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Study Links Receptor To Stress-induced Alcohol Relapse 

Science Daily - Oct 09 5:53 AM
Relapse to uncontrolled drinking after periods of sobriety is a defining characteristic of alcoholism. Relapse is often triggered by stress and is influenced by genetic factors. This study used rats bred for high alcohol intake. It demonstrates that the Crhr1 receptor genotype mediates stress-induced alcohol-seeking. Blocking this receptor prevented stress-induced drinking, and thus provides a

Flavorful cooking with or without alcohol 
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel - Oct 06 4:34 PM
Alcohol consumption among human beings has a long history. The earliest consumption of wine has been traced to...

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Auditions for the Ferndale Talent Revue are at 6 p.m. today and Tuesday in the Ferndale High School auditorium, 5380 Golden Eagle Drive. Acts should be three to four minutes long. Come prepared with costumes, props, and music with accompaniment. Background music without vocals is OK.

Researchers Uncover Critical Player In Cell Communication 
Science Daily - Oct 06 8:55 AM
Johns Hopkins researchers have teased out the function of a protein implicated in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a rare cognitive disorder associated with overly social behavior and lack of spatial awareness. Called TFII-I, or TF "two eye," the protein long known to help control a cell's genes also controls how much calcium a cell takes in, a function critical for all cells, including nerves in the

fetal alchol syndrome

 

 

- characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome

- fetal alcohol syndrome

A baby boy with FAS.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes a spectrum of permanent fetal alchol syndrome and often devastating birth-defect syndromes caused by maternal consumption of fetal alcohol syndrom alcohol during pregnancy. The main effect of fetal alcohol exposure is brain damage. fetal alcohol syndrone This can be caused during any trimester, because the fetus's brain fetal alcohol symdrome continues to develop throughout the entire pregnancy. The brain damage is often accompanied fetal alcohal syndrome by, and reflected in, distinctive facial stigmata, as seen in the photograph on the right.

There are a number of subtypes, including full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), fetal alcohol sndrome and the fetal alcohol sydrome less noticeable, but sometimes equally serious, possible fetal alcohol effects (PFAE). The latter is also known as fetal alcoholsyndrome prenatal exposure to alcohol (PEA) or fetal acohol syndrome alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND).

Features of FASD may include facial deformities, stunted physical and emotional development, memory and ftal alcohol syndrome attention deficits, a tendency to impulsive behavior, inability to reason from cause to effect, a fetal alcohl syndrome failure to comprehend the concept of time, difficulty telling fetal alcohol stndrome fantasy from reality, inability to control sexual impulses, and an apparent lack of remorse. Secondary disabilities such as mental illness fatal alcohol syndrome and drug addiction are also likely to fetal alcohol syndome develop. Unlike the primary disabilities, these do not reflect the central fetal alcahol syndrome nervous system damage, but instead develop because the child has difficulty adapting fetal alcohol syndrome to his environment.

Fetal alcohol exposure is regarded by researchers as the leading known cause of mental retardation characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome in the Western world. [1] In the United States alone, it is estimated that, every year, effects of fetal alcohol syndrome one in 750 babies born suffers from FAS, and 40,000 from fetal alcohol syndrome pictures PFAE. [2] The lifetime medical and welfare costs of each child are educating children with fetal alcohol syndrome estimated by some to be as high as US$5 million.[3]

Contents

  • 1 Naming power point slides on fetal alcohol syndrome adhd alcohol fetal research syndrome of the syndrome
  • 2 Brain damage and facial defects
  • 3 Diagnostic criteria
  • 4 When the alcohol fetal syndrome brain damage occurs
  • 5 Other treatment for fetal alcohol syndrome physical effects
  • 6 Prevention
  • 7 Notes
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further fetal alcohol syndrome and educating the child reading

Naming of the syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome was named in 1973 by two dysmorphologists, online journals on fetal alcohol syndrome Kenneth Lyons Jones and David W. Smith of the University of Washington pictures of kids with fetal alcohol syndrome Medical School in Seattle. They identified symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome a pattern of "craniofacial, limb, and cardiovascular defects associated with tips for parents of children with fetal alcohol syndrome prenatal onset growth deficiency and developmental delay" in eight unrelated children of three treatment of fetal alcohol syndrome ethnic groups, all born to mothers who were alcoholics. [4] The pattern of malformations indicated that the damage was prenatal. News child with fetal alcohol syndrome of the discovery was "shocking, and fetal alcohol syndrome babies met at first with disbelief." [5]

Dr. Paul Lemoine of Nantes, France had fetal alcohol syndrome journals already published a study in a French accupuncture can help fetal alcohol syndrome medical journal in 1968 about children with distinctive features whose mothers were alcoholics, [6] and in the U.S., facts about fetal alcohol syndrome Christy Ulleland and colleagues at the University of Washington Medical School photos of fetal alcohol syndrome [7] had conducted an 18-month study in 1968-1969 documenting what is fetal alcohol syndrome the risk of maternal alcohol consumption among the offspring of diagnosis for fetal alcohol syndrome 11 alcoholic mothers. The Washington and Nantes findings were confirmed by a research group in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1979. diagnosis of fetal alcohol effect and fetal alcohol syndrome [8]

Researchers in France, Sweden, and the United States were struck by how fetal alcohol syndrome & impulse contro disorders similar these children looked, though they were not related, and how they behaved fetal alcohol syndrome and children in the same unfocused and hyperactive manner. [8]

Within four years of the Washington fetal alcohol syndrome article national geographic magazine discovery, animal studies, including non-human primate fetal alcohol syndrome psa studies carried out at the University of Washington Primate Center by Dr Sterling Clarren, had confirmed that alcohol was a teratogen. pictures of children with fetal alcohol syndrome By 1978, 245 cases of FAS had been reported by medical researchers, and three sources of fetal alcohol syndrome the syndrome began to be described alternative medicine helps fetal alcohol syndrome as the most frequent known cause of mental retardation.

Brain damage and facial defects

A newborn baby with FAS. The photograph deafness, fetal alcohol syndrome is from the clinic of Dr. Jon Aase, University of New Mexico. [1]
fetal alcohol syndrome and learning
A thin upper lip and a smooth philtrum are signs of fetal alcohol syndrome chat rooms FAS. Photograph from the University of picture gallery of fetal alcohol syndrome Washington FAS DPN website. [2]

Craniofacial abnormalities are visible in children with FAS, though not in children with FAE. Generally, children with FAS have piictures of fetal alcohol syndrome babies a smaller head circumference and low students with fetal alcohol syndrome birth weight, and they may fail to thrive. Their facial features are distinctive and teenagers with fetal alcohol syndrome diagnostically significant, in that they are a sign of brain damage, although there may dealing with fetal alcohol syndrome be brain damage without the visible facial effects.

Common findings are mild to moderate microcephaly; small effect of fetal alcohol syndrome palpebral fissure lengths (palpebral fissures are the opening of the fetal alcohol syndrome and photo eyelids, measured from between the exocanthion and endocanthion of each eye); a fetal alcohol syndrome and statistics thin upper lip; smooth philtrum (the vertical "divot" or fetal alcohol syndrome and the brain groove between the nose and upper lip); flattened cheekbones; and a short nose. [9]

Sterling Clarren of the University fetal alcohol syndrome cdc of Washington's Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit told a conference in 2002:

I have fetal alcohol syndrome egg never seen anybody with this whole face who doesn't have some brain damage. In fact in studies, as fetal alcohol syndrome in pre-schoolers george bush fetal alcohol syndrome the face is more FAS-like, the brain is more likely to be abnormal. The only face that you would want to counsel people or predict the pictures of fetal alcohol syndrome victims signs of fetal alcohol syndrome future about is the full FAS face. But the risk of brain damage increases as the eyes get smaller, as the treatments for fetal alcohol syndrome philtrum gets flatter, and the lip gets thinner. The risk working with fetal alcohol syndrome goes up but not the diagnosis.

At one-month gestation, the top end accupuncture helps fetal alcohol syndrome of your body is a brain, and at the very front end of that early brain, there is articles on fetal alcohol syndrome tissue that has been brain tissue. It stops being brain and gets ready to be your biochemistry causes of fetal alcohol syndrome face ... Your eyeball is also brain tissue. It's an extension of dvd on fetal alcohol syndrome the second part of the fetal alcohol syndrome & growth hormone therapy brain. It started as brain and "popped out." So if you are going to look at parts fetal alcohol syndrome 0-12m months of the brain from alcohol damage, or any kind of damage during pregnancy, eye malformations and midline facial malformations are fetal alcohol syndrome and assistive technology going to be very actively related to the brain across syndromes ... fetal alcohol syndrome and punishment and they certainly fetal alcohol syndrome and symptoms and diagnosis are with FAS. [4]

As of 2002, there were 25 reports of autopsies on babies fetal alcohol syndrome canada known to have been suffering from FASD. The first was in 1973 on a baby who died shortly after birth. [4] The fetal alcohol syndrome care and treatment examination revealed extensive brain damage, including microcephaly, fetal alcohol syndrome education migration anomalies, callosal dysgenesis, and fetal alcohol syndrome education lessons a massive neuroglial, leptomeningeal heterotopia covering the left hemisphere. [10]

Sterling Clarren described a second baby born in 1977, whose mother fetal alcohol syndrome effects of teratogen was a binge drinker. The baby died ten days after birth. The autopsy showed fetal alcohol syndrome foster care rates severe hydrocephalus, abnormal neuronal migration, and a small corpus callosum (which connects the two hemispheres) fetal alcohol syndrome policies and cerebellum fetus with fetal alcohol syndrome (ibid).

Since then, FASD has also been linked to brainstem and cerebellar changes, agenesis of the how to teach a child with fetal alcohol syndrome corpus callosum and anterior commissure, migration errors, absent olfactory bulbs, meningomyelocele, and porencephaly (ibid, p. 11).

Diagnostic criteria

Although clinicians agree on the definition of full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome, there is no agreement parasomnia and fetal alcohol syndrome on the clinical criteria or names for lesser forms of it. This has picture of fetal alcohol syndrome led to some confusion for clinicians and patients. The following definitions are used in picture people with fetal alcohol syndrome look like the clinic of Dr. Sterling Clarren (Clarren in Streissguth and Kanter 2002, p. 46):

  • FAS with pictures of fetal alcohol syndrome a confirmed history of fetal prebirth testing for fetal alcohol syndrome alcohol exposure

The definition of FAS is much the same as when the syndrome teaching children with fetal alcohol syndrome was first named. Diagnostic criteria include growth deficiency, the characteristic set of facial anomalies described above, and evidence of organic testing for fetal alcohol syndrome brain damage including structural, neurological, or testing for fetal alcohol syndrome in arizona and nevada functional stigmata.

  • FAS without a confirmed history of fetal alcohol exposure

Clarren writes that traits of fetal alcohol syndrome he has never seen a patient with the same findings as above who has confirmed negative for prenatal alcohol exposure. However, treatment program for fetal alcohol syndrome his treatments of fetal alcohol syndrome clinic does see patients who fit the diagnosis for whom no early history is available. Prenatal exposure is therefore not regarded as what do people with fetal alcohol syndrome look like part of the diagnostic criteria, what fetal alcohol syndrome children look like but will tend only to confirm it.

  • Atypical FAS or Possible FAS (PFAS)

These patients have almost all the findings, and a what part of the boody does fetal alcohol syndrome affect confirmed history of alcohol exposure, but may lack growth deficiency or the what people with fetal alcohol syndrome look like full facial stigmata.

  • Fetal alcohol effect (FAE), possible fetal alcohol effect (PFAE)

This term was used in research studies to describe humans and animals in whom teratogenic effects were seen after confirmed fetal alcohol exposure, but without obvious physical anomalies (Clarren and Smith 1978). Because alcohol could not be regarded with certainty as the only cause of the effects, the term "possible fetal alcohol effects" was proposed for clinical use. This term has fallen out of favor with clinicians because it was being regarded by the public as a final diagnosis rather than a tentative one, and because it seemed to overstate the relationship between the possible cause and the perceived effects.

  • Alcohol-related birth defect

This was proposed as an alternative to FAE and PFAE, but it has fallen out of favor, according to Clarren.

  • Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder

This was suggested by Stratton, Howe, and Battaglia in 1996 to replace FAE and PFAE, but Clarren regards the term as begging the question regarding the extent to which alcohol may have played a role, when the damage in some patients is minimal and hard to evaluate in terms of causation.

When the brain damage occurs

The image on the left shows the brain of a six-week-old; on the right, the brain of a baby the same age with FAS. [3] The photograph is from the clinic of Dr. Sterling Clarren of the University of Washington, Seattle.

During the first trimester, according to Sterling Clarren and Ann Streissguth of the University of Washington, alcohol interferes with the migration and organization of brain cells (Journal of Pediatrics, 92(1):64-67).

Most of the clinical features of FAS (the facial and other visible deformities) are believed to be caused mainly during the 10th and 20th week (Early Human Development; 1983 Jul Vol. 8(2) 99-111).

During the third trimester, damage can be caused to the hippocampus, which plays a role in memory, learning, and emotion, leading to difficulty encoding visual and auditory information (Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 13:357-367, 1991). [5]

Other physical effects

  • Growth — Pre- and postnatal onset growth retardation.
  • Performance — The I.Q. may be in the region of 63, though this depends on the severity of the condition. Poor eye-hand coordination. Fine motor dysfunction manifested by a weak grasp.
  • Skeletal — Joint anomalies including abnormal position and function, altered palmar crease patterns. Small distal phalanges and small fifth fingernails.
  • Cardiac — A heart murmur that frequently disappears by one year of age. Ventricular septal defect most commonly seen, followed by an atrial septal defect.
  • Occasional abnormalities — Ptosis of the eyelid. Microophthalmia, cleft lip with or without a cleft palate, webbed neck, short neck, Tetralogy of Fallot, coarctation of the aorta, Spina bifida, and hydrocephalus.

Prevention

Alcohol is a teratogen, and the only certain way to prevent FASD is to avoid drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Some studies have shown that small amounts of alcohol during pregnancy might not pose a risk to the fetus (for example, Abel, 1996; Day, 1992; du Florey et al., 1992; Forrest and du Florey, 1991; Goodlett and Peterson, 1995; Polygenis et al., 1998; Streissguth et al., 1994; Wilkie, 1997), although no amount of alcohol during pregnancy can be guaranteed to be absolutely safe. In the United States, the Surgeon General recommended in 1981 that women not drink while pregnant or while planning a pregnancy, the latter to avoid damage in the earliest stages of a pregnancy while the woman may not be aware that she has conceived. Congress passed legislation in 1989 that requires warning labels be placed on all alcoholic beverage containers.

Notes

  1. ^ Abel, E.L., & Sokel, R.J. (1987). "Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of FAS-related anomalies: Drug alcohol syndrome and economic impact of FAS-related anomalies." Drug and Alcohol Dependency, 19(1), 51-70.
  2. ^ "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome", Kid's Health, Nemours Foundation
  3. ^ Whose baby is this?
  4. ^ a b Jones K.L., Smith D.W, Ulleland CN, Streissguth AP. (1973) "Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers. Lancet 1:1267-1271, p. 1267.
  5. ^ Streissguth in Streissguth, A. and Kanter, J. The Challenge in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Overcoming Secondary Disabilities. First published in 1997; this edition 2002.
  6. ^ Lemoine et al in Streissguth, A. and Kanter, J. The Challenge in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Overcoming Secondary Disabilities, 2002, pp 15 and 25.
  7. ^ Ulleland et al, 1970; Ulleland 1972
  8. ^ a b Olegard, R., Sabel, K.G., Aronsson, M. Sandin, B., Johannsson, P.R., Carlsson, C., Kyllerman, M., Iversen, K. & Hrbek, A. (1979). "Effects on the child of alcohol abuse during pregnancy". Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 275, 112-121
  9. ^ Aase, Jon M. "Clinical Recognition of FAS:Difficulties of Detection and Diagnosis", University of New Mexico, July 1, 2005.
  10. ^ Mattson, Sarah N. & Riley, Edward P. "Neurobehavioral and Neuroanatomical Effects of Heavy Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol," in Streissguth and Kantor, 2002, p. 10.

References

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Diagnostic & Prevention Network (FAS DPN)
  • Well.com FAS Fact Sheet
  • FAQ on FAS from National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Dr Sterling Clarren's keynote address on FASD, Prairie Northern Conference on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Yukon 2002
  • FASD in CanadaLakeland Centre for FASD, Alberta Canada
  • "Whose baby is this?" FAS Community Resource Center
  • Abel, E.L., & Sokel, R.J. (1987). "Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of FAS-related anomalies: Drug alcohol syndrome and economic impact of FAS-related anomalies." Drug and Alcohol Dependency, 19(1), 51-70.
  • Aase, Jon M. "Clinical Recognition of FAS:Difficulties of Detection and Diagnosis", University of New Mexico, July 1, 2005; retrieved August 10, 2006.
  • Astley, S.J. (2004) "Fetal alcohol syndrome prevention in Washington State: Evidence of Success". Paediatric and Perintal Epidemiology, 18L344-351.
  • Astley, S.J. and Clarren, S.K. "Measuring the facial phenotype of individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure: correlations with brain dysfunction", Alcohol & Alcoholism, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp.147-159, 2001.
  • Astley, S.J. and Clarren, S.K.(2000) "Diagnosing the full spectrum of fetal alcohol expsoed individuals: Introducing the 4-Digit Diagnostic Code. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 35(4): 400-410.
  • Clarren, S.K. (1979). "Central nervous system malformations in two offspring of alcoholic women". Birth Defects, 13, 151-153.
  • Grant TM, Ernst CC, Streissguth AP. (1996) "An intervention with high-risk mothers who abuse alcohol and drugs: the Seattle avocacy model. Am J Public Health 86:1816-1817.
  • Jones K.L., Smith D.W, Ulleland CN, Streissguth AP. (1973) "Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers. Lancet 1:1267-1271.
  • Mattson, Sarah N. & Riley, Edward P. "Neurobehavioral and Neuroanatomical Effects of Heavy Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol," in Streissguth, A. and Kanter, J. The Challenge in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Overcoming Secondary Disabilities. First published in 1997; this edition 2002, p.10. ISBN 0-295-97650-0
  • Olegard, R., Sabel, K.G., Aronsson, M. Sandin, B., Johannsson, P.R., Carlsson, C., Kyllerman, M., Iversen, K. & Hrbek, A. (1979). "Effects on the child of alcohol abuse during pregnancy". Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 275, 112-121
  • Ulleland CN. (1972) The offspring of alcoholic mother. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, 197;167-169.
  • Ulleland CN, Wennberg RP, Igo RP, Smith NJ. (1970) The offspring of alcoholic mothers. Abstract. American Pediatric Society for Pediatric Research.

Further reading

  • Foetal Alcohol Syndrome Aware UK, retrieved August 10, 2006.
  • Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit, retrieved August 10, 2006.
  • Iceberg—a quarterly international educational newsletter on FASD, retrieved August 10, 2006.
  • "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Everything you need to know about Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders", FAS Community Resource Center, retrieved January 21, 2006.
  • "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome" website of David J. Hanson formerly of the State University of New York.
  • Abel, E. "'Moderate' drinking during pregnancy: cause for concern?" Clinica Chimica Acta, 1996, 246, 149-154.
  • Clarren, S.K. (1979). "Central nervous system malformations in two offspring of alcoholic women". Birth Defects, 13, 151-153.
  • Day, N. L. The effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Alcohol Health and Research World, 1992, 16(2), 328-244.
  • du Florey, D., et al. "A European concerted action: maternal alcohol consumption and its relation to the outcome of pregnancy and development at 18 months," International Journal of Epidemiology, 1992, 21 (Supplement #1).
  • Forrest, F., and du Florey, C. "Reported social alcohol consumption during pregnancy and infants' development at 18 months," British Medical Journal, 1991, 303, 22-26.
  • Goodlett, C. R., and Peterson, S. D. "Sex differences in vulnerability to developmental spatial learning deficits induced by limited binge alcohol exposure in neonatal rats," Neurobiological Learning and Memory, 1995, 64(3), 265-275.
  • Polygenis, D., et al. "Moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the incidence of fetal malformations: a meta-analysis," Neurotoxicol Teralol., 1998, 20, 61-67.
  • Stratton, K., Howe, C., and Battaglia, F. (eds.) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.
  • Streissguth, A. P., et al. "Prenatal alcohol and offspring development: the first fourteen years," Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 1994, 36(2), 89-99.
  • Wilkie, S. "Global overview of drinking recommendations and guidelines," AIM Digest (Supplement), June 1997, 2-4, p. 4.
  • Singer, Songwriter, Actor Paul Williams has set up a page with information and links about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
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