiotics:
    • Penicillin-sensitive -- penicillin G or ampicillin
    • Penicillin-resistant -- ceftriaxone or cefotaxime
    • Prophylaxis for bacterial spinal meningitis close contacts (contact with oral cerebral meningitis secretions) -- rifampin 600 mg bid for 2 days (adults) or 10 mg/kg bid (children). Rifampin complications of tuberculous meningitis is not recommended in pregnancy and as such, these patients epidoral meningitis should be treated with single doses of ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, or ceftriaxone
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae can usually history of meningitis be treated with a 2-week course of IV antibiotics:
    • Penicillin-sensitive -- penicillin G
    • Penicillin-intermediate -- ceftriaxone or cefotaxime
    • Penicillin-resistant -- ceftriaxone or cefotaxime + in meningitis newborns vancomycin
  • Listeria monocytogenes is treated is meningitis contagious with a 3-week course of IV ampicillin + gentamicin.
  • Gram negative bacilli -- ceftriaxone or cefotaxime
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa -- know the symptoms of viral meningitis ceftazidime
  • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Methicillin-sensitive -- nafcillin
    • Methicillin-resistant -- vancomycin
  • Streptococcus agalactiae -- penicillin G or ampicillin
  • Haemophilus influenzae -- ceftriaxone lyme meningitis or cefotaxime

Viral meningitis

Unlike bacteria, viruses medicines for meningitis cannot be killed by antibiotics. Patients with very mild viral meningitis may only have to spend a few hours in hospital, meningiococcal meningitis while those who have a more serious infection may be hospitalised for many more days meningitis after effects for supportive care. Patients with mild cases, which often cause only meningitis bacterial flu-like symptoms, may be treated with fluids, bed rest (preferably in a quiet, dark meningitis case study room), and analgesics for pain and fever. The physician meningitis cerebral palsy may prescribe anticonvulsants such as phenytoin to prevent seizures and corticosteroids to meningitis during pregnancy reduce brain inflammation. If inflammation is severe, pain medicine and sedatives may be prescribed to meningitis exposure make the patient more comfortable. This type of meningitis immunization meningitis is, however, during its early stages highly contagious, so patients must be kept isolated for meningitis in the leg at least several days.

Increased intracranial pressure

Main article: intracranial pressure

Treatment of meningitis neurological nursing intervention increased intracranial pressure include elevation of head to 30 to meningitis nursing nurse 45 degrees, intubation and hyperventilation, and mannitol.

Vaccination

Vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) meningitis pics have decreased early childhood meningitis significantly.

Vaccines against type A and meningitis statistics C Neisseria meningitidis, the kind that causes most disease in preschool children and teenagers meningitis symptoms and rash in the United States, have also been around for a while. Type A is also prevalent in sub-Sahara meningitis vaccination Africa and W135 outbreaks have affected those meningitis viral on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca.

A vaccine called MeNZB for a specific strain of type B Neisseria meningitidis meningococcal meningitis menomune vaccine prevalent in New Zealand has completed trials and is being given to many people in the country under the mollaret's meningitis age of 20. There is also a vaccine, MenBVac, for neonatal meningitis the specific strain of type B meningoccocal disease prevalent in new hampshire meningitis lawyer Norway, and another specific vaccine for the pictures of meningitis strain prevalent in Cuba.

Pneumovax against Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended for all those > 65 years. Now, all children should recovery from meningitis receive vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae starting at 6 weeks - 2 months according to American Association rocephin and pediatric meningitis of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations.

History

The symptoms of meningitis were spinal meningites recorded in the Middle Ages along with those of tuberculosis and the Black Plague, but it suffolk county ny and meningitis vaccine was first accurately identified symptoms and causes of meningitis by the Swiss Vieusseux (a scientific-literary association), during an outbreak in Geneva, Switzerland in 1805. In the symptoms spinal meningitis 19th Century meningitis was a scourge of the Japanese Imperial family, playing the largest role in the horrendous pre-maturity death rate the the bacteria that causes meningitis is it airborne family endured. In the mid-1800s, only treatment for viral meningitis the Emperor Komei and two of his siblings reached maturity out of fifteen total children surviving birth. Komei's son, the vaginal meningitis Emperor Meiji, viral vs bacterial meningitis was one of two survivors out of Komei's six children, including an elder brother virul meningitis of Meiji who would have taken the throne had he lived to maturity. Five of Meiji's fifteen children survived, including only his what is viral meningitis third what man discovered bacterial meningitis son, the Taisho Emperor, who was feeble-minded, perhaps as a result of having contracted meningitis who discovered spinal meningitis himself. By Emperor Hirohito's generation the family was receiving modern medical attention. As the focal point of tradition brudzinksi, meningitis in Japan, during the Tokugawa Shogunate the family was denied modern "Dutch" medical can tattos cause meningitis treatment then in use among the upper caste; despite extensive modernization during the Meiji Restoration the Emperor carcimatose meningitis insisted on traditional medical care for his children. The inbreeding produced among the carcinomatosis meningitis very few families contagious viral meningitis considered worthy of marriage into the imperial line, most of whom were descendents from that same cryptococcic meningitis line and therefore none too distant cousins of one another, also differential of meningitis played an important role.

The African Meningitis Belt

The "Meningitis Belt" is an area in sub-Saharan dogs meningitis Africa which stretches from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east in encephalitis and meningitis which large epidemics of meningococcal meningitis occur. It contains an estimated extreme prematurity meningitis total population of 300 million people. The largest epidemic outbreak was in 1996, when over 250,000 cases occurred and 25,000 people died find information on viral meningitis as a consequence of the disease.

References

  • Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, et al, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Ed, McGraw-Hill 2005
  1. ^ Weisfelt fox news and meningitis western missouri medical center M, van de Beek D, Spanjaard L, de Gans haemophilus meningitis J (2006). "Arthritis in haemophilus meningitis treatment adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study". BMC Infectious Diseases 6: 64. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-6-64.

External links

  • Merck Manual: Central nervous system infections
  • WHO: Meningococcal meningitis
  • CDC: Meningococcal disease
  • Meningitis Research Foundation (UK and Ireland)
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