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glycemic index
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Glycemic index

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Glycemic index

Glycemic index (also glycaemic index, GI) is a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their immediate effect on blood glucose levels. It compares carbohydrates gram for glycemic indes gram in gycemic index individual foods, providing a numerical, evidence-based index of postprandial (post-meal) glycemia. The concept was invented by Dr. David J. Jenkins and glycmic index colleagues in 1981 at the University of Toronto.

Carbohydrates that glucemic index break down rapidly during digestion have the highest glycemic indices. Such glycemic indx carbohydrates require less energy to be converted into glucose, which results in faster digestion and a quicker glycemicindex increase of blood glucose. Carbohydrates that break down glycemic incex slowly, releasing glucose gradually into glyemic index the blood stream, have a low glycemic index. A lower glycemic index suggests glycemix index slower rates of digestion and absorption of the sugars and starches in the foods and may glycemic indez also indicate greater extraction from the liver and periphery of the products of carbohydrate digestion. glycemic idex Additionally, a lower glycemic response equates to a lower insulin demand, better long-term blood glucose glycemic inde control and a reduction in blood lipids.

The glycemic gylcemic index index of a food is defined by the area under the 2 hour blood glucose glicemic index response curve (AUC) following the ingestion of a fixed portion of carbohydrate glycemic undex (usually 50 g). glysemic index The AUC of the test food is divided by the AUC of the standard (either glycimic index glucose or white bread) and multiplied by 100.

The effect on blood glucose from a high versus low glycemic index carbohydrate.

The average GI value is glycemic index calculated from data collected in 10 human subjects. Both glycemic index list the standard and test food must contain an equal amount of available carbohydrate. free glycemic index The result gives a relative ranking for each tested food glycemic index diet [1].

Glycemic index values for different foods are calculated by comparing measurements glycemic index chart of their effect on blood glucose with glycemic index table an equal carbohydrate portion of a reference food. The current validated methods use glucose as the reference food, low glycemic index foods giving it a glycemic glycemic index list of foods index value of 100 by definition. This has the advantages in glycemic index of foods that it is universal and it results in maximum GI values low glycemic index diet of approximately 100. White bread can also be used as a reference food, giving a different set glycemic index foods of GI values (if white bread = 100, then glucose ≈ 140). For people whose staple glycemic index listing carbohydrate source is white bread, this has the advantage of conveying directly whether replacement low glycemic index of the dietary staple with a online glycemic index list of foods different food would result in faster or slower blood glucose response. The disadvantages with this system are that glycemic food index the reference food is not well-defined, and the GI scale diabetic diet and glycemic index foods is culture dependent.

Contents

  • 1 Glycemic index of foods
  • 2 Disease carbohydrate glycemic index prevention
  • 3 Weight low glycemic index diet plans control
  • 4 Criticism
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External the glycemic index links

Glycemic index of foods

GI values can be interpreted intuitively as percentages on an absolute scale and glycemic index diet free list of foods are commonly glycemic index food interpreted as follows:

Classification GI range Examples
Low GI Below 55 sour dough bread (54), apple juice low glycemic food index (40), pumpernickel (50), oatmeal (48), pasta (54), Indian Basmati Rice (58)
Intermediate GI 56 to 69 croissant (67), coca-cola (63), raisin bran (61), glycemic index for foods wholemeal bread (65)
High GI Above 70 white bread (70), corn flakes (80), doughnut diabetic diet glycemic index (76), white rice (98)

A low diabetic diet glycemic index foods GI food will release energy slowly and steadily and is generally appropriate for everyone, especially diabetics, dieters and foods with low glycemic index endurance athletes. A high GI food will provide a rapid rise in blood sugar levels glycemic index charts and is suitable for energy recovery after glycemic index diet foods endurance exercise.

The glycemic effect of foods depends on carbs glycemic index a number of factors such as the type of starch (amylose vs amylopectin), physical entrapment of the starch molecules within food glycemic index the food, fat content of glycemic index lists the food and increased acidity of the meal low glycemic index food - adding vinegar for example, will lower the GI. The presence of fat or dietary fiber can inhibit carbohydrate what is glycemic index absorption, thus lowering the GI. diaic diet and glycemic index foods Unrefined breads with higher amounts of fibre generally have a lower GI value than white breads, but, diet glycemic index software while adding butter or oil will lower the GI of bread, free sample glycemic index diet the GI ranking does not change. That is, with or without glycemic index recipes additions, there is still a higher blood glucose curve after white bread than after a food glycemic index list low low GI bread such as pumpernickel. Many brown breads, however, are glycemic index sweeteners treated with enzymes to soften the crust, which makes the starch more accessible. This raises the harvard dash diet low glycemic index diabetes GI, with some brown breads low glycemic diet food index even having GI values over 100.

The glycemic index can only be applied to low glycemic index recipes foods with a reasonable carbohydrate content, as the test relies carbs glycemic index low on subjects consuming enough of the test food to yield about 50 free glycemic index diet g of available carbohydrate. High fat or high protein foods such free glycemic index list of food as meat, eggs, nuts and cheese have a negligible GI. Furthermore, many fruits glycemic index and diabetes and vegetables (but not potatoes) contain very little carbohydrate per serving, and also have very low GI values. glycemic index carbs This also applies to carrots, which were originally and incorrectly reported as having a glycemic index fruit high GI [2]. Alcoholic beverages have been reported to have glycemic index of food low GI values, however it glycemic index software should be noted that beer has a moderate GI. Recent studies have shown that the consumption of glycemic index weight loss an alcoholic drink prior to a meal reduces the GI of the meal by approximately 15%[3].

Disease prevention

Several lines of diabetic diet glycemic index chart recent scientific evidence have shown that individuals who followed a low GI foods with a low glycemic index diet over many years were at a significantly lower risk for developing both type glycemic index calculator 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. High blood glucose levels or repeated glycemic index diet recipes glycemic "spikes" following a meal may glycemic index weight loss diet promote these diseases by increasing oxidative damage to the vasculature and also by the direct increase in foods low in glycemic index insulin levels [4]. In the free glycemic index chart past, postmeal hyperglycemia has been a risk factor mainly associated with diabetes, however more recent evidence glycemic index food ratings shows that postprandial hyperglycemia presents an increased risk for atherosclerosis in the glycemic index in food non-diabetic population [5].

Weight control

Recent animal research provides compelling glycemic index news evidence that high GI carbohydrate is associated with increased risk of obesity. In glycemic index of fruits human trials, it is typically difficult glycemic index of sodas to separate the effects from GI and from other potentially confounding factors such as fibre content, palatability, and carbohydrate glycemic index low compliance. In the study (Pawlak et al, 2004), male rats were split into high and low GI cycling glycemic index groups over 18 weeks while mean database glycemic index bodyweight was maintained. Rats fed the high GI diet were 71% fatter and had 8% less diet glycemic index low lean body mass than the low GI group. free glycemic index diet menus Postmeal glycemia and insulin levels were significantly higher and plasma triglycerides were three-fold greater in the high GI glycemic foods index fed rats. Furthermore, pancreatic islet cells glycemic index complete list suffered "severely disorganised architecture and extensive fibrosis". The evidence in this study showed that continued glycemic index diabetes consumption of high glycemic index glycemic index free food lists carbohydrates would likely have led to the development of severe metabolic abnormalities.

Criticism

The glycemic index has glycemic index fruits been criticised for the following reasons:

  • the GI of a food varies depending on the kind glycemic index menu plan of food, its ripeness, glycemic load index the length of time it was stored, how it was cooked, its variety (potatoes from Australia, for example, low glycemic index carbs have a much higher GI than potatoes from the beer glycemic index United States), and how it was processed or manufactured.
  • the GI of a food varies from person to person blueberries glycemic index and even in a single individual count glycemic index from day to day, depending on blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and other factors.
  • the GI dals pulses glycemic index south beach diet of a mixed meal can be difficult to predict.
  • the GI glycemic index australia value is based on a portion that contains 50 glycemic index database grams of carbohydrate only.
  • a limited range of data and glycemic index diet free daily fluctuations in an individual’s glycemic response.
  • lack of endorsement by the American glycemic index food chart Diabetes Association

Some of these criticisms can be addressed by taking the Glycemic load into account. This combined approach is, however, somewhat more complicated, glycemic index food values and therefore harder to use in giving dietary advice.

See also

  • List of foods with a glycemic index management low glycemic index
  • Glycemic-index pyramid
  • Glycemic load
  • Diabetic diet

References

  1. ^ Brouns et al (2005). Glycaemic glycemic index of an onion index methodology. Nutrition Research Reviews 18; 145-171
  2. ^ Brand-Miller et al (2005). The Low GI Diet Revolution: glycemic index of avocado The Definitive Science-based Weight Loss Plan. Marlowe & Company. New glycemic index pasta York, NY
  3. ^ Brand-Miller, glycemic index peanuts in press
  4. ^ Temelkova-Kurktschiev et al (2000). Postchallenge plasma glucose and glycemic spikes are more glycemic index scale strongly associated with atherosclerosis than fasting glucose or HbA1c level. Diabetes Care 2000 high glycemic index foods Dec;23(12):1830-4
  5. ^ Balkau et al (1998) High blood low glycemic index carbohydrates glucose concentration is a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged nondiabetic men. 20-year follow-up in the Whitehall Study, the Paris Prospective Study, and what is the glycemic index the Helsinki Policemen chart food glycemic index Study. Diabetes Care 1998 Mar;21(3):360-7
  • DJ Jenkins et al (1981). Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for cheesecake glycemic index carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34; 362-366
  • Pawlak et al (2004). Effects of glycemic index and weight loss dietary glycaemic index on adiposity, glucose homoeostasis, and plasma lipids in animals. glycemic index common foods Lancet 28;364(9436):778-85

External links

  • Glycemic index website and official GI glycemic index for carbs database - University of Sydney
  • "International table of glycemic glycemic index guide index and glycemic load values: 2002," American Journal of Clinical Nutrtition
  • Glycemic Index newsletter
  • A list glycemic index on foods of foods by GI and GL
  • Searchable database of GI and GL for over 1500 food items
  • Tree/freetext search-style database of GI and GL (also calculates totals according to FAO/WHO spec.)
  • GiListing.com - Alphabetic GI list
Search Term: "Glycemic_index"

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Tired of Junk Food in Vending Machines? Finally A Healthy Solution Has Arrived 

[Press Release] PR Web via Yahoo! News - 31 minutes ago
(PRWEB) October 10, 2006 -- Health food has finally come to vending machines.

Rearing An Army Of Wasps To Save Wheat 
Science Daily - Oct 09 5:54 AM
Montana State University entomologists seek ways to rear parasitic wasps, the natural enemies of the wheat stem sawfly. Sawfly larva tunnel the interior of developing wheat plants.

'Sewer Gas' Induces Suspended Animation Without Decreasing Blood Pressure 
Science Daily - Oct 09 5:54 AM
Hydrogen sulfide gas can induce a state of suspended animation in mice while maintaining normal blood pressure, a finding that researchers hope will one day help treat critically-ill patients and protect cardiac patients during surgery. The gas, which produces a noxious odor often described as a rotten egg smell, occurs naturally in swamps, springs and volcanoes. The study will be presented

Red Is For Hummingbirds, Yellow For Moths 
Science Daily - Oct 07 5:55 AM
Biologists at the University of California, San Diego have discovered that the future of red and yellow varieties of a San Diego wildflower may depend on the fates of two different animals. They report in the current issue of the Journal of Evolutionary Biology that monkeyflowers have two different animal pollinators. The red form, common along the coast, is strongly preferred by hummingbirds,