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Friends for Life: An Emerging Biology of Emotional Healing 

New York Times - Oct 09 6:00 PM
Does human contact help people live longer?

For a Cause 
The Telegraph - Oct 07 2:25 PM
Join the walk organised by Nodal Association for the Mentally Ill from Vivekananda Park to Deshapriya Park, 9.30 am. Be there at a workshop on emotional intelligence for teenagers by behavioural counsellor Ragini Rao at Crossword, 10.30 am to 1.30 pm.

Week of 10/08/06 
The Times of Northwest Indiana - 1 hour, 39 minutes ago
1. "For One More Day" by Mitch Albom: A touching novel by the author of "Tuesdays with Morrie" that asks the question: What would you do if you could spend one more day with a loved one?

A search for true self 
The Telegraph - Oct 06 2:42 PM
A five-day interactive workshop on emotional intelligence for youngsters started at Crossword on October 4. The sessions are being conducted by Ragini Rao, a behavioural counsellor and certified transactional analyst (psychotherapy).

emotional inteligence

 

 

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- emotional intelligence

It has been suggested that Emotional intelligence tests be merged into this article or section. emotional inteligence (Discuss)

Emotional Intelligence, also called EI and often measured as an Emotional Intelligence Quotient or EQ, describes an ability, capacity, or emitional intelligence skill to perceive, assess, and manage the emtional intelligence emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. However, being a relatively new area, the definition emotinal intelligence of emotional intelligence is still in a state of flux. Some, such emotional intelligance as John D. Mayer (2005a) prefer to distinguish emotional knowledge from emotional intelligence, as discussed emotionalintelligence below.

In 1920, E. L. Thorndike, emotianal intelligence at Columbia University, (Thorndike 1920), used the term "social intelligence" to describe the skill emootional intelligence of getting along with other people. In 1975, Howard Gardner's The Shattered Mind, (Gardner emotional intelligence 1975) began the formulation of the idea for "Multiple Intelligences" (he identifies eight intelligences, later two more improve emotional intelligence are added), including both interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence. Many psychologists, such daniel goleman emotional intelligence as emotional intelligence test Gardner, believe that traditional measures of intelligence, such as the IQ test, fail to fully explain cognitive ability. what is emotional intelligence (Smith 2002)

The term "emotional intelligence" appears to have originated emotional intelligence and student retention with Wayne Payne (1985), but was popularized by Daniel Goleman (1995). Research on the concept originated with Peter Salovey and John "Jack" Mayer starting in the late 1980s. In 1990, developing emotional intelligence their seminal paper (1990) defined emotional intelligence depression anxiety the concept as an intelligence. Mayer and Salovey continue to research the concept. The term "emotional components emotional intelligence quotient" seems to have originated in an goleman emotional intelligence article by Keith Beasley (1987). There are numerous other emotional intelligence and the workplace assessments of emotional intelligence each advocating different models and measures.

Contents

  • 1 Defining examples of writing that have emotional intelligence emotional intelligence
  • 2 Emotional intelligence
  • 3 Measures emotional intelligence tests of Emotional Intelligence
    • 3.1 Self-report measures of EI
    • 3.2 Ability-based measures of EI
    • 3.3 Nancy free emotional intelligence surveys online Gibbs on emotional intelligence
  • 4 Criticisms
    • 4.1 Self-report teaching emotional intelligence EI merely another measure of calibrating emotional intelligence Personality?
    • 4.2 Self-report EI - Susceptibility to Faking Good
  • 5 References
  • 6 See five components of emotional intelligence by daniel goleman also
  • 7 External journal articles on emotional intelligence links

Defining emotional intelligence

The distinction between intelligence and knowledge in the area of cognition (i.e. IQ) is very clear, where generally, psychological emotional intelligence labelling in the work place research demonstrates that IQ is a reliable measure sample thesis and dissertation on emotional intelligence of cognitive capacity, and is stable over time. emotional intelligence at work group actor found In the area of emotion (i.e. EQ) that distinction between intelligence and knowledge emotional intelligence in the business world is murky. Current definitions of EQ are inconsistent about what it measures: some (such as Bradberry and Greaves 2005) say that EQ is dynamic, it can be learned or improving emotional intelligence increased; whereas others (such as Mayer) say that EQ is stable, and cannot be increased.

Emotional intelligence

Mayer and journal aricles of emotional intelligence Salovey and emotional intelligence

They suggested that the capacity to perceive and learned optimism emotional group actor found intelligence understand emotions define a new variable literature review on emotional intelligence in personality. The Mayer-Salovey model defines emotional intelligence as the emotional intelligence of transformational leaders: the capacity to understand emotional information and to reason with emotions. More specifically, they divide emotional intelligence using emotional intelligence in school curriculum abilities into four areas -- in their four branch model:

  1. The capacity to accurately perceive emotions.
  2. The capacity to use emotions to facilitate thinking.
  3. The capacity what is meant by emotional intelligence call centre and emotional intelligence to understand emotional meanings.
  4. The capacity to manage emotions.

Goleman's five emotional competencies

Extending Gardner's multiple intelligence, daniel golman's model of emotional intelligence Salovey proposed five categories when defining emotional intelligence. And Goleman(1995) adopted emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence Salovey's definition which divides emotional intelligence into the following five emotional competencies:

  1. The ability to identify and name one's emotional intelligence daniel goleman emotional states and to understand the link between emotions, thought and action.
  2. The capacity emotional intelligence impact of effectiveness school to manage one's emotional states — to control emotions or to emotional intelligence in the workplace shift undesirable emotional states to more adequate ones.
  3. The ability to enter into emotional emotional intelligences states (at will) associated with a drive to achieve and be successful.
  4. The capacity to read, be sensitive to, and influence emotional intelligences in educational leadership other people's emotions.
  5. The ability to enter and sustain satisfactory interpersonal relationships. (Goleman, 1995)

Measures of five components of emotional intelligence Emotional Intelligence

Some researchers believe EI free online emotional intelligence surveys is a cognitive ability just as is IQ (eg, Mayer & Salovey, 2000), while others believe it is how to improve emotional intelligence a combination of perceived the three main parts of emotional intelligence abilities and traits (e.g., Schutte et al. 1998). These opposing views have inspired two separate domains of why is emotional intelligence important inventories – ability-based measures, which focus on maximal performance, and mixed-model an article on emotional intelligence by daniel goleman measures, which focus on typical performance (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000; Petrides & Furnham, 2000). Maximal performance anger and emotional intelligence in children is an indication of the best cognitive performance a test-taker can achieve on change management and emotional intelligence a test, while typical performance indicates a test-taker’s performance under ordinary test conditions (Dennis, Sternberg, effectiveness of school and emotional intelligence & Beatty, 2000).

Self-report measures of EI

There are several self-report measures emotional intelligence and effective school principle of EI. An overview is online. One of the commercial products is called The emotional intelligence assessment Emotional Intelligence Appraisal by Bradberry and Greaves (2005c), is administered emotional intelligence business as a self- or 360-degree assessment of emotional intelligence competencies' the emotional intelligence skills popularized by Goleman. The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal measures:

  • Personal competence, including:
    • Self-Awareness: Recognizing and understanding your emotions in the moment, emotional intelligence eq as well as your tendencies across time and situation.
    • Self-Management: Using awareness of emotions emotional intelligence goleman to manage response to different situations and people.
  • Social competence, emotional intelligence in high tech including:
    • Social Awareness: Understanding the perspectives of other people including their emotional intelligence in the it industry motivations, their emotions, and the meaning of what they do and say.
    • Relationship Management: Using awareness of one's emotional intelligence taught in business school own emotions and the emotions of others to manage origination and development of emotional intelligence relationships to a successful outcome.

Other assessments include Reven BarOn's EQi, the EQ Map, the Six seconds Emotional Intelligence practical importance of emotional intelligence Assessment (SEI), the Emotional Competence Inventory, the Ei360, and a test by Tett, success emotional intelligence versus iq Fox, and Wang (2005).

Ability-based measures of EI

The MSCEIT support of emotional intelligence measure is a measure of EI involving a series of emotion-based problem solving items business emotional in intelligence with relatively low face-validity, of which the answers have been deemed correct by daniel goleman + emotional intelligence summary consensus (MacCann, Roberts, Matthews, & Zeidner, 2004; Roberts, Zeidner, & Matthews, 2001). The MSCEIT (Mayer define emotional intelligence in leadership - Salovey - Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) purports to measure emotional development of emotional intelligence intelligence across the following domains:

  • Experiential Area
    1. Perceiving Emotions emotional intelligence and customer service Branch
    2. Facilitating Thinking Branch
  • Strategic Area
    1. Understanding Emotional Meaning Branch
    2. Managing Emotions Branch

For more on this topic emotional intelligence and leadership see psychological testing and evaluation. A discussion on the strengths of ability-based measures versus self-report measures was written by (Ciarroch and emotional intelligence and other multiple intelligences Mayer 2005).

Nancy Gibbs emotional intelligence gary ch on emotional intelligence

In October of 1995, Nancy Gibbs (1995) wrote an article on emotional intelligence that appeared in Time emotional intelligence history Magazine, wherein she mentioned Goleman's book, adding to the book's popularity, emotional intelligence in teaching but misrepresented Mayer and Salovey's view. In the misquotation, "Their [Mayer and emotional intelligence in work place presentation Salovey's] notion is about to bound into the national conversation, handily shortened emotional intelligence statistics to EQ, thanks to a new book, Emotional Intelligence (Bantam) by Daniel Goleman...", Nancy Gibbs made it emotional intelligence test to improve team performance look emotional intelligence theory like Goleman's book accurately reflected Mayer and Salovey's concept of emotional intelligence without even mentioning the main differences.

John D. Mayer criticized Gibb's article on his enhancing emotional intelligence Web site (Mayer 2005c) at evaluate five component of emotional intelligence the University of New Hampshire. Among other things, he criticized the subtitle on the issue's five concepts of emotional intelligence cover ("It's not your IQ. Its not even a number. But emotional intelligence free emotional intelligence test may be the best predictor goleman's emotional intelligence theory of success in life, redefining what it means to be smart."), because the subtitle makes the reader how can i increase my emotional intelligence think that emotional intelligence is not measurable and that emotional intelligence incresing emotional intelligence correlates with "success in life." Mayer and Salovey's view, to the contrary, states mayer emotional intelligence that EI is measurable, even with a psychometric test such as the measuring emotional intelligence and work MSCEIT, and makes no claim about EIs predictability for success in negotiation emotional intelligence life.

Criticisms

A significant criticism is that emotional intelligence has no "benchmark" to set itself against. While IQ tests are designed to correlate printable christmas emotional intelligence lessons as closely as possible with school grades, emotional intelligence seems research into emotional intelligence to have no similar objective quantity it can be based on.

The criticism of the works swinburne university emotional intelligence test of Mayer and Salovey include theses school effectiveness and emotional intelligence a study by Roberts et.al. (2001). That research warns that EQ may what are the key componens emotional intelligence actually be measuring conformity. However, Mayer et.al. (2001), provide further theoretical basis for what it emotional intelligence their theories. Nevertheless, many psychological researchers do not accept emotional intelligence to be a part of "standard" intelligence (like what makes a star performer involving emotional intelligence IQ).

Goleman's work is also criticized in the psychological community. Eysenck ((2000)), for why is emotional intelligence important at workplace example comments that Goleman "exemplifies more clearly than most the fundamental absurdity of the tendency write an e-mail wth emotional intelligence to class almost any type of behaviour 360 emotional intelligence assessment as an 'intelligence'. . . .If these five 'abilities' define 'emotional intelligence', we antonakis emotional intelligence and organizational analysis would expect some evidence that they are biblical emotional intelligence highly correlated; Goleman admits that they might be quite uncorrelated, and in any case if we cannot measure them, how do we big five personality and emotional intelligence know they are related? So the whole theory is critique of daniel goleman's emotional intelligence built on quicksand; there is no sound scientific basis."

Self-report EI merely daniel goldman and emotional intelligence another measure of Personality?

Some researchers have raised concerns with the extent to which self-report EI measures correlate effect of leader and follower emotional intelligence with established personality dimensions such as those elements of emotional intelligence within the Big Five (Gignac, 2005; Malouff, Thorsteinsson, & Schutte, 2005). emotional intelligence across the spectrum Generally, self-report EI measures and personality measures have been said to converge because they both purport emotional intelligence and bullying to measure traits, and because they are both measured in the emotional intelligence and stress at work self-report form (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2002). Specifically, there appear to be two dimensions emotional intelligence and the individual of the Big Five that stand out as most related to self-report EI – emotional intelligence article gary cherniss neuroticism and extraversion. In particular, neuroticism has been said to relate to negative emotionality and anxiety (Costa emotional intelligence at work & McCrae, 1992). Intuitively, emotional intelligence at work: best practicef individuals scoring high on neuroticism are likely to score low on self-report EI emotional intelligence aynab saawaf measures (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2002). While many studies have looked at the relationship between neuroticism and self-report EI measures, few have examined that emotional intelligence book goleman, d relationship with the TMMS (Trait Meta Mood emotional intelligence certification in the twin cities Scale) and SEI (Schutte EI Scale) specifically (Gignac, Palmer, Manocha, & Stough, emotional intelligence critique in press). A study by Davies, Stankov, and Roberts emotional intelligence daniel goldstein (1998) reported a strong negative correlation between total TMMS scores and neuroticism scores (r = -.40). Another study by Warrick emotional intelligence for personal use and Nettlebeck (2004) reported a moderate negative correlation between neuroticism and emotional intelligence globally the TMMS total score (-.27), although there was a notable limitation in their sample size (n = 84). As emotional intelligence goleman cd for the SEI, emotional intelligence in leadership an initial study by Schutte et al. (1998) reported a moderate negative emotional intelligence in relation to sports correlation between neuroticism and total SEI scores (r = -.28), although the sample size was also notably small (n = 23). In a larger study emotional intelligence in the classroom (n = 354) by emotional intelligence in virtual teams Saklofske (2003), the SEI optimism subscale was reported to have a strong negative relationship emotional intelligence inventory eci with neuroticism (r = -.52). Collectively, there does appear to be evidence of an overlap between neuroticism and emotional intelligence inventory goleman self-report EI measures such as emotional intelligence power point presentation the TMMS and SEI. However, it is unclear in the literature exactly what level of correlation emotional intelligence powerpoint presentations between personality and self-report EI is so high as to suggest emotional intelligence printable lessons that it self-report EI is redundant.

The interpretations of moderate-to-high correlations between self-report EI and personality have been varied and emotional intelligence quotient inconsistent. Some researchers have asserted that correlations in the .40 emotional intelligence salesman and his boss range constitute outright construct redundancy (eg, Davies, Stankov & Roberts, 1998), while others have suggested that self-report EI is a personality emotional intelligence test empowerment trait emotions and leadership: the role of emotional intelligence in itself (eg, Petrides & Furnham, 2001). Gignac (2005) asserted that it would be difficult for any self-report individual difference measure to demonstrate examples of good emotional intelligence exceptional incremental validity above and beyond the Big Five, and recommended free emotional intelligence that factor analytic methodology be used to test for free emotional intelligence tests construct redundancy (as opposed to zero-order correlations). Before glick 2000 emotional intelligence and leadership conclusive and convincing arguments can be asserted as to whether self-report EI is redundant goldman emotional intelligence or related to personality, it would be useful to statistically extricate the effects of neuroticism from the relationship between the history of emotional intelligence TMMS and SEI, and determine whether the EI subscales how to assist children with their emotional intelligence still form a general factor (EI g) after the extrication. While the overlap between EI and how to get emotional intelligence personality is a large concern, there are other factors that how to obtain emotional intelligence bring the psychometric properties of self-report EI inventories into question.

Self-report EI importance of emotional intelligence and 360 feedback - Susceptibility to Faking Good

Self-report EI measures, much like personality measures, are comprised of highly face-valid importance of emotional intelligence in analytical jobs items. This may make understanding what test jonathan cohen + emotional intelligence items are ‘really asking’ routinely easy, and could expose the inventories to a phenomenon known as “faking good.” More formally termed socially measuring emotional intelligence desirable responding (SDR), “faking good” is defined as a response pattern where test-takers systematically represent measuring emotional intelligence face expression themselves with an mount and emotional intelligence excessive positive bias (Paulhus, 2002). This bias has long been known to contaminate responses on percentage of participation in emotional intelligence personality inventories (Holtgraves, 2004; McFarland & Ryan, 2000; Peebles & Moore, 1998; programs that teach emotional intelligence Nichols & Greene, 1997; Zerbe & Paulhus, 1987), and act rate your emotional intelligence as a mediator of the relationships between self-report measures (Nichols & Greene, 1997; Ganster et al., 1983).

It has research articles on emotional intelligence been suggested that responding in a desirable way is a response research on emotional intelligence by john mayer set, which is a situational and temporary response pattern (Pauls & Crost, 2004; Paulhus, 1991). This is contrasted with a response style, which sample dissertations on emotional intelligence is a more long-term trait-like quality. Considering the contexts sample theses and dissertation on emotional intelligence certain self-report EI inventories are used in (eg, employment settings), the problems schools statistics and emotional intelligence of response sets in high-stakes scenarios become clear (Paulhus & Reid, 2001). Highlighting science social sciences psychology intelligence emotional the extent to which response biases are considered a confound to accurate personality measurement, some sitarenios, g. 2000 emotional intelligence and leadership researchers even believe it is necessary to warn test-takers not to fake good before taking teacher assessment social emotional intelligence eq a personality test (e.g., McFarland, 2003). In summary, given the inherent theories on which studies on emotional intelligence is based similarities between personality testing and self-report EI testing theory of emotional intelligence by daniel goleman (both are self-report, both measure traits, and both are said to converge theory of emotional intelligence by howard gardner moderately-to-highly), it may be reasonable to assert that socially desirable responding has the capacity to contaminate responses on self-report theses emotional intelligence impact of effectiveness school EI measures. Specifically, should self-report EI measures be largely train to improve emotional intelligence contaminated by SDR, their construct validity may be compromised ways to enhance emotional intelligence (Cronbach & Meehl, 1996).

References

  • a b c Bradberry, T. and Greaves, J. (2005). "The Emotional what are the key componens of emotional intelligence Intelligence Quickbook.", New York: Simon and Schuster. www.eiquickbook.com
  • ^ Ciarrochi, H. and Mayer, J. (2005). "Can Self-Report Measures Contribute to the what is emotional intelligence and leadership Study of Emotional what is emotional intelligence in the workplace Intelligence? A Conversation between Joseph Ciarrochi and John D. Mayer" The University of New Hampshire. Web reference at http://www.unh.edu/emotional_intelligence/ei%20Controversies/ei%20can%20self%20report%20contribute.htm accessed January 2, 2006.
  • ^ Eysenck, H. (2000). Intelligence: A New Look, Transaction Publishers, (ISBN 0-7658-0707-6), pp. 109-110.
  • ^ Gardner, H. (1975) The Shattered Mind. New York: Knopf.
  • ^ Gibbs, Nancy (1995). "The EQ Factor," Time Magazine (October 2). Web reference at http://www.time.com/time/classroom/psych/unit5_article1.html accessed January 2, 2006. [1]

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.(ISBN 0-553-09503-X)

  • a b Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional Intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. London : Bloomsbury. (ISBN 0-7475-2622-2)
  • MacCann, C., Roberts, R.D., Matthews, G., & Zeidner, M. (2004). Consensus scoring and empirical option weighting of performance-based emotional intelligence tests. Personality & Individual Differences, 36, 645-662.
  • a b Mayer, J. (2005a). "Can Emotional Knowledge be Improved? Can you raise emotional intelligence?” The University of New Hampshire. Web reference at http://www.unh.edu/emotional_intelligence/ei%20Improve/ei%20Rasing%20EI.htmaccessed January 2, 2006.
  • ^ Mayer, J. (2005b) "Emotional Intelligence Information: A Site Dedicated to Communicating Scientific Information about Emotional Intelligence, Including Relevant Aspects of Emotions, Cognition, and Personality." The University of New Hampshire. Web reference at http://www.unh.edu/emotional_intelligence/index.html accessed January 2, 2006.
  • ^ Mayer, J. (2005c). "Is EI the Best Predictor of Success in Life?" The University of New Hampshire. Web reference at http://www.unh.edu/emotional_intelligence/ei%20Controversies/eicontroversy1%20best%20predictor.htm accessed January 2, 2006.
  • ^ Mayer, J. (2005c). "How Do You Measure Emotional Intelligence?" The University of New Hampshire. Web reference at [2] accessed January 2, 2006.
  • ^ Mayer, J.D. & Salovey, P. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 17, 433-442.
  • ^ Mayer, J., Salovey, P., Caruso, D.R., and Sitarenios, G. (2001) "Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence." Emotion, 1, 232-242.
  • ^ Payne, W.L. (1985). A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/comingout/letting go). A Doctoral Dissertation. Cincinnati, OH: The Union For Experimenting Colleges And Universities (now The Union Institute). Abstract available at http://eqi.org/payne.htm
  • ^ Roberts, R.D., Zeidner, M., and Matthews, G. (2001). "Does Emotional Intelligence Meet Traditional Standards for an Intelligence? Some New Data and Conclusions." Emotion, Vol 1, no 3, pages 196-231. Web pre-publication version available at http://eqi.org/ei_abs4.htm accessed 19 Sept 2006.
  • ^ Salovey, P. and Mayer, J.D. (1990). "Emotional intelligence." Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9(1990), 185-211. [3]
  • Schutte, N.S., Malouff, J.M., Hall, L.E., Haggerty, D.J., Cooper, J.T., Golden, C.J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167-177.
  • ^ Smith, M. K. (2002) "Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences," the encyclopedia of informal education, Downloaded from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm on October 31, 2005.
  • Stein, S and Book, H. "The EQ Edge". Toronto: Jossey-Bass. EQ Edge.com
  • Stein, S (1998). EQ, not just IQ, may be key to high-tech career success. website
  • Stein, S (1999). Americans Have Higher Emotional Intelligence Than Canadians. website
  • Stein, S (1997). Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Gets Better with Age. [4]
  • Stein, S (1997). Men and Women Have Different Kinds and Levels of Emotional Intelligence, EQ for Both Sexes is Key to Workplace Success. website
  • Technical Brochures regarding the psychometric properties of the BOEI (Benchmark of Emotional Intelligence), EQ-i, and MSCEIT. website
  • ^ Tett, R. P., Fox, K. E., & Wang, A. (2005). Development and validation of a self-report measure of emotional intelligence as a multidimensional trait domain. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 859-888.
  • ^ Thorndike, R.K. (1920). "Intelligence and Its Uses," Harper's Magazine 140, 227-335.
  • Warneka, T. (2006). Leading People the Black Belt Way: Conquering the Five Core Problems Facing Leaders Today. Asogomi Press. Cleveland, Ohio. website

See also

  • Emotion work, List of emotions
  • Emotional competence, Intercultural competence
  • Empathy
  • Theory of multiple intelligences, Social IQ, Systems intelligence
  • Motivation
  • Emotion in animals
  • David Viscott

External links

  • Emotional Intelligence and EQ
  • http://www.danielgoleman.info Website of Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., author of Emotional Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence Information from John Mayer's University of New Hampshire Web site
  • Peter Salovey, Yale Psychology Faculty
  • eq.org Directory of emotional intelligence sites
  • Emotional Intelligence, Emotions Steve Hein's site
  • Bullying and emotional intelligence
  • Time Magazine Report: The EQ Factor
  • Emotional Intelligence Consortium, consortium founded by Daniel Goleman
  • Multi-Health Systems, publishers of the EQ-i and the MSCEIT
  • TalentSmart, publishers of The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal
  • Edutopia: Overview on Emotional Intelligence
  • Introduction to Emotional Intelligence Education
  • Review of EI Literature March 2004
  • Prof.Steve Farron's Review
  • Courses on Emotional Intelligence from the American Management Association
Search Term: "Emotional_intelligence"

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