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herbicides in the news

U.S. Rules Allow the Sale of Products Others Ban 

Los Angeles Times - Oct 08 12:36 AM
Chemical-laden goods outlawed in Europe and Japan are permitted in the American market.

IN BRIEF 
Ann Arbor News - Oct 08 12:13 AM
If you have been wondering about how Ypsilanti Township spends its money, you can see the information online soon. The township board decided last week to put budget and audit information on the township's Web site in January.

Summer is about fresh food 
Carroll County Online - Oct 08 1:21 AM
Summertime in Carroll County offers numerous opportunities to unite with friends and family over a cold beverage and good barbecue. Nothing goes better with barbecue than lightly salted and buttered sweet corn.

Landscaping plan for proposed Wal-Mart approved 
Jefferson City News Tribune - Oct 07 11:27 PM
Jefferson City's Environmental Quality Commission gave its assent Thursday to a landscaping plan for the proposed east-side Wal-Mart.

herbicide

 

 

- herbicides

- herbicide

A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. Selective herbicides kill herbicdes specific targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with herbacides the growth of the herbicidas weed and are often based on plant hormones. Herbicides used to clear waste ground are nonselective and kill all herbicide plant material with which they come into contact. Some plants herbicides produce natural herbicides, such as the genus Juglans (walnuts). Herbicides crossbow herbicide are widely used in agriculture and in landscape turf management. They are applied in total vegetation control (TVC) programs for image herbicide maintenance of highways and railroads. Smaller quantities are used in forestry, pasture systems, and management of areas roundup herbicide set aside milestone herbicide as wildlife habitat.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Health effects
  • 3 Classification of herbicides
  • 4 Organic manage herbicide Herbicides
  • 5 Application
  • 6 Terminology
  • 7 Major poast herbicide herbicides in use today
  • 8 Herbicides of sonar herbicide historical interest
  • 9 References
  • 10 See scythe herbicide also
  • 11 External links
    • 11.1 Manufacturers and distributors
    • 11.2 Regulatory policy
    • 11.3 Usage reward herbicide preemergent herbicide statistics
    • 11.4 Natural herbicides
    • 11.5 2,4,5-T

History

Prior to the widespread use of chemical herbicides, cultural controls, such as altering soil pH, salinity, or vantage herbicide fertility levels, were used to control weeds. Mechanical control (including tillage) was also (and still is) used to control weeds.

The first bermuda grass herbicide widely used herbicide was 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic lawn care fertilizer herbicide acid, often abbreviated 2,4-D. It was developed by organic herbicide a British team during World War II and first saw widespread production and use in the late 1940s. It is easy and aquatic herbicide inexpensive to manufacture, and kills many broadleaf plants while leaving grasses largely unaffected (although high doses of crab grass herbicide 2,4-D at crucial names of herbicide growth periods can harm grass crops such as maize or cereals). 2,4-D's low cost has poison hemlock herbicide led to continued usage today and it remains one curtail herbicide of the most commonly used herbicides in the world. Like other acid herbicides, current formulations utilize either an amine herbicides used in pacific northwest forest salt (usually trimethyl amine) or one poison ivy and oak herbicides of many esters (ester) of the base compound. These are easier to handle than the acid.

2,4-D exhibits relatively poor selectivity, meaning that it causes manor herbicide stress to non-target plants. It is also less effective against some broadleaf weeds, including many organic herbicides vinous plants, and sedges. A herbicide pursuit herbicide is termed selective if it affects only certain types of corn herbicide plants, and nonselective if it inhibits most any type of plant. Other herbicides have been more recently developed to drive herbicide achieve desired selectivities.

The 1970s saw the introduction of atrazine, which has rodeo herbicide the dubious distinction of being the herbicide of greatest concern for groundwater contamination. Atrazine does not triplet herbicide break down readily (within a few weeks) after being applied. Instead it is carried deep msma herbicide into the soil by rainfall causing the aforementioned precip herbicide contamination. Atrazine is said to have high carryover, a very remedy herbicide undesirable property for herbicides.

Glyphosate, frequently sold under the brand name Roundup, was introduced in the late 1980s for non-selective aquatic herbicides weed control. It is now a major herbicide in selective avast aquatic herbicide where to buy weed control in growing crop plants due to the corn herbicides development of crop plants that are resistant to it. The pairing of the herbicide with the resistant seed contributed crab grass herbicides to the consolidation of the seed granular herbicide and chemistry industry in the late 1990s.

Many modern chemical herbicides for agriculture are specifically formulated to decompose within a short herbicide spray nozzles period after application. This is desirable as it allows how do you make herbicides crops which may be affected by the herbicide to be grown on lawn herbicide crab grass the land in future seasons. However, herbicides with low residual activity (ie decompose quickly) often do not provide season-long weed control.

The Effects bayer herbicides of Herbicide on Neighboring Violets

Health effects

Herbicides have been alleged to cause a variety of buy herbicides online health effects ranging from skin rashes to death. The pathway of attack can arise herbicide crops from improper applicatrion resulting in direct contact with field workers, inhalation of aerial sprays, food herbicide to kill trees consumption and from contact with residual soil contamination. Herbicides can preemergent herbicides also be transported via surface runoff to contaminate distant preemergent herbicides in ornamentals surface waters and hence another pathway of ingestion through extraction of those surface waters for drinking. Some herbicides decompose sonar aquatic herbicide rapidly towable herbicide sprayers in soils and other types have more persistent characteristics with longer environmental half-lives. Other alleged health effects can include chest pain, headaches, nausea and fatigue. tree herbicide All herbicides must be extensively tested prior to labeling by the Environmental Protection Agency. trimec herbicide However, because of the large number of amaze herbicide herbicides in use, many are concerned about potential health effects. Some of the substances in use are alleged to aquatic herbicide minority business bid be mutagenic,carcinogenic or teratogenic.

Classification of herbicides

Herbicides can be grouped arsenal herbicide by activity, use, chemical family, mode of action, or buy rodeo herbicide type of vegetation controlled.

By activity:

  • Contact herbicides destroy only the plant tissue in cimmaron herbicide contact with the chemical. Generally, these are the herbicide for bermuda grass fastest acting herbicides. They are less effective on perennial plants, which are able to herbicide msma regrow from roots or tubers.
  • Systemic herbicides are translocated through the plant, either from foliar application down to the roots, or from soil application up herbicides to eliminate bamboo to the leaves. They can destroy a greater amount of plant tissue millenium herbicide than contact quinclorac herbicide herbicides.

By use:

  • Soil-applied herbicides are applied to the soil and are taken up by the roots of the target speed zone herbicide plant.
  • Preemergent herbicides are applied to the soil before the where to buy rodeo herbicide crop emerges and prevent germination or early growth of weed seeds.
  • Post-emergent herbicides are applied after the crop has emerged.

Their classification by mechanism of atrazine herbicide mobility in soils action bermuda grass herbicide program (MOA) indicates the first enzyme, protein, or biochemical step affected in the plant following application. The main mechanisms cross bow herbicide of action are:

  • ACCase inhibitors are compounds that kill grasses. Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) is global herbicide market part of the first step of lipid synthesis. Thus, grandular herbicides ACCase inhibitors affect cell membrane production in the meristems of the home made herbicide grass plant. The ACCases of grasses are sensitive to these herbicides, whereas the ACCases of dicot plants are not.
  • ALS inhibitors: the acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme ozarks herbicide (also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase, or AHAS) round up herbicide is the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine). These herbicides slowly spartan herbicide starve affected plants of these amino tree removal herbicide acids which eventually leads to inhibition of DNA synthesis. They types of herbicides affect grasses and dicots alike. The ALS inhibitor family includes sulfonylureas (SUs), imidazolinones (IMIs), triazolopyrimidines (TPs), pyrimidinyl oxybenzoates (POBs), and sulfonylamino verdict herbicide carbonyl triazolinones (SCTs).
  • EPSPS inhibitors: The enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase willow tree herbicide enzyme EPSPS is used in the synthesis of the amino acids tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine. They affect grasses and dicots bahia grass herbicide alike. Glyphosate (Roundup) is basf and arsenal herbicide a systemic EPSPS inhibitor but inactivated by soil contact.
  • Synthetic auxin inaugurated the era creeping charlie herbicide of organic herbicides. They were discovered in the 1940s diquat herbicide after a long study of the plant growth regulator auxin. Synthetic auxins mimic this plant hormone. grass herbicide They have several points of action on the cell membrane, and are effective in habitat herbicide the control of dicot plants. 2,4-D is a synthetic auxin herbicide.
  • Photosystem II inhibitors reduce electron flow how to spray herbicides from water to NADPH2+ at the photochemical step journey herbicide in photosynthesis. They bind to the Qb site on the D2 protein, prowl herbicide and prevent quinone from binding to this site. Therefore, this group of reclaim herbicide compounds cause electrons to accumulate on chlorophyll molecules. As a consequence, oxidation reactions in excess of those normally tolerated by the selective herbicide cell occur, and the plant dies. The triazine sonar as herbicide herbicides (including atrazine) are PSII inhibitors.

Organic Herbicides

By organic is meant a turf herbicide herbicide that can be used in a farming enterprise that has been classified as organic.

Organic herbicides include:

  • Vinegar [1]

Application

Most herbicides are 2 4 d herbicide applied as water-based sprays using ground equipment. Ground equipment varies in design, but large areas can be aim ec herbicide sprayed using self-propelled sprayers equipped with a long bermuda grass herbicides boom, of 60 to 80 feet (20 to 25 m) with flat fan nozzles spaced about every callisto herbicide 20 in (500 mm). Towed, handheld, and even horse-drawn sprayers are also certainty herbicide used.

Herbicides can also be applied aerially using helicopters or airplanes, cornerstone herbicide and can be applied through irrigation systems (chemigation).

Terminology

  • Control is the destruction of unwanted weeds, or the damage of them to herbicide bermuda grass the point where they are no longer competitive with the crop.
  • Suppression is incomplete control herbicide injury to soybeans still providing some economic benefit, such as herbicide spray nozzels reduced competition with the crop.
  • Crop Safety, for selective herbicides, is the relative absence of damage or stress to the natural herbicides crop. Most selective herbicides cause some visible stress to crop plants.

Major herbicides in use today

  • Imazapyr, is a non-selective herbicide used for the control of a broad pc code and herbicide range of weeds including terrestrial annual and perennial grasses and broadleaved rainbow herbicides herbs, woody species, and riparian reward aquatic herbicide and emergent aquatic species.
  • Imazapic, is a selective herbicide for both the pre- stinger herbicide and post-emergent control of some annual and perennial grasses and some broadleaf weeds. Imazapic kills plants by inhibiting the production strike three herbicide of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), which are necessary for three - way selective herbicide protein synthesis and cell growth.
  • Glyphosate, a transline herbicide systemic nonselective (it kills any type of plant) herbicide used in no-till burndown and for weed control in crops that are genetically modified to triclopyr herbicide resist its effects. It is an example of an EPSPs inhibitor.
  • Paraquat, a nonselective contact turf herbicides herbicide weedmaster herbicide used for no-till burndown and in aerial destruction of marijuana and coca plantings. aquantic herbicide More acutely toxic to people than any other herbicide in widespread commercial use.
  • 2,4-D, a broadleaf herbicide articles on herbicides in the phenoxy group used in turf and in no-till field crop production. Now mainly used in a atrazine herbicide application rate bermuda grass blend with other herbicides that act as synergists, balance pro herbicide programs it is the most widely used herbicide in the world, third most commonly used broadstar herbicide in the United States. It is an example of synthetic auxin.
  • clopyralid, is a broadleaf herbicide in the pyridine castor oil plant herbicide group, used mainly in turf, rangeland, and for control of noxious thistles. Notorious for its clear out herbicide ability to persist in compost. It is another example of confront herbicide synthetic auxin.
  • metoalachlor, a pre-emergent coronary disease heart herbicides herbicide widely used for control of annual grasses in corn and sorghum; it has largely replaced atrazine for these dimension herbicide uses.
  • dicamba, a persistent broadleaf herbicide active in the soil, used on turf and field corn. It is disadvantages of herbicide resistant crops another example of synthetic auxin.
  • picloram, a pyridine herbicide explosive herbicide mainly used to control unwanted trees in pastures and edges of fields. It is another herbicide labels synthetic auxin.
  • atrazine, a triazine herbicide used herbicide tree removal the termite site in corn and sorghum for control of broadleaf weeds and grasses. Still used because of its low cost and because it honcho herbicide works as a synergist when used with other herbicides, it is a photosystem karmex herbicide II inhibitor.

Herbicides of historical interest

  • 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) was a widely used broadleaf herbicide natural herbicide until being phased out starting in the late natural pesticides and herbicides 1970s. While 2,4,5-T itself is of only moderate toxicity, the manufacturing process for 2,4,5-T contaminates this chemical with trace amounts plateau herbicide of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD is extremely toxic to plateau herbicide fine fescues humans. With proper temperature control during post emergent herbicides production of 2,4,5-T, TCDD levels can be held to about .005 ppm. Before the TCDD risk was well understood, early production facilities lacked pre emergence herbicide for crab grass proper temperature controls. Individual batches tested problems with herbicides later were found to have as much as 60 ppm of TCDD.
  • 2,4,5-T was registration numbers for herbicides withdrawn from use in the USA in 1983, at a time of heightened public sensitivity about chemical hazards in the environment. Public selective herbicides concern about dioxins was high, and production and use of other (non-herbicide) chemicals tall fescue control herbicide potentially containing TCDD contamination was also withdrawn. These included pentachlorophenol (a wood preservative) weed free zone herbicide and PCBs (mainly used as stabilizing agents in transformer oil). Some feel that the 'edict herbicide label' 2,4,5-T withdrawal was not based on sound science. 2,4,5-T has acclaim herbicide since largely been replaced by dicamba and triclopyr.
  • Agent Orange was a herbicide blend used alley herbicide by the U.S. aquatic herbicide fluridone military in Vietnam between January 1965 and April 1970 as a defoliant. It was a mixture of 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, and picloram. Because of TCDD avast herbicide contamination in broadleaf herbicide the 2,4,5-T component, it has been blamed for serious illnesses in many veterans who were exposed to it. However, research on populations buy sonar herbicide exposed to its dioxin contaminant chaser herbicide have been inconsistent and inconclusive. Agent Orange often had much higher levels of TCDD than 2,4,5-T used in chiendent herbicide biologique the US. The name Agent Orange is derived from the orange color-coded stripe confront herbicides used by the Army on barrels containing corn gluten preemergent herbicide the product. It is worth noting that there were other blends of synthetic auxins escalade herbicide at the time of the Vietnam War whose containers were recognized by their colors, such as Agent Purple fall application herbicide and Agent Pink.

References

  1. ^ Spray Weeds With Vinegar?

See also

  • Agriculture
  • Bioherbicide
  • Carcinogen
  • Farming
  • Federal Insecticide, green light amaze homepage herbicide Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) of the United States (covers herbicides despite title)
  • List of environmental health hazards
  • Mutagen
  • Organic farming
  • Organic gardening
  • Soil contamination
  • Surface runoff
  • Teratogen
  • Weed
  • Weed control
  • Category: Herbicides

External links

Manufacturers and herbicide producers distributors

  • Bayer Cropscience
  • Dowagro
  • DuPont http://www2.dupont.com/Agriculture/en_US/
  • Syngenta
  • BASF
  • Monsanto

Regulatory policy

  • US EPA
  • UK Pesticides Safety Directorate
  • European Commission pesticide information

Usage statistics

  • USDA

Natural herbicides

  • Herbicidal activity of Veronica filiformis

2,4,5-T

  • www.gr.nl
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