Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence of a newborn infant from its mother's uterus.
A woman is girth considered brith to be in labour when she begins experiencing regular, strong uterine contractions, accompanied by changes of her cervix — primarily effacement and barth dilation. While childbirth is widely experienced as painful, some women bith do report painless labours. When the baby birht is born its birth weight is determined.
- 1 The natural birth
- 1.1 First stage: borth contractions
- 1.2 Second birt stage
- 1.3 Third stage: placenta
- 1.4 After birh the birth
- 2 Variations
- 3 Pain
- 3.1 Non-medical pain control
- 3.2 Medical bitrh pain control
- 4 Complications and risks of birty birth
- 5 Professions associated with childbirth
- 6 Social aspects
- 7 Legal aspects
- 8 Psychological dirth aspects
- 9 Partner and brth other support
- 10 Well known authors on childbirth
- 11 References
- 12 External links
- 13 See birth also
The natural birth
Newborn with umbilical cord still attached woman giving birth after a water birth
First stage: contractions
A typical human childbirth will begin with the onset of contractions child birth of the uterus. The frequency and duration vaginal birth of these contractions varies with the individual. The onset birth announcement of labour may be sudden or gradual, and is defined as regular uterine activity in the presence birth control of cervical dilatation.
During a contraction the long muscles of the uterus contract, starting at the top of the uterus birth certificates and working their way down to the bottom. At the birth announcements end of the contraction, the muscles relax to a state shorter than birth control pills at the beginning of birth certificate the contraction. This draws the cervix up over the baby's head. Each contraction dilates the cervix until it becomes completely dilated, often referred to as 10+ iud birth control cm (4") in diameter.
A gradual home birth onset with slow cervical change towards 3 cm (just over 1 inch) dilation is referred to as the "latent phase". A natural birth woman is said to birth control methods be in "active labour" when contractions have become regular in frequency (3-4 birth control pill in 10 minutes) and about 60 seconds in duration. The now powerful contractions are accompanied by cervical effacement and dilation greater birth control options than 3 water birth cm. The labour may begin with a rupture of the amniotic sac, the paired amnion and live birth chorion ("breaking of the water"). The contractions will accelerate in frequency and strengthen. In the "transition phase" from 8 cm–10 cm (3 birth control patch or 4 inches) of dilation, the contractions often come every two natural birth control minutes are typically lasting 70–90 seconds. Transition is often regarded as the most challenging birth control shot and intense birth control cost for the mother. It is also the shortest phase.
During this stage, the expectant mother typically goes through several emotional phases. birth control side effects At first, the mother may be excited and nervous. Then, as the contractions become stronger, demanding more energy cost of birth control from the buy birth control online mother, mothers generally become more serious and focused. However, as the cervix women giving birth finishes its dilation, some mothers experience confusion or bouts of self-doubt or giving up.
The duration birth control ring of labour varies widely, but averages some 13 hours for women giving birth to their first child ("primiparae") and 8 birth control pill side effects hours for women who have already given birth.
If there birth control prices is a significant medical risk to continuing the pregnancy, induction may be necessary. As this carries some risk, it is only buy birth control done if free birth records the child or the mother are in danger from prolonged pregnancy. Forty-two weeks' gestation without spontaneous new birth control labour is often said to be an indication for induction although evidence does not show improved birth control statistics outcomes when labour is induced for female birth control post-term pregnancies. Inducing labour increases the risk of cesarean section and uterine rupture in mothers that have had a previous cesarean section.
In the weight gain birth control second stage of labour, the baby is expelled from the methods of birth control womb through the vagina by both the uterine contractions and by birth stones the additional maternal efforts of "bearing down," which many women describe as similar in sensation to birth defects straining to expel a large bowel movement. The imminence birth control diaphragm of this stage can be evaluated by the Malinas birth control types score. The Lamaze Method is used about 95% of the time in the United States for a normal childbirth, followed by birth control information the Read Method and LeBoyer Method.
The baby is most safe birth control commonly born head-first. In some cases the baby is "breech" meaning either the feet or birth control comparison buttocks are descending first. Babies in the breech position can be delivered vaginally by a effective birth control midwife, though in some areas finding an experienced willing attendant can be difficult.
There are brands of birth control type of birth control several types of breech presentations, but the most common is where the baby's buttocks are delivered first and the legs are folded kinds of birth control onto the baby's body with the knees bent and feet near the buttocks (full or breech). giving birth video clips Others include frank breech, much chinese birth chart like full breech but the babies legs are extended toward his ears, and footling or incomplete breech, birth control patch side effects in which one or both legs are extended and the foot or feet are vaginal birth video clips the presenting part. Another rare hormone free birth control presentation is a transverse lie. This is where the baby is sideways in the womb and a hand or elbow free birth records online has entered the birth canal first. While photo birth announcements babies who present transverse will often move to a different position, birth stories this is not always the case and a cesarean birth then becomes necessary.
A newborn baby see a women giving birth with umbilical cord ready to be video woman giving birth clamped
The length of the second stage varies and is affected by whether birth order a woman has given birth before, the position she is in and mobility. The length of birth crowning the second stage should be guided by the condition of the fetus and health of the mother. baby birth Problems may be encountered at this birth video stage due to reasons such as maternal exhaustion, the front of the baby's head facing forwards instead of backwards copy of birth certificate (posterior baby), or extremely rarely, because the baby's head does not fit properly into the mother's pelvis (Cephalo-Pelvic Disproportion chinese birth calendar (CPD)). True CPD is typically seen in women with giving birth video rickets and bone deforming illnesses or injuries, as well as arbitrary time birth signs limits placed on second stage by caregivers or medical facilities.
Immediately after birth, the child undergoes extensive physiological pregnancy birth modifications as it acclimatizes to independent breathing. Several birth videos cardiovascular structures start regressing soon after birth, such as women giving birth video clips the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale. In some cultures, the father cuts the umbilical cord and the infant is hospital birth given a lukewarm bath birth of venus to remove blood and some of the vernix on its skin before being handed back to its parents.
The practice of underwater birth leaving the umbilical cord to detach naturally is known as a Lotus Birth.
The medical birth control questions condition of the child is assessed with the Apgar score, based on five partial birth abortion parameters: heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, skin color, and birth diaries response to stimuli. Apgar scores are typically assessed at both 1 and 5 minutes after crowning birth birth.
Third stage: placenta
Breastfeeding during and after the third minnesota birth injury lawyer stage
In this stage, the uterus expels the placenta (afterbirth). Breastfeeding birth pictures the baby will help to cause this. The mother normally loses birth photos less than 500 mL of blood. Blood loss will be greater if the umbilical cord is used child birth video to tug on the placenta. It is essential that the placenta be examined to ensure that california birth certificate it was expelled whole. Remaining parts can cause postpartum bleeding or infection.
After the push birth birth
Medical professionals typically free birth certificates recommend breastfeeding of the first milk, colostrum, to reduce postpartum bleeding/hemorrhage in the mother, and to pass immunities and other benefits to multiple births the baby.
Parents usually assign the infant its given birth injuries names soon after birth.
Often people visit and bring a gift for florida birth injury attorney the baby.
Many cultures feature initiation rites for newborns, such as naming ceremonies, baptism, and others.
Mothers are often allowed a babymoon pregnant birth period where they are vaginal birth pictures relieved of their normal duties to recover from childbirth and establish breastfeeding with their babies. Length of this birth injury period varies. In China this is 30 days and is referred to as "doing the month" (see Postpartum period).
When the amniotic sac has not birth push ruptured during labour or pushing, the infant can birth stone charms be born with the membranes intact. This is referred to as births "being born in the caul." The caul is harmless and its membranes are florida birth injury lawyer easily broken and wiped away by the doctor or midwife assisting with the childbirth. In pushing birth medieval times, and in some cultures still today, a caul was seen as a sign of good fortune for the baby, vaginal births in some cultures was seen as protection against drowning. The caul was birth stone often impressed onto paper birth dates and stored away as an heirloom for the child. With the advent of modern interventive obstetrics, watch a women give birth premature artificial rupture of the membranes has become common, so babies are rarely born in the caul.
The amounts of pain experienced birth stone charm by women during childbirth varies. For some women, the perceived actual child birth video pain is intense and agonizing; for other women human birth there is little to no perceived pain. Many factors affect pain perception; fear, number of previous videos of people giving birth births, fetal presentation, cultural ideas of childbirth, birthing position, support types of birth control given during labor, beta-endorphin levels, and a woman's natural video clips of women giving birth pain threshold. Uterine contractions are always intense during childbirth, some women report these sensations as painful though the degree of pain varies from individual to birth control effectiveness individual and there are even some women who find them pleasurable.
Non-medical pain birth control pills side effects control
Some women believe that reliance on analgesic medication free public birth records is unnatural, or worry that it may harm the video clips of vaginal births child, but are still very concerned about labour pain. To alleviate baby birth announcements pain, they may undergo psychological preparation, education, massage, hypnosis, water therapy in birth pushing photos a tub or shower. Some women like to have someone to support fake birth certificates them during labour and birth; often female family members such as her mother, the birth of venus a sister, the father of the baby, a close friend, a partner or a trained professional doula. unassisted birth Some women deliver in a squatting or crawling position in order to more effectively push during the second stage and so birth footage that gravity can aid the descent of the male birth control baby through the birth canal.
The human body also has its own method of pain natural child birth control for labour and childbirth in the form of beta-endorphins. As a naturally occurring yaz birth control opiate, beta-endorphin has properties similar to pethidine, morphine, and heroin, and has been shown birth control pill information to work on the same online birth videos receptors of the brain.  Like oxytocin, beta-endorphin is secreted from the pituitary gland, and high levels birth defect are present during sex, pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding. birth of a child video This hormone can induce feelings of pleasure and euphoria during childbirth.
Water births dogs giving birth are being increasingly chosen by many women as an option for pain relief during labour and childbirth, and unassisted home births waterbirth has been proven in many trials to canadien birth certificates be not only a safe option for mother and baby, but in many cases show birth and death records a reduction in the need for further analgesia, and a higher rate of birth control computer birth 'without injuries'  Many hospitals and vaginal births video birthing centres now offer women the option of waterbirth, either via custom-made 'birthing pools' or large bath tubs, and birth of jesus have policies to safeguard their use.
Medical pain control
In Europe, doctors commonly prescribe inhaled nitrous oxide free date of birth search gas for pain texas birth records control; in the UK, midwives may use this gas without a doctor's prescription. Pethidine (with or birth parents without promethazine) may be used early in labour, as well as birth ball other opioids, but if given too close to birth there is a risk of respiratory depression in the infant.
Popular medical birth chart pain control in hospitals include the regional anesthetics epidural blocks, and spinal anaesthesia. Doctors birth in water favor the epidural block because medication does birth injury lawyer new york personal injury attorney new not enter the mother's circulatory system, thus it does not cross the placenta and enter the bloodstream of california birth certificates the fetus. Studies however suggest that epidural use can lengthen the labour, and labor and birth may compromise breastfeeding success .
Different measures for pain control have varying degrees of success and side effects pictures of women actually giving birth to new birth mother and baby. Administration must be carefully timed. For example, an epidural block given too early in labour can stop or slow labour, and given photos of a vaginal birth too late child birth videos in labour can hinder maternal efforts to push out the baby. These risks ohio birth records should be balanced against the fact that childbirth can be extremely painful, birth delivery and anesthetics are an effective and usually safe pain treatment.
Complications and risks of birth
Problems that occur during birth flowers childbirth are called complications. They can affect the california birth records mother or the baby. Sometimes they cause injury or even death. Doctors and midwives are trained to deal with these canadian birth certificate problems should they occur.
Infant deaths (neonatal deaths from birth parent search birth to 28 days, or perinatal deaths if including fetal deaths at 28 weeks gestation and later) are around 1% in birth plan modernized countries. The risk of maternal death during birth pushing childbirth in developed nations is comparatively low; only about 1 in 1800 mothers birth video online die in childbirth (only 1 in 3700 in North America). In the Third World, breech birth it is a much riskier proposition: neonatal deaths rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are more illinois birth injury attorney than 3.7%, and on average 1 in 48 women die during baby birth announcement childbirth. The "natural" mortality missouri birth injury attorney rate of childbirth—where nothing is done to avert maternal death—has been water births estimated as being between 1,000 and 1,500 deaths per 100,000 births. (See main article: cow birth neonatal death, maternal death)
The most important factors affecting mortality in childbirth are adequate nutrition and access to quality medical dog birth care ("access" is affected both by plan b birth control the cost of available care, and distance from birth date search health services). "Medical care" in this context does not refer specifically to treatment in hospitals, but simply the presence of an attendant birth pics with midwifery skills. A 1983-1989 study by the Texas Department date of birth of Health revealed that the infant death rate was 0.57% for free birth control doctor-attended births, and 0.19% for births attended by non-nurse midwives. Conversely, some studies demonstrate a higher perinatal mortality rate with assisted free video of women giving birth home births. It is generally accepted that in developed countries, properly assisted home premature birth births carry no greater risks than hospital birth for low-risk pregnancies. Around 80% of texas birth certificate pregnancies are low-risk. Factors that may make a birth high risk include prematurity, high blood pressure, diabetes and previous cesarean section.
One of birth of a nation the most dangerous risks to the fetus is that of premature birth, and florida birth injury attorneys its associated low neonatal live child birth weight. The more premature (or underweight) a baby is, the greater the risks for neonatal death and for pulmonary, respiratory, neurological or other low birth weight sequelae. About 12% of all infants born in the United States michigan birth certificate are born prematurely. In the past 25 baby announcements photo birth holiday cards years, medical technology has greatly improved the chances of survival birth injury lawyer of premature infants in industrialized nations. In the 1950s and 1960s, approximately half of all low birth weight babies in the US died. birth video clips Today, more than 90% survive. The first hours of life for "premies" are critical, compare birth control pills especially the very first hour of internet live birth life. Rapid access to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is of paramount importance.
Some of the land of my birth possible complications are:
- Heavy bleeding during or after childbirth, genetic birth defects which is the most common cause of mortality in new mothers, in both maine birth injury lawyer developed and undeveloped nations. Heavy blood loss leads to south carolina birth injury lawyer hypovolemic shock, insufficient perfusion of vital organs and death if not rapidly treated by stemming the blood loss (medically with ergometrine and texas birth injury attorney pitocin or surgically) and blood transfusion. Hypopituitarism after obstetric hypovolemic shock is termed Sheehan's syndrome.
- Non-progression of virginia birth certificate labour (longterm contractions without adequate cervical dilation) is generally treated with intravenous synthetic washington birth injury attorney oxytocin preparations. If this is ineffective, Caesarean section may birth injury attorney be necessary. Changes in maternal position is effective california birth injury lawyer in many cases.
- Fetal distress is the development of signs of distress by michigan birth injury lawyer the child. These may include rising or decreasing heartbeat (monitored on pregnant giving birth cardiotocography/CTG), shedding of meconium in the amniotic fluid, and other signs.
- Non-progression of expulsion (the texas birth injury lawyer head or presenting parts are not delivered despite adequate contractions): this can require interventions such as vacuum extraction, forceps extraction alabama birth injury lawyer or Caesarean section.
- In the past, a birth deformities large proportion of women died from infection puerperal fever, but since the introduction of basic hygiene during parturition by Ignaz Semmelweis, this number free birth chart has fallen pictures of women giving birth precipitously.
- Lacerations can be painful. An episiotomy is occasionally necessary to avoid tears involving the anal sphincter, but its routine south carolina birth injury attorney use—once normal—has now been shown to be harmful.
Professions associated with childbirth
Midwives are experts in types of birth control pills normal birth. Midwives believe that childbirth arizona birth injury attorney is a normal process that is best accomplished with as little interference as possible. Midwives are trained to birth trauma lawyer assist at births, either through direct-entry or nurse-midwifery programs. Lay midwives typically train in apprenticeship programs with experienced colorado birth injury attorney midwives.
Obstetricians are florida birth injury lawyers experts in dealing with abnormal births and pathological labour conditions, though they sometimes attend normal births missouri birth injury lawyer as a precautionary measure. Obstetricians in most countries are new jersey birth injury lawyer trained as surgeons, so they can undertake surgical procedures relating to childbirth. Such procedures include caesarean sections, episiotomies, or emergency hysterectomies. Obstetricians' tendency to intervene surgically ohio birth injury lawyer california birth injury attorney to overcome complications has led to criticism that they perform surgery too readily. In the United States, obstetric pennsylvania birth injury lawyer malpractice settlements are typically very large, so obstetricians argue alabama birth injury attorney that they are forced to intervene aggressively to limit their liability.
In the United States, a doctor who specializes in caring for women with pregnancy birth certificate, california complications is often referred to tennessee birth injury attorney as a maternal-fetal medicine sub-specialist.
Obstetric nurses assist doctors, mothers, and babies prior to, during, florida birth certificate and after the birth process. Some midwives are also obstetric nurses. Obstetric nurses free birth information in texas hold various certifications and typically undergo additional obstetric training in addition to standard nursing ladies giving birth training
Doulas are trained assistants who support mothers during pregnancy, labour, birth, and postpartum. They are birth announcement wording not medical attendants; rather, they provide emotional support and non-medical pain birth day relief for mothers during labour.
In most clips of women giving birth cultures, childbirth is considered to be the beginning of a person's life, and a person's age is georgia birth injury attorney defined relative to it.
Some families view the placenta as a special nebraska birth injury attorney part of birth, since it has been the child's life support for so many months. Some parents like new hampshire birth injury attorney to see and touch this mysterious organ. In some cultures, parents plant a arizona birth injury lawyer tree along with the placenta on the child's first birthday. The celebrity birth names placenta may be eaten by the newborn's family, ceremonially or otherwise
In some legal find birth parents jurisdictions, the place of childbirth decides the nationality of a child (under the free copies of birth certificates doctrine of Jus soli)
Childbirth can be a stressful event. As with any stressful event, strong emotions can be brought to the surface. Medicating the connecticut birth injury attorney mother against her labor pain is a widespread practice in delaware birth injury attorney hospitals. Intravenously-administered drugs — although not, as labor birth videos discussed above, epidurals — may reach the infant's bloodstream through the umbilical cord, with maryland birth injury attorney uncertain effects.
Some women report symptoms compatible with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after birth. Between minnesota birth injury attorney 70 and 80% of mothers in the United States report some feelings of sadness new york birth certificate or "baby blues" after childbirth. Postpartum depression may develop in some women; about 10% of mothers in the new york birth injury lawyer United States are diagnosed with tennessee birth injury lawyer PPD. Abnormal and persistent fear of childbirth is known as Tokophobia.
Preventative group therapy has proven effective birth control for men as a prophylactic treatment for postpartum depression.
There are cat birth some who argue that childbirth is stressful for the infant. Stresses associated with breech iowa birth injury lawyer birth, such as asphyxiation, may affect the infant's brain.
It is not known how the birth new jersey birth injury attorney experience affects the development of personality in the infant. new york birth injury attorney It was once thought that newborns do not have the capacity to feel pain or fear, and now some parents south dakota birth injury attorney are choosing alternative birth settings (other than the hospital) in an attempt washington birth injury lawyer to create a more comfortable environment not only for the newborn, but the birthing mother and other family members.
Partner and other support
There is increasing birth canal evidence to show that the participation of the woman's partner in the birth birth control pill comparison leads to better birth and birth flower also post-birth outcomes, providing the partner does not exhibit excessive anxiety. Research also colorado birth injury lawyer shows that when a labouring woman was supported by a female helper such as a free birth charts family member or doula during labour, she had less need for chemical pain relief, the likelihood of louisiana birth injury lawyer caesarean section was reduced, use of forceps and other maryland birth injury lawyer instrumental deliveries were reduced and there was a reduction in the length of labour and the baby had a montana birth injury lawyer higher Apgar south dakota birth injury lawyer score (Dellman 2004), (Vernon 2006).
Well known authors on childbirth
- Janet Balaskas
- Jeannine Parvati Baker
- Elizabeth Davis
- Ina May texas birth certificates Gaskin
- Sheila Kitzinger
- Frederick Leboyer
- Francesca Naish & Janette Roberts
- Michel Odent
- William Sears
- Miriam Stoppard
- David Vernon
- Erna Wright
- Robbie Davis-Floyd
- Dellman, Thomas, The Best arkansas birth injury attorney Moment of my Life - a literature review of fathers experience of childbirth, Australian birth of a baby Midwifery Journal, home water birth photos Australian College of Midwives, 2004 17(3) 20-26
- David Vernon, Men at Birth, Australian College of Midwives, 2006, ISBN 0-9751674-4-8
- ^ H iowa birth injury attorney H Loh, L F Tseng, E Wei, and C H Li Beta-endorphin is a potent analgesic kansas birth injury lawyer agent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 August; 73(8): 2895–2898.
- ^ M. nevada birth injury lawyer Brinsmead new hampshire birth injury lawyer et al., "Peripartum Concentrations of Beta Endorphin and Cortisol and Maternal Mood States," Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 25 (1985): 194-197
- ^ poodle birth a b World pregnancy and birth Health Organization 2005 World Health Report, Chapter 4: Risking Death To Give Life, The Greatest rhode island birth injury attorney Risks to Life are in its Beginning
- ^ Safer Motherhood Fact Sheet: Maternal utah birth injury attorney Mortality
- ^ Van Lerberghe W, De Brouwere V. Of blind alleys and things that have worked: history’s lessons on reducing maternal birth of mtv mortality. In: De Brouwere V, Van Lerberghe W, birth order characteristics eds. Safe motherhood strategies: a review of the evidence. Antwerp, ITG Press, 2001 (Studies in Health horse birth Services Organisation and Policy, 17:7–33).
- ^ Zlotnick live birth clip C, Johnson SL, Miller louisiana birth injury attorney IW, Pearlstein T, Howard M. Postpartum depression in women receiving public assistance: massachusetts birth injury attorney pilot study of an interpersonal-therapy-oriented group intervention, Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Apr;158(4):638-40. [PMID 11282702]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
- Lamaze International
- Birthing From Within ohio birth certificate Holistic Childbirth Preparation
- http://www.davis-floyd.com contains anthropological ohio birth injury attorney articles on birth, including "The Technocratic, Humanistic, and Holistic Models of Birth" and "Ritual in the Hospital: pennsylvania birth certificate Giving Birth the American Way."
- Stories of painless births (some nudity)
- Post childbirth discomforts and relief measures
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Categories: Articles to be expanded | new mexico birth injury lawyer Human development | Childbirth | Midwifery | Obstetrics | Pregnancy