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Dumaguing: Facts about pre-diabetes 

Sun Star - Oct 09 9:38 AM
WHAT is pre-diabetes? Pre-diabetes is a condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Pre-diabetes is a key stage in the development of type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)/Heartburn 
ThirdAge - Oct 08 11:17 PM
GERD symptoms can occur at any time. However, they usually occur after overeating, or lying down after a big meal. Symptoms may last for a few minutes or a few hours. People who have possible symptoms of GERD should seek medical care.

US WorldMeds Initiates Phase III Trial of Lofexidine for Treatment of Opiate Withdrawal Symptoms 
[Press Release] Business Wire via Yahoo! Finance - Oct 09 5:30 AM
LOUISVILLE, Ky.----US WorldMeds, a Kentucky-based specialty pharmaceutical company, today announced that it is enrolling patients in a Phase III clinical trial, USWM-001, investigating the use of lofexidine hydrochloride for the treatment of opiate withdrawal symptoms in opiate dependent individuals.

Stroke Symptoms Common Among population With Not Stroke History 
[Press Release] UAB Headline News - Oct 09 1:07 PM
Posted on October 9, 2006 at 3:00 p.m.

diabetes symptom

 

 

- diabetes symptoms

- symptoms of diabetes

Diabetes mellitus
ICD-10 E10. — E14.
ICD-9 250
MedlinePlus 001214
eMedicine med/546  emerg/134
MeSH C18.452.394.750

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). diabetes syptoms It is a metabolic disease that requires medical diagnosis, treatment dibetes symptoms and lifestyle changes. The World Health Organization recognizes three main forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and diabetessymptoms gestational diabetes (or type 3, occurring diebetes symptoms during pregnancy)[1], although these three "types" of diabetes diabettes symptoms are more accurately considered patterns of pancreatic failure rather than single diabete symptoms diseases. Type 1 is due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells, while symptoms of diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes are due to insulin resistance by tissues.

Since the first therapeutic diabetes symptoms use of insulin (1921) diabetes has been a treatable but chronic condition, and the main risks symptoms diabetes to health are its early symptoms diabetes characteristic long-term complications. These include cardiovascular disease (doubled risk), chronic renal failure (it is the main cause for dialysis in developed world adults), type 2 diabetes symptoms retinal damage which can lead to blindness and is gestational diabetes symptoms the most significant cause symptoms for diabetes of adult blindness in the non-elderly in the developed world, nerve damage, erectile dysfunction (impotence), to gangrene with risk of symptoms of type 2 diabetes amputation of toes, feet, and even legs.

Diabetes mellitus
Types of Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus symptoms of gestational diabetes type 1
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Gestational diabetes

Pre-diabetes:
Impaired fasting glycaemia
Impaired the symptoms of diabetes glucose tolerance

Disease Management
Diabetes management:
•Diabetic diet
•Anti-diabetic drugs
•Conventional insulinotherapy
•Intensive insulinotherapy
Other Concerns
Cardiovascular disease

Diabetic comas:
•Diabetic diabetes type 2 symptoms hypoglycemia
•Diabetic ketoacidosis
•Nonketotic hyperosmolar

Diabetic myonecrosis
Diabetic nephropathy
Diabetic diabetes signs symptoms neuropathy
Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetes and pregnancy

Blood tests
Fructosamine
Glucose signs and symptoms of diabetes tolerance test
Glycosylated hemoglobin

Contents

  • 1 Terminology
  • 2 History
  • 3 Causes juvenile diabetes signs and symptoms and types
    • 3.1 Glucose cat diabetes symptoms metabolism
    • 3.2 Type 1 diabetes mellitus
    • 3.3 Type diabetes and symptoms 2 diabetes mellitus
    • 3.4 Gestational diabetes mellitus symptoms diabetes
    • 3.5 Other types
    • 3.6 Genetics
  • 4 Diagnosis
    • 4.1 Signs and symptoms
    • 4.2 Diagnostic infant diabetes symptoms approach
    • 4.3 Diagnostic early symptoms diabetes type 2 criteria
  • 5 Complications
    • 5.1 Acute
    • 5.2 Chronic
  • 6 Treatment what are the symptoms of diabetes and management
  • 7 Curing diabetes
  • 8 Prevention
  • 9 Public signs symptoms of diabetes health and policy
  • 10 Epidemiology and diabetes 2 symptoms statistics
  • 11 See also
  • 12 References
  • 13 External early symptoms type 2 diabetes links

Terminology

The term diabetes (Greek: διαβήτης) was coined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. It is derived from the Greek symptoms of diabetes mellitus διαβαίνειν, diabaínein that literally type 2 diabetes symptoms signs means "passing through," or "siphon," a reference to one of diabetes' major symptoms—excessive urine production. In 1675 diabetes signs and symptoms Thomas Willis added mellitus from the Latin word for honey (mel in the sense of "honey sweet") signs symptoms diabetes in children when he noted that signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus the blood and urine of a diabetic has a sweet taste. This had been noticed long before in gestational diabetes signs symptoms ancient times by the Greeks, Chinese, symptoms care diabetes Egyptians, and Indians. In 1776 it was confirmed the type 2 ii diabetes symptoms sweet taste was because of an excess of a kind of sugar in the urine and blood of people with diabetes.citation needed]

The ancient Indians tested for diabetes by observing whether ants were attracted to a diabetes insipidus symptoms person's urine, signs diabetes symptoms and called the ailment "sweet urine disease" (Madhumehalai); medieval European doctors tested symptoms type ii diabetes for it by tasting the urine themselves, a scene which was occasionally depicted in Gothic reliefs.citation needed]

While the term diabetes without type 1 diabetes symptoms a modifier usually refers to diabetes mellitus, there is another, rarer condition diabetes symptoms 1 type named diabetes insipidus (unquenchable diabetes) in which the urine is not sweet; it can be caused diabetes symptoms type 2 by either early symptoms of diabetes kidney (nephrogenic DI) or pituitary gland (central DI) damage.

History

Although diabetes has been recognized since antiquity, and treatments of various efficacy what are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes (all close to nil, however) have been borderline diabetes symptoms known in various regions since the Middle Ages, and in legend signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes for much longer, the elucidation of the pathogenesis of diabetes diabetes in children signs and symptoms occurred mainly in the 20th century.[2]

The discovery of the role of the pancreas type 2 diabetes causes symptoms in diabetes is generally ascribed to Joseph von Mering and type ii diabetes symptoms Oskar Minkowski, European researchers who in 1889 found that when they completely removed the pancreas of early signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes dogs, the dogs developed all the signs and symptoms of diabetes and died shortly afterward.[3] In 1910, Sir symptoms and causes of diabetes Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer of Edinburgh suggested that people with diabetes were deficient in a type diabetes symptoms single chemical that was normally produced by the pancreas—he proposed type diabetes symptoms signs calling this substance insulin. The term is derived from the Latin insula, meaning island, in reference to causes and symptoms of diabetes the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas that produce insulin.citation needed]

The endocrine role of the pancreas in metabolism, and indeed the existence of insulin, was not fully clarified symptoms of cat diabetes until 1921, when Sir Frederick Grant symptoms type 2 diabetes Banting and Charles Herbert Best repeated the work diabetes mellitus signs and symptoms of Von Mering and Minkowski, but went further and demonstrated that they could reverse signs symptoms gestational diabetes induced diabetes in dogs by giving them an extract from the pancreatic symptoms diabetes melittus type ii islets of Langerhans of healthy dogs.[4] Banting, Best, and colleagues (particularly the chemist symptoms of borderline diabetes Collip) went on to isolate the hormone insulin from bovine the causes symptoms and control of diabetes mellitus pancreases at the University of Toronto in Canada. This led borderline gestational diabetes and symptoms to the availability of an effective treatment—insulin injections—and the first clinical patient was treated in 1922. For this, Banting and childhood diabetes signs and symptoms MacLeod received the diabetes insipidus and symptoms Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1923; both shared their Prize money with diabetes type 1 symptoms others in the team who were not recognized, in particular Best and Collip. Banting and Best made the patent signs and symptoms of diabetes ii available without charge and did not attempt to signs and symptoms of diabetes type ii control commercial production. Insulin production and therapy rapidly spread around the world, largely as a result some signs and symptoms of diabetes of this decision.

Despite the availability of treatment, symptoms and signs of diabetes diabetes remained a major cause of death. For instance, statistics reveal symptoms diabetes type ii that the cause-specific mortality rate during 1927 amounted to about 47.7 per 100,000 population in Malta.[5]

The distinction symptoms of type 1 diabetes between what is now symptoms on diabetes mellitus known as type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes was first clearly made by Sir Harold Percival (Harry) Himsworth diabetes symptoms skin in 1935 and was published in diabetes type 1 symptoms cough breathing difficulties January 1936.[6]

Other landmark discoveries include:[2]

  • identification of the first of the sulfonylureas early diabetes symptoms in 1942
  • the radioimmunoassay for insulin, as discovered by Rosalyn full signs symptoms diabetes type1 Yalow and Solomon Berson (gaining Yalow the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine)[7]
  • Dr Gerald miniature schnauzer diabetes symptoms Reaven's identification of the constellation of signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes symptoms now called metabolic syndrome in 1988
  • Demonstration that intensive glycemic control signs and symptoms ofgestational diabetes in type 1 diabetes reduces chronic side effects more as glucose levels approach 'normal' in a large longitudinal study[8], and symptoms complications diabetes also in type 2 diabetics in other large studies
  • identification of symptoms diabetes type 2 the first thiazolidinedione as an effective insulin sensitizer during symptoms of early diabetes the 1990's

Causes and types

Glucose metabolism

Mechanism of insulin release in normal pancreatic beta cells (that all symptoms diabetes is, glucose dependence). Insulin secretion does not depend on blood glucose levels; it diabetes + symptoms is stored pending release which does depend on blood glucose diabetes ii signs symptoms levels.

Since insulin is the principal hormone diabetes symptoms type one that regulates uptake of glucose into most cells from the blood (primarily muscle and fat cells, but not central nervous system cells), signs and symptoms of infant diabetes deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors plays a central signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes role in all forms of symptoms for diabetes malatus diabetes mellitus.

Much of the carbohydrate in food is converted within a few symptoms od diabetes hours to the monosaccharide glucose, the principal carbohydrate in blood. symptoms of diabetes 2 Some carbohydrates are not; fruit sugar (fructose) is usable as cellular fuel but is not converted symptoms type diabetes respiratory prevalence cancer nppdf to glucose and does not participate in symptoms type two diabetes the insulin / glucose metabolic regulatory mechanism, nor does the carbohydrate cellulose (though it is tdiabetes symptomsype 2 diabetes and its symptoms actually many glucoses in long chains) as humans and many animals have no digestive pathway capable of handling cause and symptoms of diabetes it. Insulin is released into the blood by beta cells (β-cells) in the pancreas childhood diabetes what are the symptoms in response to rising levels of blood glucose (e.g., after children diabetes in of symptoms a meal). Insulin enables most body cells (about 2/3 diabetes and the symptoms is the usual estimate, including muscle cells and adipose diabetes infant symptoms tissue) to absorb glucose from the blood for use as diabetes mellitus and symptoms fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage. Insulin is also the principal control diabetes sign symptoms blurred vision signal for conversion of glucose (the basic sugar used for fuel) to glycogen diabetes type 2 symptoms headaches stomach infections for internal storage in liver and muscle cells. Reduced insulin levels result both in the reduced release differences between signs and symptoms of type ii diabetes of insulin from the beta cells and in the reverse gestational diabetes and symptoms conversion of glycogen to how exercise affects symptoms of diabetes glucose when glucose levels fall, although only glucose thus recovered by the liver re-enters juvenal diabetes symptoms the bloodstream as muscle cells lack the necessary export mechanism.

Higher insulin levels increase many liver diabetes symptoms anabolic ("building up") processes such as cell growth and duplication, protein screening test signs diabetes symptoms synthesis, and fat storage. Insulin is the principal signal in converting many of signs and symptoms of diabetes 1 the bidirectional processes of metabolism from a catabolic to an anabolic signs and symptoms of diabetes in children direction, and vice versa. In particular, it is the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus 1 trigger for entering or leaving ketosis (ie, the fat burning metabolic signs symptoms pediatric diabetes phase).

If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, if cells respond poorly symptoms and signs of juvenile diabetes to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or resistance), or if the insulin itself is defective, glucose will not be handled symptoms causes medications of diabetes properly by body cells (about ⅔ require it) or stored appropriately in symptoms of canine diabetes insipidus the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistent high levels symptoms of diabetes type 1 of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Main article: Diabetes mellitus type 1

Type 1 symptoms of having diabetes diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing symptoms of pediatric diabetes beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of symptoms signs for diabetes type one the pancreas. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually time experiencing symptoms for type 2 diabetes normal, especially in the early stages. This type comprises up to 10% of total cases in North America and Europe, though this type ii diabetes onset symptoms varies by geographical location. This type of diabetes can affect children or what are symptoms of diabetes adults, but has traditionally complications symptoms of diabetes been termed "juvenile diabetes" because it represents a majority of cases of diabetes mellitus signs symptoms diabetes affecting children. The most common cause of beta cell loss leading to type 1 diabetes is initial diabetes symptoms autoimmune destruction, accompanied by antibodies directed new zealand symptoms of diabetes against insulin and islet cell proteins. The principal treatment of type signs and symptoms diabetes 1 diabetes, even from the earliest stages, is replacement of insulin. Without insulin, signs and symptoms of diabetes type 2 ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis can develop and coma or death will result.

Type 1 diabetes - formerly signs and symptoms of type one diabetes known as insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), childhood diabetes, or juvenile-onset signs symptoms diabetes mellitus diabetes - is most commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents, but can occur in adults, as well. It signs symptoms of diabetes ii is characterized by β-cell symptoms diabetes mellitus type ii destruction, which usually leads to an absolute deficiency of insulin. Most cases of type symptoms diabetes symtoms 1 diabetes are immune-mediated characterized by autoimmune destruction of the body's β-cells in the islets symptoms of a diabetes of Langerhans of the pancreas, destroying them or damaging symptoms of diabetes in cats them sufficiently to reduce insulin production. However, some forms of type 1 diabetes are characterized by symptoms of diabetes mellitus 2 loss of the body's β-cells without evidence of autoimmunity.citation needed] Lifestyle does not affect the the symptoms and complications of diabetes probability of getting type 1 causes symptoms type 1 diabetes diabetes.

Currently, type 1 diabetes can be treated only with insulin (injected or inhaled), with careful monitoring diabetes 1 symptoms of blood glucose levels using blood testing monitors. Emphasis is also placed on lifestyle adjustments (diet and exercise). diabetes insipidus vassopressin symptoms Apart from the diabetes symptoms and tests common subcutaneous injections, it is also possible to deliver insulin via a pump, which allows infusion of diabetes type i symptoms insulin 24 hours a day at preset levels, and the ability to program diffrences between signs and symptoms of type ii diabetes a push dose (a bolus) of insulin as needed at meal times. This is at the expense early signs symptoms type diabetes of an early symptoms feline type diabetes indwelling subcutaneous catheter. It is also possible to deliver insulin via an inhaled powder.

Type 1 treatment full signs and symptoms for diabetes type1 must be continued indefinitely at present. Treatment does not impair normal activities, if sufficient gangrene diabetes signs symptoms awareness, appropriate care, and discipline in testing and medication. The average glucose level for gastrointestional diabetes symptoms the type 1 patient should be as close to normal (80–120 mg/dl, pictures of diabetes symptoms 4–6 mmol/l) as possible. Some physicians suggest up to 140–150 signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2 mg/dl (7-7.5 mmol/l) for those having trouble with lower values, such as signs and symptoms of diabetes type 1 frequent hypoglycemic events. Values above 200 mg/dl (10 mmol/l) are often signs and symptoms of juvenile diabetes accompanied by discomfort and frequent urination leading to dehydration. Values above 300 mg/dl (15 mmol/l) signs symptoms diabetes type usually require immediate treatment and may lead to ketoacidosis. Low levels of stages symptoms type ii diabetes blood glucose, called sudden onset of diabetes symptoms in an infant hypoglycemia, may lead to seizures or episodes of unconsciousness.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Main article: Diabetes mellitus type 2

Type 2 diabetes mellitus symptoms for diabetes incipidus is due to a combination of defective insulin secretion and symptoms juvinile diabetes defective responsiveness to insulin (often symptoms of 1 diabetes termed reduced insulin sensitivity). In early stages, the predominant abnormality is reduced insulin symptoms of diabetes 1 2 and 3 sensitivity, characterized by elevated levels of insulin in symptoms of diabetes type ii the blood. When insulin secretion is affected, the effect is more subtle than in Type 1, and initially involves only the earliest phase symptoms or signs of diabetes of insulin secretion. citation needed]In the type i diabetes signs and symptoms early stages, hyperglycemia can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications type i diabetes signs and symptoms in children that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce glucose production by the liver, but as the disease type two diabetes symptoms progresses the impairment of insulin secretion worsens, and therapeutic replacement of insulin often what symptoms occur diabetes becomes necessary. Type 2 diabetes is australia diabetes symptoms quite common, comprising 90% or more of cases of diabetes, especially in can you give me some symptoms signs diabetes the developed world. There is a strong, but not exclusive, association with obesity, with aging, and with family chihuahua symptoms of diabetes history, although in the last decade it has increasingly begun to diabetes 2 early symptoms affect children and adolescents. In the past, this type of diabetes was often termed adult-onset diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes, or diabetes complication symptoms in children non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM); each of these diabetes in children signs symptoms terms have diabetes sign symptoms been abandoned. . In type 2 diabetes insulin levels are initially normal or even elevated, but peripheral tissues lose diabetes signs symptoms pathophysiology responsiveness to insulin (known as "insulin resistance"), almost certainly involving the insulin receptor in diabetes symptoms and control cell membranes. There are numerous theories diabetes symptoms and cures as to the exact cause and mechanism for this resistance, diabetes symptoms in cats but central obesity (fat concentrated around the waist in relation to abdominal organs, not it diabetes symptoms in toddler seems, subcutaneous fat) is known to predispose for insulin diabetes symptoms toddler resistance, possibly due to its secretion of adipokines ( a group of hormones) that impair glucose tolerance. Abdominal fat is especially active diabetes symptoms women hormonally. diabetes toddler symptoms Obesity is found in approximately 85% of North American patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes may go unnoticed for early symptoms feline type 1 diabetes years in a patient before diagnosis, since the symptoms info on symptoms of childhood diabetes are typically milder (eg, lack of ketoacidotic episodes) and can be sporadic. However, severe complications can result obesity diabetes symptoms from unnoticed type 2 diabetes, including renal failure, pediatric diabetes symptoms vascular disease (including coronary artery disease), vision damage, etc.

Type 2 diabetes is signs symptoms type 11 diabetes usually first treated by changes in physical activity (usually increase), diet (generally decrease carbohydrate intake, signs symptoms type two diabetes especially glucose generating carbohydrates), and through weight symptoms and juvenile onset diabetes loss. These can restore insulin sensitivity, even when the weight loss is modest, for example, around 5 kg symptoms diabetes mellitus (10 to 15 symptoms for diabetes in children lb), most especially when it is in abdominal fat deposits. The next step, if necessary, symptoms for diabetes mellitus is treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs. As insulin production is initially unimpaired, oral medication (often used in symptoms gestational diabetes combination) can still be used that improves insulin production symptoms of diabetes in babies (eg, sulfonylureas) and regulate inappropriate release of glucose by the liver (and attenuate symptoms of diabetes in first trimester pregnancy insulin resistance to some extent symptoms of diabetes in teenagers (eg, metformin), and substantially attenuate insulin resistance (eg, thiazolidinediones). If these fail, insulin symptoms of diabetes in toddler therapy will be necessary to maintain normal or near normal glucose levels. A disciplined symptoms of diabetes in toddlers regimen of blood glucose checks is recommended in most cases, most particularly symptoms of type 2 diabetes in children and necessarily when taking most of these medications.

Gestational diabetes

Main article: symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes, Type 3, also involves a combination of inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness, resembling type 2 diabetes symptoms signs diabetes in several respects. It develops during pregnancy and may improve or toddler symptoms diabetes disappear after delivery. Even though type ii diabetes chronic symptoms it may be transient, gestational diabetes may damage the health of the fetus or mother, and about 40% what are symptoms diabetes mellitus of women with gestational diabetes develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

Gestational diabetes mellitus occurs what are the early symptoms of diabetes in about 2%–5% of all pregnancies. It is temporary, and fully beginning symptoms of diabetes treatable, but, if untreated, may cause can you tell me symptoms diabetes problems with the pregnancy, including macrosomia (high birth cannine diabetes symptoms weight) of the child. It requires careful medical supervision during children symptoms of diabetes mellitus the pregnancy. In addition, about 20%–50% of these women go on to develop type 2 diabetes.citation needed]

Other types

There are several rare causes of diabetes mellitus that do not fit into type 1, type 2, or diabetes diatetes symptoms gestational diabetes:

  • Genetic defects in beta cells (autosomal or mitochondrial)
  • Genetically-related insulin resistance, with diabetes i symptoms or diabetes symptoms cats without lipodystrophy (abnormal body fat deposition)
  • Diseases of the pancreas (e.g. chronic pancreatitis)
  • Hormonal defects
  • Chemicals or drugs

The tenth diabetes symptoms feet version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) contained a diagnostic entity named "malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus" (MRDM diabetes symptoms glucose meter american diabetes diabetes or MMDM, ICD-10 code E12). A subsequent WHO 1999 diabetes symptoms in men working group recommended that MRDM be deprecated, and proposed a new taxonomy for alternative forms of diabetes.[1] Classifications of non-type 1, non-type essay paper on symptoms of diabetes 2, non-gestational diabetes remains controversial.citation needed]

Genetics

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are at least partly glucose meter diabetes symptoms diabetes type diab inherited. Type 1 diabetes appears to be triggered by some (mainly go symptoms diabetes viral) infections, or in a less common group, juvenlie diabetes symptoms by stress or environmental factors (such as exposure to certain chemicals or drugs). There juvieniel diabetes symptoms is a genetic element in individual susceptibility to list of diabetes symptoms some of these triggers which has been traced to list symptoms diabetes particular HLA genotypes (i.e. genetic "self" identifiers used by the immune system). However, even in those who have inherited the susceptibility, researches about the causes signs symptoms of diabetes type 1 diabetes mellitus seems to require an signs and symptoms for pediatric diabetes environmental trigger. A small proportion of people with type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in toddlers carry a mutated gene that causes maturity onset signs symptoms ofreactive hypoglycemia diabetes diabetes of the young (MODY).

There is a rather stronger inheritance pattern for type 2 diabetes. Those with first-degree relatives with type 2 stages symptoms diabetes have a much higher risk of symptoms diabetes cats developing type 2. Concordance among monozygotic twins symptoms etiology pathophysiology and diabetes mel is close to 100%, and 25% of those with the disease have a family history symptoms for diabetes type 1 of diabetes. It is also often connected to obesity, which is symptoms for gestational diabetes found in approximately 85% of (North American) patients diagnosed with this type, so some experts believe that inheriting a tendency toward obesity symptoms of diabetes and seizures also contributes.

Diagnosis

Signs and symptoms

The classical triad of diabetes symptoms is polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst, and symptoms of diabetes type2 consequent increased fluid intake) symptoms of junevall diabetes and blurred vision. These symptoms may develop quite fast in type 1, particularly symptoms of nephrgenic diabetes in children (weeks or months), but may be subtle or completely absent - as well as developing symptoms of onset diabetes much more slowly - in type 2. In type 1 symptoms of toddlers with diabetes there may also be weight loss (despite normal symptoms of type one diabetes or increased eating), increased appetite, and irreducible fatigue. These symptoms may also manifest in type 2 diabetes symptoms of untreated diabetes in patients whose diabetes is poorly controlled.

Thirst develops because of osmotic symptoms on diabetes mellitus type 2 effects—sufficiently high glucose (above the "renal threshold") in the blood is excreted by symptoms type diabetes the kidneys, but this requires water to carry it type 1 diabetes and symptoms and causes increased fluid loss, which must be replaced. type diabetes symptoms complications The lost blood volume will be replaced from water held inside body cells, causing dehydration. Prolonged high blood type diabetes symptoms strong glucose causes changes in the shape of the lens in the eye, leading to vision changes. Blurred warning signs symptoms of diabetes vision what are symptoms juvenile diabetes iddmi is a common complaint leading to a diagnosis of type 1; it should always be suspected in what are the signs and symptoms of diabetes such cases.

Patients (usually with type 1 diabetes) may also present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), an all symptoms of diabetes extreme state of dysregulation characterized by the smell of acetone on can you tell me the symptoms of diabetes the patient's breath, Kussmaul breathing (a cats symptoms of diabetes rapid, deep breathing), polyuria, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain and any of many altered state of consciousness or arousal (eg, hostility and mania diabetes 2b symptoms 2b legs and feet or, equally, confusion and lethargy). In severe DKA, diabetes ii of symptoms type coma (unconsciousness) may follow, progressing to death if untreated. In any form, DKA is a diabetes insipedus symptoms medical emergency and requires expert attention.

A rarer diabetes mellitus symptoms toddler but equally severe presentation is hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetes pathophysiology and symptoms state, which is more common in type 2 diabetes, and is diabetes signs and symptoms cartoon mainly the result of dehydration due to the polyuria. Often, the patient has been drinking extreme amounts diabetes symptoms american of sugar-containing drinks, leading to a vicious circle in regard to water loss.

Diagnostic approach

The diagnosis of type diabetes symptoms onset 1 diabetes and many cases of type 2 is usually prompted by recent-onset symptoms of excessive urination (polyuria) and excessive diabetes type 2b symptoms thirst (polydipsia), often accompanied by weight loss. These symptoms typically worsen over days diabetes type1 signs symptoms to weeks; about early symptoms for diabetes 25% of people with new type 1 diabetes have developed a degree of diabetic ketoacidosis by the time the diabetes is recognized. The early symptoms od diabetes diagnosis of other types of diabetes list symptoms of diabetes is usually made in many other ways. The rotavirus and sudden onset of diabetes symptoms most common are (1) health screening, (2) detection of hyperglycemia when a signs and symptoms of type ii diabetes doctor is investigating a complication of longstanding, unrecognized diabetes, and (3) signs symptoms diabetes new signs and symptoms attributable to the diabetes.

  1. Diabetes screening is recommended for many types of people at various stages symptoms american diabetes of life or with several different risk factors. symptoms and cause of diabetes The screening test varies according to circumstances and local policy and may be a random symptoms diabetes seizures glucose, a fasting glucose and insulin, symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2 a glucose two hours after 75 g of glucose, or a formal glucose tolerance test. Many healthcare providers recommend universal screening symptoms of type 11 diabetes for adults at age 40 or 50, and sometimes occasionally thereafter. Earlier symptoms of type two diabetes screening is recommended type 1 diabetes mellitus symptoms for those with risk factors such as obesity, family history of diabetes, high-risk ethnicity (Hispanic/Latin type diabetes symptoms http www. American, American Indian, African American, Pacific Island, and South Asian ancestry).
  2. Many medical conditions are associated with type diabetes symptoms treatment social implications a higher risk of various types type ii diabetes symptoms odor of diabetes and warrant screening. A partial list includes: high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, coronary artery disease, past what are signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, chronic what are some symptoms of diabetes pancreatitis, fatty liver, hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, several mitochondrial neuropathies and myopathies, myotonic dystrophy, Friedreich's ataxia, some of the inherited what are symptoms diabetes forms of neonatal hyperinsulinism, and many others. Risk of diabetes is higher with what are the symptoms of diabetes mellitus chronic use of several what are the symptoms of gestational diabetes medications, including high-dose glucocorticoids, some chemotherapy agents (especially L-asparaginase), and some of the antipsychotics what are the symptoms of juvenile diabetes and mood stabilizers (especially phenothiazines and some atypical antipsychotics).
  3. Diabetes is often detected when a person suffers what are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in chilldren a problem frequently caused by diabetes, such as a heart attack, stroke, neuropathy, and symptoms of diabetes poor wound healing or a foot ulcer, certain canine diabetes signs and symptoms eye problems, certain fungal infections, or delivering a baby with macrosomia or hypoglycemia.

Diagnostic criteria

Diabetes mellitus cats symptoms diabetes is characterized by common symptoms of diabetes recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:[1]

  • fasting plasma glucose level at or above 126 diabetes borderline symptoms mg/dL or 7.0 mmol/l.
  • plasma glucose at or above 200 diabetes eye sight sign symptoms mg/dL or 11.1 mmol/l two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load diabetes in cats symptoms in a glucose tolerance test.
  • random plasma glucose at or above 200 diabetes insipidus signs and symptoms mg/dL or 11.1 mmol/l.

A positive result should be confirmed by any of diabetes melitus sign and symptoms the above-listed methods on a different day, unless there is no diabetes mellitis symptoms doubt as to the presence of diabetes mellitus sign symptoms significantly-elevated glucose levels. Most physicians prefer measuring a fasting glucose level because of the ease of measurement and time commitment of diabetes symptoms circulation formal glucose tolerance testing, which can take two hours to complete. diabetes symptoms type By definition, two fasting diabetes type 2 2b symptoms glucose measurements above 126 mg/dL or 7.0 mmol/l is considered diagnostic for diabetes mellitus.

Patients with early onset diabetes symptoms treatment fasting sugars between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/l gestational diabetes signs and symptoms (110 and 125 mg/dL) are considered to have "impaired fasting glucose" and patients with plasma glucose at or above 140mg/dL gestational transitional diabetes symptoms or 7.8 mmol/l two hours after a 75 g oral juvenile diabetes 2b symptoms glucose load are considered to have "impaired glucose tolerance". "Prediabetes" is either impaired fasting glucose or recognizing symptoms diabetes test impaired glucose tolerance; the latter in particular reversing diabetes symptoms is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus as well signs symptoms of diabetes millitus as cardiovascular disease.

While not used for signs symptoms of type two diabetes diagnosis, an elevated level of glucose bound to hemoglobin (termed glycosylated hemoglobin signs symptoms type 2 diabetes or HbA1c) of 6.0% or higher (2003 revised U.S. standard) is considered abnormal by most labs; HbA1c is primarily a symptoms and diabetes treatment-tracking test reflecting average blood glucose levels over the preceding 90 days (approximately). symptoms for diabetes mellitus type 2 However, some physicians may order this symptoms for type 2 diabetes test at the time of diagnosis to track changes over time. The current symptoms of diabetes in canine recommended goal for HbA1c in patients with diabetes is <7.0%, as defined as "good symptoms of diabetes in infants glycemic control", although some guidelines are stricter (<6.5%). People with diabetes symptoms of diabetes insipidus that have HbA1c levels within this goal have a significantly lower incidence of complications from diabetes, symptoms of diabetes mellitis including retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy.[9]

Complications

The complications are far less common and less severe symptoms of stage two diabetes in people who have well-controlled blood sugar levels.[10] [11] In fact, the better the control, the lower the risk of complications. Hence patient education, understanding and participation is vital. symptoms type 11 diabetes Healthcare professionals who treat symptoms your feet show for diabetes diabetes also address other health problems that may accelerate the deleterious type 2 diabetes symptoms treatment social implications effects of diabetes. These include smoking (abstain), elevated cholesterol levels (control with diet, exercise or medication), obesity type diabetes symptoms http www. (even modest weight loss can be type one diabetes symptoms beneficial), high blood pressure, and lack of regular exercise.

Acute

Main articles: Diabetic ketoacidosis , Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma , Hypoglycemia , what are all the symptoms of diabetes and Diabetic coma
Diabetic ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) what are symptoms diabetes men is an acute, dangerous complication and is always a medical emergency. On presentation at hospital, the what are the symptoms for diabetes patient in DKA 2 diabetes of symptoms type is typically dehydrated and breathing both fast and deeply. Abdominal pain is common and alcoholic diabetes symptoms may be severe. The level of consciousness is normal until late in the process, when lethargy alcoholism mimics symptoms diabetes (dulled or reduced level of alertness or consciousness) may can you give me some symptoms signs of diabetes progress to coma. The ketoacidosis can become severe enough to cause hypotension and shock. Prompt proper treatment childhood diabetes symptoms http usually results in full recovery, though death can result from inadequate childhood diabetes symptoms http treatment, delayed treatment or from a variety of complications. It is much more common in type diabetes 2b symptoms 1 diabetes diabetes and beginning symptoms than type 2, but can still occur in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma

While not diabetes and its symptoms always progressing to coma, this hyperosmolar nonketotic state (HNS) is another diabetes b symptoms acute problem associated with diabetes mellitus. It has many symptoms in common with DKA, but a diabetes childrens symptoms different cause, and requires different treatment. In anyone with diabetes common symptoms very high blood glucose levels (usually considered to be above 300 diabetes eye symptoms mg/dl or 16 mmol/l), water will be osmotically driven out of cells diabetes ii symptoms into the blood. The kidneys will also be "dumping" glucose diabetes pneumonia symptoms into the urine, resulting in concomitant loss of water, causing an increase in blood osmolality. If the diabetes symptoms 2b children fluid is not replaced (by mouth or intravenously), the osmotic effect of high glucose diabetes symptoms cures levels combined with the loss of water will eventually result in such diabetes symptoms http www.endoc a high serum diabetes symptoms infants osmolality (dehydration). The body's cells may become progressively dehydrated as water is drawn out from them and diabetes symptoms of excreted. Electrolyte imbalances are also common. This combination of changes, especially if prolonged, will result in symptoms of diabetes symptoms prediabetes lethargy (dulled or diabetes symptoms test reduced level of alertness or consciousness) and may progress to coma. As with DKA urgent medical treatment is diabetes the symptoms of low magnesium levels necessary, especially volume replacement. This is the diabetic coma which more commonly occurs diabetes type 2 symptoms experience in type 2 diabetics.

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia, or abnormally low blood glucose, diabetes type signs and symptoms is a complication of several diabetes treatments. It may develop if the glucose intake does not diabetes type signs symptoms match the treatment. The patient may diabetic diabetes symptoms checkfordiabetes com become agitated, sweaty, and have many symptoms of sympathetic activation of the autonomic nervous system discusses diabetes symptoms resulting in feelings similar to dread and immobilized panic. Consciousness can be altered, or early symptoms of juvenile diabetes even lost, in extreme cases, leading to coma and/or seizures or even early symptoms type diabetes brain damage and death. In patients with gangrene diabetes signs and symptoms diabetes this can be caused by several factors, such as too much or incorrectly timed insulin, too gestational diabetes and symptoms of much exercise or incorrectly timed exercise (which decreases insulin requirements) or not enough food glucose meter diabetes symptoms glucose meter diabetes or insufficient amount of carbohydrates in food. In most cases, hypoglycemia is ignored diabetes symptoms treated with sweet drinks or food. In severe cases, an injection of glucagon in depth symptoms of diabetes (a hormone with the opposite effects of juvenille diabetes symptoms insulin) or an intravenous infusion of glucose is used for keywords diabetes symptoms treatment, but usually only if the diabetic is unconscious.

Chronic

Microvascular disease

Chronic elevation of blood glucose level leads my symptoms af diabetes page to damage of blood vessels. In diabetes, the resultant problems signs symptoms of diabetes in children are grouped under "microvascular disease" (due to damage to small blood vessels) symptoms and signs of diabetes in children and "macrovascular disease" (due to damage symptoms cat diabetes to the arteries).

The damage to small blood vessels leads to a microangiopathy, which symptoms diabetes insipidus causes the following organ-related problems:

  • Diabetic retinopathy, growth of friable and symptoms hypoglycemia gestational diabetes poor-quality new blood vessels in the retina as well as macular edema (swelling of the macula), which symptoms of a toddler with diabetes can lead to severe vision loss or blindness. Retinal damage (from microangiopathy) makes it symptoms of diabetes in older infant the most common cause of blindness among symptoms of diabetes uk non-elderly adults in the US.
  • Diabetic neuropathy, abnormal and decreased sensation, symptoms of the onset of diabetes usually in a stocking distribution starting at the feet but potentially in other nerves. When symptoms on diabetes combined with damaged blood vessels this can symptoms type diabetes respiratory prevalence cancer nnpdf lead to diabetic foot (see below). Other forms of diabetic neuropathy may present as symptoms types of diabetes mononeuritis or autonomic neuropathy.
  • Diabetic nephropathy, damage to the kidney which can lead to chronic renal failure, eventually requiring dialysis. Diabetes mellitus the symptoms diabetes is the most common cause of adult kidney failure worldwide.
Macrovascular disease

Macrovascular disease top ten symptoms of diabetes leads to cardiovascular disease, mainly by type diabetes signs symptoms accelerating atherosclerosis:

  • Coronary artery disease, leading to myocardial infarction ("heart attack") or angina
  • Stroke (mainly type diabetes symptoms http www. ischemic type)
  • Peripheral vascular disease, which contributes to intermittent claudication (exertion-related foot pain) as well what are the symptoms of juvenile diabetes in children as diabetic foot.
  • Diabetic myonecrosis

Diabetic foot, often due to a combination of neuropathy and arterial disease, what are the symptoms of sugar diabetes may cause skin ulcer what are the symptoms to diabetes and infection and, in serious cases, necrosis and gangrene. what will happen if diabetes symptoms are ignored It is the most common cause of adult amputation, usually of toes and or feet, in the US 2 diabetes symptoms and other Western countries.

Carotid artery stenosis does not occur more often in diabetes, and there appears to be are diabetes of symptoms the what a lower prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm. However, diabetes cat symptoms diabetes does cause higher morbidity, mortality and operative risks with these conditions.[12]

Treatment and management

Main article: Diabetes management

Diabetes is a chronic cause symptoms and treatment of type 2 diabetes disease, and emphasis is on managing short-term as well as long-term detailed symptoms of diabetes diabetes-related problems. There is an important role for patient education, nutritional support, detection symptoms gestational diabetes self glucose monitoring, as well as long-term glycemic control. A scrupulous control is diabetes and there symptoms needed to help reduce the risk diabetes and type 1 and symptoms of long term complications. In addition, given the associated higher diabetes detection symptoms risks of cardiovascular disease, lifestyle modifications must be implemented to control blood pressure[13] and cholesterol by exercising diabetes feet symptoms more, smoking cessation, and consuming an appropriate diet.

In countries with a general practitioner system, such as diabetes infants symptoms the United Kingdom, care may be extended mainly in the community, diabetes mellina symptoms with hospital-based specialist input only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar diabetes pancreatic cancer signs and symptoms control, or participation in research. diabetes symptoms glucose meter diabetic diabetic In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists may diabetes symptoms in f share care of a patient in a team approach. Optometrists, podiatrists/chiropodists, dietitians, physiotherapists, clinical nurse specialists (eg, diabetes symptoms signs Certified Diabetic Educators), or nurse practitioners may diabetes symptoms vision provide multidisciplinary expertise.

Nowadays, with improved diagnostic support, type-1 (insulin-dependent) diabetics can join all kinds of activities. diabetes tests symptoms In May 2006 for example, the Austrian mountaineer Geri Winkler became the first insulin-dependent diabetic to diabetes tinnitus symptoms reach the top of Mount Everest.

Curing diabetes

The fact diabetes type 1 2 gestational causes symptoms risks that type 1 diabetes is due to the failure of diabetes type2 symptoms one of the cell types of a single organ with a relatively simple function (i.e. the failure of the early diabetes signs and symptoms islets of Langerhans) has early symptoms diabetes type led to the study of several possible schemes to cure diabetes.[14] In contrast, type 2 diabetes is more complex with fewer prospects five symptoms of diabetes of a curative measure, but further understanding of the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance may make a cure possible. health symptoms diabetes Correcting insulin resistance may provide a cure for type 2 diabetes.[15]

Only those ignoring diabetes symptoms type 1 information on symptoms of diabetes diabetics who have received a kidney-pancreas transplant (when they have list symptoms of diabetes type ii developed diabetic nephropathy) and become insulin-independent may be considered "cured" from their diabetes. Still, they generally remain on long-term immunosuppressive drug and there is lupus symptoms diabetes a possibility the autoimmune phenomenon will develop in prevention of symptoms for type 1 diabetes the transplanted organ.[14]

Transplants of exogenous beta cells have been performed experimentally in both mice and humans, but this measure is not yet risk factors signs and symptoms of diabetes practical in regular clinical practice. Thus far, like any such symptoms and treatment for diabetes transplant, it provokes an immune reaction and long-term immunosuppressive drug will be needed to protect symptoms diabetes 1 the transplanted tissue.[16] An alternative symptoms diabetes in infants technique has been proposed to place the transplanted beta cells symptoms diabetes toddler in a semi-permeable container, isolating them from the immune system. Stem cell research has also been symptoms diabetes type suggested as a potential avenue for a cure since it may permit the symptoms etiology pathophysiology and diabetes mellitus regrowth of islet cells which are genetically part symptoms jeuvenille diabetes of the treated individual, thus eliminating the need for immuno-suppressants. symptoms of diabetes in parrots However, it has also been hypothesised that the same mechanism which led to islet destruction originally may simply symptoms of diabetes insipidus sweating destroy even stem-cell regenerated islets.[14]

Microscopic or nanotechnological approaches are under investigation as well, with implanted stores of insulin metered out by a rapid response valve sensitive to symptoms of juvinile diabetes blood glucose levels. At least two approaches have been proposed and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children demonstrated in symptoms of type two diabetes initial vitro. These are, in some sense, closed-loop insulin pumps.citation needed]

Prevention

As little is known on the exact mechanism by which type 1 diabetes symptoms to having diabetes develops, there are no preventive measures symptoms type2 diabetes available for that form of diabetes. Some toddler diabetes insipidus symptoms studies have attributed a protective effect of breastfeeding on the development of type 1 diabetes. In toddler diabetes symptoms addition, breastfeeding might also be correlated with the prevention of type 2 of the disease in mothers.[17]

Type 2 diabetes can be prevented in part by maintaining a stable body weight type ii diabetes symptoms iv through diet and exercise. Some studies have shown what are symptoms of juvenile diabetes delayed progression to diabetes what are symptoms of juvenile diabetes iddmi in predisposed patients through the use of metformin[18] or valsartan.[19]

Public health and policy

The 1989 Declaration of St Vincent was the result of international what are the symptoms and complications of diabetes efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes. Doing so is important both in terms of quality what are the symptoms of juvenille diabetes of life and life expectancy what are the symptoms of type one diabetes but also economically - expenses to diabetes have been shown to be a can palpitations and shakiness be symptoms of diabetes at major drain on health- and productivity-related resources for healthcare systems and governments.

Several countries established more and less childhood diabetes symptoms http successful national detailed symptoms type two diabetes diabetes programmes to improve treatment of the disease.[20]

Epidemiology and statistics

In 2006, according to diabetes 11 symptoms the World Health Organization, at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes. diabetes and symptoms in women Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that by the diabetes early symptoms and causes year 2030, this number will double. Diabetes mellitus diabetes education signs and symptoms occurs throughout the world, but is more common (especially type 2) in the more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence diabetes list symptoms is, however, expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where diabetes of symptoms most patients will likely be found by 2030. The increase in diabetes onset symptoms incidence of diabetes in developing countries follows the trend of diabetes signs or symptoms urbanization and lifestyle changes, perhaps diabetes symptoms explained most importantly a "Western-style" diet. This has suggested an environmental (i.e., dietary) effect, but there is little understanding of the mechanism(s) at present, diabetes symptoms low magnesium levels though there diabetes symptoms menopausal women is much speculation, some of it most compellingly presented.

Diabetes is in the top diabetes symptoms pains both arms uk 10, and perhaps the top 5, of the most significant diseases in the developed world, and is gaining in significance diabetes symptoms pains in both arms uk there and elsewhere (see big killers).

For at least 20 years, diabetes rates in North diabetes symptoms pictures America have been increasing diabetes type symptoms substantially. In 2005 there are about 20.8 million people with diabetes diabetes what are the symptoms in the United States alone. According to the American Diabetes Association, there are about 6.2 million people undiagnosed and about diabetes what are the symptoms of low magnesium levels 41 million people that would be considered prediabetic.[21] However, early symptoms of diabetes in adosescents the criteria for diagnosing diabetes in gestational diabetes symptoms of the USA means that it is more readily diagnosed than in if i have 1 of the symptoms for diabetes do some other countries. citation needed]The Centers information type two symptoms diabetes for Disease Control has termed the change an insulin resistance and symptoms of onset of diabetes epidemic. The National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse estimates that diabetes costs $132 billion in the United States alone every year. About lightheaded diabetes symptoms 5%–10% of diabetes cases in North America are nephrogenic diabetes symptoms type 1, with the rest being type 2. The fraction of signs and symptoms of diabetes of type 1 in other parts of the world differs; this symptoms and side effects of type two diabetes is likely due to both differences in the rate of type 1 and differences symptoms for children with diabetes in the rate of other types, most prominently type 2. Most of this difference is not currently symptoms for diabetes insipidus understood.According to the American Diabetes Association, 1 in 3 Americans born symptoms hurting joints diabetes after 2000 will develop diabetes in their symptoms juvenille diabetes lifetime.[22]

See also

  • List of terms associated with diabetes

References

  1. ^ a b c World Health symptoms of diabetes during pregnancy Organisation Department of Noncommunicable symptoms of diabetes early detection Disease Surveillance (1999). Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications (PDF).
  2. ^ a b Patlak M (2002). symptoms of diabetes ii "New weapons to combat an ancient disease: symptoms of diabetes in pregnancy treating diabetes". FASEB J 16 (14): 1853. PMID 12468446.
  3. ^ Von symptoms of diabetes in women Mehring J, Minkowski O. (1890). "Diabetes mellitus nach pankreasexstirpation.". Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 26: 371-387.
  4. ^ Banting symptoms of diabetes including trace of glucose FG, Best CH, symptoms of diabetes mellitus type2 Collip JB, Campbell WR, Fletcher AA (1922). "Pancreatic extracts in the treatment symptoms of drug or chemical induced diabetes of diabetes mellitus". Canad Med Assoc J 12: 141–146.
  5. ^ Department of Health (Malta), symptoms of type diabetes 1897–1972:Annual Reports.
  6. ^ Himsworth (1936). "Diabetes mellitus: its differentiation into symptoms of type i diabetes insulin-sensitive and insulin-insensitive types". Lancet i: 127–130.
  7. ^ Yalow symptoms of type1 diabetes RS, Berson SA. Immunoassay of endogenous plasma insulin in man. J Clin Invest 1960;39:1157-75. PMID 13846364.
  8. ^ (1993). symptoms os diabetes "The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development type ii diabetes and symptoms and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group.". N Engl J Med 329 (14): 977-86. PMID 8366922.
  9. ^ Genuth S (Jan-Feb 2006). "Insights from the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study on the use of intensive glycemic treatment to reduce the risk of complications of type 1 diabetes.". Endocr Pract 12 Suppl 1: 34-41. PMID 16627378.
  10. ^ Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund JY, Genuth SM, Lachin JM, Orchard TJ, Raskin P, Zinman B; Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study Research Group. Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2643-53. PMID 16371630.
  11. ^ The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive diabetes therapy on the development and progression of neuropathy. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:561-8. PMID 7887548.
  12. ^ Weiss J, Sumpio B (2006). "Review of prevalence and outcome of vascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus.". Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 31 (2): 143-50. PMID 16203161.
  13. ^ Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, Cull CA, Wright AD, Turner RC, Holman RR. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000;321:412-9. PMID 10938049.
  14. ^ a b c Vinik AI, Fishwick DT, Pittenger G. Advances in diabetes for the millennium: toward a cure for diabetes. MedGenMed 2004;6:12. PMID 15647717.
  15. ^ Rubino F, Gagner M. Potential of surgery for curing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Surg 2002;236:554-9. PMID 12409659.
  16. ^ Shapiro, et. al. International Trial of the Edmonton Protocol for Islet Transplantation NEJM 2006 355: 1318-1330
  17. ^ Stuebe AM, Rich-Edwards JW, Willett WC, Manson JE, Michels KB (2005). "Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes". JAMA 294 (20): 2601–10. PMID 16304074.
  18. ^ Knowler W, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler S, Hamman R, Lachin J, Walker E, Nathan D (2002). "Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.". N Engl J Med 346 (6): 393-403. PMID 11832527.
  19. ^ Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Mancia G, McInnes GT, Hua T, Weber MA, Coca A, Ekman S, Girerd X, Jamerson K, Larochelle P, Macdonald TM, Schmieder RE, Schork MA, Stolt P, Viskoper R, Widimsky J, Zanchetti A; for the VALUE Trial Investigators (2006). "Effects of valsartan compared to amlodipine on preventing type 2 diabetes in high-risk hypertensive patients: the VALUE trial.". J Hypertens 24 (7): 1405-1412. PMID 16794491.
  20. ^ Dubois, HFW and Bankauskaite, V (2005). "Type 2 diabetes programmes in Europe" (PDF). Euro Observer 7 (2): 5–6.
  21. ^ American Diabetes Association (2005). Total Prevalence of Diabetes & Pre-diabetes. Retrieved on 2006-03-17.
  22. ^ MY FIRST AID INFORMATION - Diabetes (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-03.

External links

  • International Diabetes Federation
  • American Diabetes Association
  • Canadian Diabetes Association
  • Diabetes UK
  • Operation Diabetes in the Philippines
  • WHO — The Diabetes Programme
  • Center for Disease Control Diabetes Section
  • MedlinePlus Diabetes from the U.S. National Library of Medicine
  • Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
  • The Immunology of Diabetes Society
  • Diet, Nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases (including diabetes) by a Joint WHO/FAO Expert consultation (2003) - Summary by GreenFacts.
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