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Readers, Digest a Cure for Many Ills ; HEALTH NOTES 

RedNova - Oct 08 6:14 PM
By SARAH STACEY However good our diet, our bodies can't reap the benefits if our digestive system isn't working efficiently. That's the sensible concept behind the Mayr Cure, a digestion-cleansing plan devised in about 1920 by Dr Franz Xaver Mayr.

Post-fast repast 
Haaretz Daily - Oct 08 10:30 AM
Every Yom Kippur the newspapers fill up with useful guides to surviving the fast: Drink plenty of water the day before, consume a lot of carbohydrates and proteins at the pre-fast meal, avoid fried, spicy or very salty food, prepare your body for withdrawal from coffee, watch out for pulses and gas-producing foods, don't strain your digestive system with too large and heavy a pre-fast meal, and

Immune system failing for beluga whale at Georgia Aquarium 
WTVM 9 - Oct 07 8:36 AM
ATLANTA Gasper, one of the beluga whales at the Georgia Aquarium, is enduring more health problems in the form of a failing immune system.

Answers Fall Short for Nausea After Surgery 
New York Times - Oct 08 9:12 PM
A central problem for those who study postoperative pain is how to avoid nausea and vomiting.




- the digestive system

- digestive system

The gastrointestinal tract or digstive system digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal, (nourishment canal) or the gut, is the system digetive system of organs within multicellular animals digestiv system which takes in food, digests it to extract energy dijestive system and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. This process is called digestion.

The GI tract differs substantially from animal digestive sytem to animal. For instance, some animals have multi-chambered stomachs. Reference:

  • Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary


  • 1 Basic anatomy
    • 1.1 The digestve system gut
      • 1.1.1 Upper gastrointestinal tract
      • 1.1.2 Lower digestive sysem gastrointestinal tract
    • 1.2 Related organs
  • 2 Physiology
    • 2.1 Specialization of organs
    • 2.2 Immune digesive system function
  • 3 Histology
    • 3.1 Mucosa
    • 3.2 Submucosa
    • 3.3 Muscularis dgestive system externa
    • 3.4 Adventitia/Serosa
  • 4 Uses dogestive system of gut
  • 5 References
  • 6 See also
  • 7 External digestive systen links

Basic anatomy

The gut

In a normal human adult male, the GI tract the digestive system is approximately 7.5 meters long (25 feet) and consists of the following components:

Upper gastrointestinal tract

  • Mouth (buccal cavity; human digestive system includes salivary digestive system enzymes glands, mucosa, teeth and tongue)
  • Pharynx
  • Oesophagus or Esophagus (gullet) and cardia
  • Stomach, which includes the antrum and pylorus and digestive system diagram pyloric sphincter.

Lower gastrointestinal tract

  • Bowel or intestine:
    • small intestine, which has three parts:
      • duodenum
      • jejunum
      • ileum
    • large intestine, which has canine digestive system three parts:
      • caecum (the vermiform appendix is attached to the cecum).
      • colon (ascending colon, transverse colon, interactive digestive system descending colon and sigmoid flexure)
      • rectum
  • anus

Related organs

The liver secretes bile lecture notes digestive system into the small intestine via the digestive system diseases biliary system, employing the gallbladder as a reservoir. The pancreas secretes an isosmotic fluid containing bicarbonate and several enzymes, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, and cow digestive system pancreatic amylase, as well as nucleolytic enzymes (deoxyribonuclease and diagram of the digestive system ribonuclease), into the small intestine. Both these secretory organs aid in digestion.


Specialization of organs

Four organs are cat's digestive system subject to specialization in the kingdom Animalia.

  • The first organ is the how long is the esophagus in the digestive system tongue which is only present in the phylum Chordata.
  • The second organ is the esophagus. The crop is an enlargement of the esophagus in birds, insects anatomy of digestive system and pictures of the digestive system other invertebrates that is used to store food temporarily.
  • The third organ is the stomach. In addition to a glandular stomach (proventriculus), birds have a muscular equine digestive system "stomach" diseases of the digestive system called the ventriculus or "gizzard." The gizzard is used to mechanically grind up food.
  • The fourth organ is the large intestine. An blank digestive system diagram outpouching of the large intestine called the cecum is present in non-ruminant herbivores such as rabbits. digestive system and functions It aids in digestion of plant material such digestive system disease as cellulose.

Immune function

The gastrointestinal tract is also a prominent part of the digestive system disorders immune system (Coico et al 2003). The low pH (ranging preventive and promotive measures of the digestive system from 1 to 4) of the stomach is fatal for many the digestive system for babies microorganisms that enter it. Similarly, mucus (containing IgA antibodies) neutralizes many of these microorganisms. Other factors in the GI tract help with immune function snake digestive system as well, including enzymes in the saliva teaching the digestive system to 5th grade and bile. Health enhancing intestinal bacteria serve anatomy of the digestive system to prevent the overgrowth of potentially harmful bacteria in the gut.


The GI tract carnivore digestive system has a uniform general histology with some differences which reflect diagram of the human digestive system the specialization in functional anatomy. The GI tract can be divided into 4 concentric layers:

  • mucosa
  • submucosa
  • muscularis externa (the external muscle layer)
  • adventitia or serosa


The mucosa is digestive system graphics the innermost layer of the GI tract, surrounding the lumen, or digestive system of a lion space within the tube. This layer comes in direct function of the human digestive system contact with the food (or bolus), and is responsible for absorption and new treatments for digestive system secretion, important processes in digestion.

The mucosa can be divided into:

  • epithelium
  • lamina propria
  • muscularis mucosae

The mucosa are highly specialized in parts of the digestive system each organ of the GI tract, facing a low pH in the parts of the human digestive system stomach, absorbing a multitude of different substances in the small intestine, and also absorbing specific quantities preventive measures of the digestive system of water in the large intestine. Reflecting snake digestive system diagram the varying needs of these organs, the structure of the mucosa can consist cows digestive system of invaginations of secretory glands (i.e. gastric pits), or it can be folded in digestive system of bony fish order to increase surface area (i.e. villi, microvilli).


The submucosa consists of a digestive system organs dense irregular layer of connective tissue with large blood vessels, frog digestive system lymphatics and nerves branching into the mucosa and muscularis. It physiology of the digestive system contains Meissner's plexus, an enteric nervous plexa, situated on the inner surface of the muscularis the human digestive system externa.

Muscularis externa

The muscularis externa consists of a circular inner muscular layer and a longitudinal outer digestive system human muscular layer. The circular muscle layer prevents the effects of smoking on the digestive system food from going backwards and the longitudinal layer shortens the tract. The coordinated facts on digestive system contractions of these layers is called peristalsis and propels the bolus, or balled-up food, through the GI tract. swine digestive system Between the two muscle layers are digestive system and minerals the myenteric or Auerbach's plexa.


The adventitia consists of several layers of connective tissue. When digestive system function the adventitia is facing the mesentery or peritoneal fold, the digestive system of the pig adventitia is covered by a mesothelium supported by a thin connective tissue layer, together forming a serosa, or serous membrane.

Uses of gut

  • The use diseases of digestive system of animal gut strings by musicians can be traced back to functions of the digestive system the third dynasty of Egypt. In the recent past, strings were sketch of rat dissection digestive system made out of lamb gut. With the the path of the digestive system advent of the modern era, musicians have tended to use synthetic strings made of nylon, silk or steel. Some instrumentalists, however, still use dachshund digestive system gut strings in order to evoke the older tone digestive system in humans quality. Although such strings were commonly referred to as "catgut" strings, cats were never used digestive system worksheets as a source equine digestive systems for gut strings.
  • Sheep gut was the original source for natural gut string used in racquets, such as for tennis. Today, synthetic strings are much heart problems the digestive system more common, but the best strings are now made out of cow gut.
  • Gut cord how does the digestive system work how the digestive system works has also been used to produce strings for the snares which provide the snare drum's characteristic buzzing timbre. While the snare drum currently cat food for the digestive system almost always uses metal wire rather than gut caterpillar's digestive system cord, the North African bendir frame drum still uses gut for this purpose.
  • "Natural" sausage hulls diagram of digestive system (or casings) are made of animal gut, especially hog, beef, and lamb.
  • Animal gut digestive system lesson plan was used to make the cord lines digestive system of the horse in longcase clocks, but may be replaced by wire.


  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and effects of radiation on the digestive system Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
  • Coico, R., Sunshine, G., and Benjamini, E. (2003) "Immunology: A short Course 5th ed." Pgs main function of human digestive system 11-12.
  • Kirszenbaum, A. Histology and Cell Biology, Mosby new digestive system treatments Inc. (2002) ISBN 0-323-01639-1 Pgs 401-402.

See also

  • Digestion
  • Ingestion
  • Excretion
  • Gastrointestinal hormone
  • Sanitary sewer overflow

External links

  • Anatomy atlas of the Digestive System
Digestive system - edit
Gastrointestinal tract: Mouth | Pharynx | Esophagus | Crop | teaching the digestive system in 5th grade Stomach | Small intestine the ruminant digestive system (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) | Vermiform appendix | Large intestine (Cecum | Colon | Rectum | Anal canal) | Anus

Accessory organs: Pancreas amazing fact about digestive system | Gallbladder | Liver | Ducts: (Common bile cow digestive system diagram duct | Cystic duct | Hepatic duct | Pancreatic duct)

Human organ systems
Cardiovascular system | Digestive system | Endocrine system | Immune system | digestive system for kids Integumentary system | Lymphatic system | Muscular system | Nervous system | Reproductive system | Respiratory system | Skeletal system | Urinary system
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