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Entires due for third annual race to fight diabetes 

Lahontan Valley News - 10 minutes ago
Banner Churchill Community Hospital is sponsoring the third annual Outrun Diabetes Race in November. The event is an annual fund-raiser for diabetes education scholarships with a 5K competitive run and a 2.5K fitness walk.

Vision Loss Can Be Prevented In People With Diabetes 
Medical News Today - 8 minutes ago
The millions of Americans afflicted with Type 1 and 2 Diabetes face many potential complications,including: heart and kidney disease; nerve damage and stroke; foot and skin problems; and gastrointestinal disorders and hypoglycemia. [click link for full article]

Quick Study | Does a common treatment for prostate cancer increase the risk of diabetes and heart disease? 
Miami Herald - 17 minutes ago
THE QUESTION: Does a common treatment for prostate cancer increase the risk of diabetes and heart disease? THE CONTEXT: Drugs such as Lupron and Zoladex, known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, are a common treatment for advanced prostate cancer, and are becoming more popular for men with less advanced disease.

Governor launches campaign aimed at preventing diabetes 
Knoxville News Sentinal - 2 hours, 38 minutes ago
NASHVILLE -- Gov. Phil Bredesen on Monday launched a new health and wellness campaign aimed at preventing diabetes and encouraging Tennesseans to adopt healthier lifestyles.

dibetes

 

 

- diabetes blog

- diabetes

Diabetes mellitus
ICD-10 E10. — E14.
ICD-9 250
MedlinePlus 001214
eMedicine med/546  emerg/134
MeSH C18.452.394.750

Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). It is a diabetas metabolic disease that diabets requires medical diagnosis, treatment and lifestyle changes. The World Health Organization recognizes three main diadetes forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes (or type 3, occurring diabetse during pregnancy)[1], although these three "types" of diabetes are more accurately considered patterns of pancreatic failure rather than daibetes single diseases. Type 1 is diabetees due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells, while type 2 and gestational diabetes are due to diabettes insulin resistance by tissues.

Since the first therapeutic use of insulin diabates (1921) diabetes has been biabetes a treatable but chronic condition, and the main risks to health are its characteristic long-term complications. These include cardiovascular diabtes disease (doubled risk), chronic renal failure (it is the main cause for dialysis in developed world adults), diabeetes retinal damage which can lead to blindness and is the diabeyes most significant cause of dabetes adult blindness in the non-elderly in the developed world, nerve damage, erectile dysfunction (impotence), to gangrene with risk of amputation iabetes of toes, diaetes feet, and even legs.

Diabetes mellitus
Types of diabtees Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Gestational diabetes

Pre-diabetes:
Impaired diabetes fasting glycaemia
Impaired glucose tolerance

Disease Management
Diabetes management:
•Diabetic diet
•Anti-diabetic diabetes blog drugs
•Conventional insulinotherapy
•Intensive insulinotherapy
Other Concerns
Cardiovascular disease

Diabetic comas:
•Diabetic hypoglycemia
•Diabetic american diabetes association ketoacidosis
•Nonketotic hyperosmolar

Diabetic myonecrosis
Diabetic nephropathy
Diabetic neuropathy
Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetes and symptoms of diabetes pregnancy

Blood tests
Fructosamine
Glucose tolerance test
Glycosylated hemoglobin

Contents

  • 1 Terminology
  • 2 History
  • 3 Causes diabetes symptoms and types
    • 3.1 Glucose diabetes diet metabolism
    • 3.2 Type 1 diabetes mellitus
    • 3.3 Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • 3.4 Gestational type 2 diabetes diabetes
    • 3.5 Other types
    • 3.6 Genetics
  • 4 Diagnosis
    • 4.1 Signs gestational diabetes and symptoms
    • 4.2 Diagnostic diabetes mellitus approach
    • 4.3 Diagnostic criteria
  • 5 Complications
    • 5.1 Acute
    • 5.2 Chronic
  • 6 Treatment diabetes treatment and diabetes information management
  • 7 Curing diabetes
  • 8 Prevention
  • 9 Public type 1 diabetes health and policy
  • 10 Epidemiology diabetes care and statistics
  • 11 See also
  • 12 References
  • 13 External juvenile diabetes links

Terminology

The term diabetes insipidus diabetes (Greek: διαβήτης) was coined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. types of diabetes It is derived from the Greek διαβαίνειν, diabaínein that literally means information on diabetes "passing through," or "siphon," a reference to one of diabetes' major symptoms—excessive urine production. In 1675 Thomas Willis added mellitus from diabetes supplies the Latin word for diabetes support honey (mel in the sense of "honey sweet") when he noted that the blood and urine of type ii diabetes a diabetic has a sweet taste. This had been noticed long diabetes 2 before in ancient times canine diabetes by the Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, and Indians. In 1776 it was confirmed the sweet taste was because of an excess of feline diabetes a kind of sugar in diabetes supply the urine and blood of people with diabetes.citation needed]

The ancient Indians tested diabetes symptom for diabetes by observing whether ants were diabetes medicine attracted to a person's urine, and called the ailment "sweet diabetes research urine disease" (Madhumehalai); medieval European doctors tested for it by tasting the urine themselves, a scene which diabetes insight shop was occasionally depicted in Gothic reliefs.citation needed]

While the term diabetes without a diabetes sympt... modifier usually refers to diabetes mellitus, there is another, rarer condition named diabetes insipidus (unquenchable diabetes) american diabetes in which the urine is not sweet; it can be diabetes cure caused by either kidney (nephrogenic DI) or pituitary gland (central gestational diabetes diet DI) damage.

History

Although diabetes what is diabetes has been recognized since antiquity, and treatments of various efficacy (all close diabetes type 2 to nil, however) have been known in various regions since the Middle Ages, and in legend for much longer, the elucidation diabetes association of the pathogenesis of diabetes occurred mainly in the 20th century.[2]

The discovery diet for diabetes signs of diabetes of the role of the pancreas in diabetes is generally ascribed to Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski, European researchers diabetes complication who in 1889 found that when they completely removed cure for diabetes the pancreas of dogs, the dogs developed all the signs and symptoms of diabetes and died shortly afterward.[3] In 1910, Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer diabetes forum of Edinburgh suggested that people with diabetes sugar diabetes were deficient in a single chemical that was normally produced by the pancreas—he proposed diabetes medicare calling this substance insulin. The term is derived from the Latin insula, meaning island, in reference to diabetes education the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas that produce insulin.citation needed]

The endocrine role diabetes child... of the pancreas in early symptoms diabetes metabolism, and indeed the existence of insulin, was not fully clarified until 1921, when Sir Frederick Grant Banting and childhood diabetes Charles Herbert Best repeated the diabetes insig... work of Von Mering and Minkowski, but went further and demonstrated that they could reverse induced diabetes in dogs by giving diabetes prevention them an extract from the pancreatic cinnamon diabetes islets of Langerhans of healthy dogs.[4] Banting, diabetes menu Best, and colleagues (particularly the chemist Collip) went on to isolate the hormone insulin from bovine pancreases at diabetes test the University of Toronto in Canada. This led to the availability of diabetes sign ... an effective treatment—insulin injections—and the first clinical patient was treated in 1922. For this, Banting and MacLeod received diabetes discussion the diabetes can be sweet..once you bury it Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1923; both shared their Prize money with others in the team who were not recognized, diabetes recipe in particular Best and Collip. Banting and Best made the history of diabetes patent available without charge and did not attempt to control commercial production. diabetes management Insulin production and therapy rapidly spread around the world, largely diabetes testing as a result of this decision.

Despite the availability of treatment, diabetes remained a major cat diabetes cause of death. For instance, statistics reveal that the cause-specific diabetes type 1 mortality rate during 1927 amounted to about causes of diabetes 47.7 per 100,000 population in Malta.[5]

The distinction between what is now known as type 1 diabetes and type diabetes and herbs 2 diabetes was first clearly made by Sir Harold Percival (Harry) diabetes australia Himsworth in 1935 certified diabetes educator and was published in January 1936.[6]

Other landmark discoveries include:[2]

  • identification of the first of the sulfonylureas in diabetes diet plan 1942
  • the radioimmunoassay for insulin, as discovered by Rosalyn Yalow and Solomon Berson (gaining cat diabetes s... Yalow the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine)[7]
  • Dr Gerald diabetes nutritional supplements Reaven's identification of diabetes software the constellation of symptoms now called metabolic syndrome in 1988
  • Demonstration that intensive glycemic control in type 1 diabetes reduces chronic side brittle diabetes effects more as glucose levels approach pre diabetes 'normal' in a large longitudinal study[8], and also in type type i diabetes 2 diabetics in other large studies
  • identification of the first diabetes control thiazolidinedione as an effective insulin sensitizer during the 1990's

Causes and types

Glucose metabolism

Mechanism of the ph miracle for diabetes insulin release in normal pancreatic beta cells (that is, glucose dependence). Insulin diabetes contr... secretion does not depend on blood glucose levels; it diabetes pictures is stored pending diabetes diet ... release which does depend on blood glucose levels.

Since insulin is the principal hormone that regulates uptake of glucose diabetes news into most cells from the blood (primarily muscle and fat cells, but not central nervous diabetes gesta... system cells), deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors plays diabetes recipes a central role in all forms of diabetes mellitus.

Much of the carbohydrate in diabetes diets food is converted within a few hours to the monosaccharide glucose, diabetes nursing care plan the principal carbohydrate in blood. Some herbs for diabetes carbohydrates are not; fruit sugar (fructose) is usable as cellular fuel but diabetes type ii is not converted to glucose and does not participate in the insulin / glucose metabolic regulatory mechanism, nor canadian diabetes does the carbohydrate cellulose (though it is diabetes food actually many glucoses in long chains) as humans and many relacore and diabetes animals have no digestive pathway capable of handling it. Insulin is released into the blood by diabetes foundation beta cells (β-cells) in the pancreas in diabetes 2 diet response to rising levels of blood glucose (e.g., after a meal). Insulin enables most body cells (about 2/3 is the diabetes educator usual estimate, including muscle cells and diabetes weight loss adipose tissue) to absorb glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, diet for type 2 diabetes or for storage. Insulin is also the principal control signal for conversion of glucose (the what is type 2 diabetes what causes diabetes basic sugar used for fuel) to glycogen for internal storage in liver and muscle cells. Reduced insulin diabetes causes levels result both in the reduced release of insulin from the beta cells and in the reverse conversion of type 2 diabetes symptoms glycogen to glucose when glucose levels fall, although borderline diabetes only glucose thus recovered by diabetes 1 the liver re-enters the bloodstream as muscle cells lack the necessary export mechanism.

Higher insulin levels increase many anabolic ("building diabetes insulin up") processes such as cell growth and duplication, protein synthesis, and fat storage. how to prevent diabetes Insulin is the principal signal in converting many of the bidirectional processes of metabolism diabetes complications from a catabolic to an anabolic direction, and vice versa. In particular, it diabetes and pregnancy is the trigger for entering or leaving ketosis (ie, the fat burning gestational diabetes symptoms metabolic phase).

If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, if cells cause of diabetes respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or resistance), or if info on diabetes the insulin itself is defective, glucose will not be handled properly diabetes info by body cells (about ⅔ require it) or 2 diabetes diet plan type stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistent high levels of blood glucose, american diabetes assoc poor protein synthesis, and other diabetes impotence metabolic derangements, such as acidosis.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Main article: complications of diabetes Diabetes mellitus type 1

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells cure diabetes of the islets of Langerhans of diabetes drugs the pancreas. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually joslin diabetes center normal, especially in the early stages. This type comprises up to 10% obesity and diabetes of total cases in North America and Europe, though this varies by geographical location. This type of diabetes diabetes foot care can affect children or adults, but has traditionally been termed "juvenile diabetes" because it represents a diabetes medications majority of cases of diabetes affecting children. sample diet for gestational diabetes The most common cause of beta cell loss leading to type 1 diabetes is autoimmune type two diabetes destruction, accompanied by antibodies directed against insulin and diabetes diagnosis islet cell proteins. The principal treatment of type 1 diabetes, even from the earliest diabetes mellitus diet stages, is replacement of insulin. Without insulin, ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis cinnamon for diabetes can develop and coma or death will result.

Type 1 diabetes - formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes nutrition diabetes (IDDM), childhood diabetes, or juvenile-onset diabetes diabetes signs - is most commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents, but can occur in diabetes statistics adults, as well. It is characterized by β-cell destruction, which usually leads to an absolute deficiency diabetes uk of insulin. Most cases of type 1 diabetes are immune-mediated characterized by symtoms of diabetes autoimmune destruction of the body's β-cells in the diabetes mellitus type ii islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, destroying them or damaging them sufficiently diabetes walk to reduce insulin production. However, some forms of type 1 diabetes are characterized by loss of the body's american diabetes association exchange diet β-cells without diabetes cures evidence of autoimmunity.citation needed] Lifestyle does not affect the probability of getting type 1 diabetes.

Currently, type 1 diabetes can be treated only diabetes in children with insulin (injected or diabetes treat... inhaled), with careful monitoring of blood glucose levels using blood testing monitors. symptoms for diabetes Emphasis is also placed on lifestyle adjustments (diet and exercise). Apart from the common subcutaneous injections, it is symptoms of type 2 diabetes also possible to deliver insulin via cause of diabetes type 2 a pump, which allows infusion of insulin 24 hours a day at preset levels, and the ability to program a push dose (a bolus) diabetes symtoms of diet diabetes insulin as needed at meal times. This is at the expense of an indwelling subcutaneous catheter. It is also possible to deliver insulin natural cures for diabetes via an inhaled powder.

Type 1 type 1 juvenile diabetes treatment must be continued indefinitely at present. Treatment does not impair normal diabetes menus activities, if sufficient awareness, appropriate care, and discipline in testing and medication. The average glucose level about diabetes for the type 1 patient should be as close to normal diabetes and diet (80–120 mg/dl, 4–6 mmol/l) as possible. Some physicians suggest up diabetes drug to 140–150 mg/dl (7-7.5 mmol/l) for those having trouble with lower values, such as frequent diabetes product hypoglycemic events. Values above 200 glyconutrients and diabetes mg/dl (10 mmol/l) are often accompanied by discomfort and frequent urination leading to warning signs diabetes dehydration. Values above 300 mg/dl (15 mmol/l) usually require immediate american diabetes foundation treatment and may lead to ketoacidosis. Low levels of blood glucose, called hypoglycemia, may lead to seizures or episodes of unconsciousness.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Main article: Diabetes mellitus type diabetes jet t... 2

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is due to a combination of defective insulin diabetes type 2 signs and symptoms secretion and defective responsiveness to insulin (often pregnant women with diabetes termed reduced insulin sensitivity). In early stages, the predominant abnormality is reduced type 2 diabetes mellitus insulin sensitivity, characterized by elevated levels of insulin in the blood. When insulin secretion is affected, the effect is more symptoms of gestational diabetes subtle than in Type 1, and initially involves only diabetes and alcohol the earliest phase of insulin secretion. citation needed]In the early stages, hyperglycemia can gestational diabetes diet plan be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce glucose production the symptoms of diabetes by the liver, borderline diabetes diet but as the disease progresses the impairment of insulin secretion worsens, and therapeutic diabetes mellitus type 2 replacement of insulin often becomes necessary. Type 2 diabetes skin care diabetes is quite common, comprising 90% or more of cases of diabetes, especially in the developed insulin dependent diabetes world. There is a strong, but not exclusive, management of diabetes association with obesity, with aging, and with family history, although in the prevention of diabetes last decade it has increasingly begun to affect children and adolescents. In the past, this type of sign of diabetes diabetes was often termed adult-onset diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes, or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM); each cinnamon and diabetes of these terms have diabetes foods been abandoned. . In type 2 diabetes insulin levels are initially normal or even elevated, but diabetes picture peripheral tissues lose responsiveness to insulin (known as "insulin resistance"), almost certainly involving the insulin receptor diabetes type 2 symptoms in cell membranes. There 1500 calorie diabetes diet are numerous theories as to the exact cause and mechanism for this resistance, but central obesity (fat concentrated around the waist in canine diabetes insipidus relation to diabetes charts abdominal organs, not it seems, subcutaneous fat) is known to predispose for insulin resistance, possibly due to its secretion of adipokines diabetes signs symptoms ( a group of hormones) that impair glucose tolerance. signs and symptoms of diabetes Abdominal fat is especially active hormonally. Obesity is found in approximately 85% diabetes diet mellitus plan of North American patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes may diabetes mellitus type 1 go unnoticed for years in a patient before diagnosis, since the symptoms are typically diabetes wound care milder (eg, lack of ketoacidotic episodes) and can be sporadic. However, severe complications can type diabetes result from unnoticed type 2 diabetes, including renal failure, vascular type one diabetes disease (including coronary artery disease), vision damage, etc.

Type 2 diabetes children with diabetes is usually first treated by changes in physical activity (usually increase), diabetes exercise diet (generally decrease carbohydrate intake, especially glucose generating carbohydrates), and through diabetes treatment center weight loss. These can restore insulin sensitivity, even when the weight loss is modest, for example, around 5 diabetes type 2 and treatments kg (10 to 15 lb), most especially when it is effects of diabetes in abdominal fat deposits. The next step, american association of diabetes educators if necessary, is treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs. As insulin production is initially unimpaired, diabetes mellitus 2 oral medication (often used in combination) can still be used that improves insulin production diabetes symptons (eg, sulfonylureas) and regulate inappropriate release of glucose by the liver (and attenuate insulin resistance symptom or sign for diabetes to some extent (eg, metformin), and substantially diabetes hearing loss attenuate insulin resistance (eg, thiazolidinediones). If these fail, insulin therapy will be necessary to maintain normal or near diet for gestational diabetes normal glucose levels. juvenile diabetes signs and symptoms A disciplined regimen of blood glucose checks is recommended in most cases, most particularly and type2 diabetes necessarily when taking most of these medications.

Gestational diabetes

Main article: best diabetes diet Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes, Type 3, also involves a combination cat diabetes symptoms of inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness, resembling type 2 diabetes in several respects. It develops during causes of diabetes mellitus pregnancy and may improve or disappear after delivery. Even though it may be transient, diabetes and hair loss gestational diabetes may damage the health of the fetus or mother, and about diabetes center 40% of women with gestational diabetes develop type 2 diabetes type 2 diet diabetes later in life.

Gestational diabetes mellitus occurs american association diabetes diabetic diet in about 2%–5% of all pregnancies. It is temporary, and fully treatable, but, if untreated, may diabetes bracelet cause problems with the pregnancy, including macrosomia (high birth weight) of the child. It diabetes food pyramid requires careful medical supervision during the pregnancy. In addition, about 20%–50% of these women go diabetes foot on to develop type 2 diabetes.citation needed]

Other types

There are several rare causes of diabetes mellitus that do controlling diabetes with diet not fit into type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes:

  • Genetic defects in beta cells (autosomal or mitochondrial)
  • Genetically-related insulin resistance, with or diabetes and heart disease without lipodystrophy (abnormal body fat deposition)
  • Diseases of the pancreas (e.g. diabetes warning signs chronic pancreatitis)
  • Hormonal defects
  • Chemicals or drugs

The tenth version of the International Statistical Classification of what is diabetes mellitus Diseases (ICD-10) contained a diagnostic entity named "malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus" care diabetes nursing plan (MRDM or MMDM, ICD-10 code E12). A subsequent WHO diabetes and symptoms 1999 working group recommended that MRDM be deprecated, and proposed a diabetes canada new taxonomy for alternative forms of diabetes.[1] Classifications diabetes in cat of non-type 1, non-type 2, non-gestational diabetes remains controversial.citation needed]

Genetics

Both type diabetes neuropathy 1 and type 2 diabetes are at least partly inherited. Type 1 diabetes appears to be triggered by some (mainly national diabetes association viral) infections, new treatment for diabetes or in a less common group, by stress or environmental factors (such as exposure to certain chemicals or drugs). treatment of diabetes There is a genetic element in individual susceptibility to some 2 atkins diabetes diet type of these triggers which has been traced to particular HLA genotypes (i.e. genetic "self" identifiers used by the care dental diabetes immune diabetes meters system). However, even in those who have inherited the susceptibility, type 1 diabetes mellitus seems diabetes sign sugar to require an environmental trigger. A small proportion of infant diabetes symptoms people with type 1 diabetes carry a mutated gene that causes maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY).

There is preventing diabetes a rather stronger inheritance pattern for type 2 diabetes. Those with type 2 diabetes cure first-degree relatives with type 2 have a much higher atkins diet diabetes risk of developing type 2. Concordance among monozygotic twins is close to 100%, and 25% of those with the disease have canine diabetes mellitus a diabetes care journal family history of diabetes. It is also often connected to obesity, diabetes facts which is found in approximately 85% of (North American) patients diagnosed with this type, so some experts believe diabetes food list that inheriting a tendency toward obesity also diabetes insipidis contributes.

Diagnosis

Signs and symptoms

The classical triad of diabetes symptoms is polyuria (frequent urination), early symptoms diabetes type 2 polydipsia (increased thirst, and consequent increased fluid what are the symptoms of diabetes intake) and blurred vision. These symptoms may develop quite fast in type 1, particularly in children (weeks or months), but may be subtle or abbott diabetes care completely absent - as well as developing much more slowly - diabetes feet in type 2. In type diabetes mellitis 1 there may also be weight loss (despite normal or increased diabetes tests eating), increased appetite, and irreducible fatigue. These symptoms may also manifest in type 2 diabetes in patients whose diabetes is living with diabetes poorly controlled.

Thirst develops 1 2 diabetes because of osmotic effects—sufficiently high glucose (above the "renal threshold") in 1800 calorie type 2 diabetes diet the blood is excreted by the kidneys, but this requires water to carry it and causes increased fluid loss, causes diabetes which must be replaced. The lost blood volume will be replaced from diabetes care magazine water held inside body cells, causing dehydration. Prolonged high blood glucose diabetes type 1 2 causes changes in the shape of the lens in the eye, leading to vision changes. healthreach diabetes Blurred vision is a common complaint leading symptons of diabetes to a diagnosis of type 1; it should always be suspected in such cases.

Patients (usually with atkins carb diabetes diet low type 1 diabetes) may also present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), an biomedical research for diabetes extreme state of dysregulation characterized by the smell of child diabetes obesity acetone on the patient's breath, Kussmaul breathing (a rapid, deep breathing), diabetes hair loss polyuria, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain and any of diabetes tipo 2 many altered state of consciousness or arousal (eg, hostility and mania or, equally, confusion and diabetes bracelets lethargy). In severe DKA, coma (unconsciousness) may follow, progressing to death if diabetes herbs untreated. In any form, DKA is a medical emergency and requires expert attention.

A rarer diabetes insipitus but equally severe presentation is hyperosmolar nonketotic state, which is diabetes medicines more common in type 2 diabetes, and is mainly the result of dehydration due to the polyuria. Often, the pediatric diabetes patient has been drinking extreme amounts of sugar-containing drinks, leading to a signs of diabetes in children vicious circle in regard to water loss.

Diagnostic approach

The diagnosis 1800 calorie diabetes diet of type 1 diabetes and many cases of type 2 is usually alcohol and diabetes prompted by american association diabetes educators recent-onset symptoms of excessive urination (polyuria) and excessive thirst (polydipsia), often accompanied by weight loss. These symptoms typically worsen over article diabetes days to weeks; about 25% of people diabetes and obesity with new type 1 diabetes have developed a degree of diabetic diabetes support groups ketoacidosis by the time the diabetes is recognized. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus other types of diabetes is usually made in many other ways. The most common are pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus (1) health screening, (2) detection of hyperglycemia when a doctor pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is investigating a complication of longstanding, unrecognized diabetes, and (3) type 3 diabetes new signs and symptoms attributable to the diabetes.

  1. Diabetes screening is recommended for many types of people at various stages of american association of diabetes educator life or with several different risk factors. The screening diabetes articles test varies according to circumstances and local policy and may be a random glucose, a fasting glucose and insulin, diabetes in pregnancy a glucose two hours after 75 g of glucose, or diabetes mellitus information a formal glucose tolerance test. Many healthcare providers recommend diabetes mellitus tipo ii universal screening for adults at age 40 or 50, and sometimes occasionally diabetes patient care thereafter. Earlier screening is recommended for those with risk factors diagnosis of diabetes mellitus such as obesity, family history of diabetes, high-risk gestational diabetes menu ethnicity (Hispanic/Latin American, American Indian, African American, Pacific Island, and South Asian ancestry).
  2. Many medical conditions are insulin dependent diabetes mellitus associated with a higher risk of various types of diabetes and warrant screening. A partial list includes: high nursing care plan diabetes blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, coronary artery disease, past gestational diabetes, polycystic type 1 diabetes cause ovary syndrome, type 2 diabetes menu chronic pancreatitis, fatty liver, hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, several mitochondrial neuropathies and myopathies, myotonic dystrophy, Friedreich's cure for type 1 diabetes ataxia, some of the inherited forms of neonatal hyperinsulinism, and diabetes and stevia many others. Risk of diabetes is higher with chronic use of several diabetes message boards medications, including high-dose glucocorticoids, some chemotherapy agents (especially L-asparaginase), and some of the antipsychotics and mood stabilizers (especially diagnosing diabetes phenothiazines and some atypical antipsychotics).
  3. Diabetes is often detected when a person food for diabetes suffers a problem frequently caused by diabetes, such as a heart attack, medications for diabetes stroke, neuropathy, poor wound healing recommended diet for gestational diabetes or a foot ulcer, certain eye problems, certain fungal infections, or delivering a baby with macrosomia or signs of gestational diabetes hypoglycemia.

Diagnostic criteria

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia, and signs symptoms of diabetes is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:[1]

  • fasting plasma glucose level treatment for diabetes at or above 126 mg/dL or 7.0 2 diabetes diet plan type 2 diabetes diet plan type mmol/l.
  • plasma glucose at or above 200 mg/dL or 11.1 mmol/l two hours after a 75 g child diabetes oral glucose load in a glucose tolerance test.
  • random plasma diabetes cinnamon glucose at or above 200 mg/dL or 11.1 mmol/l.

A positive result should be confirmed diabetes health by any of the above-listed methods on a different day, unless there is no doubt as diabetes melitus to the presence of significantly-elevated glucose levels. Most diabetes monitor physicians prefer measuring a fasting glucose level because of the ease of measurement and time commitment of diabetes obesity formal glucose tolerance testing, which can take two hours to complete. By definition, diabetes tomatoes two fasting glucose measurements above 126 famous people with diabetes mg/dL or 7.0 mmol/l is considered diagnostic for diabetes mellitus.

Patients with fasting sugars health care diabetes between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/l (110 and 125 mg/dL) type 1 and type 2 diabetes are considered to have "impaired fasting glucose" and patients with plasma glucose at or type 1 diabetes diet above 140mg/dL or 7.8 mmol/l two hours after a 75 g american association diabetes diet plan oral glucose load are considered to have "impaired glucose tolerance". "Prediabetes" is either impaired fasting glucose or impaired diabetes 2 symptoms glucose tolerance; diabetes awareness bracelets the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus as well as cardiovascular disease.

While not diabetes diet plans used for diagnosis, an elevated level of glucose bound to hemoglobin (termed glycosylated hemoglobin diabetes mellitus symptom or HbA1c) of 6.0% or higher diabetes products (2003 revised U.S. standard) is considered abnormal by most labs; HbA1c is primarily a treatment-tracking diabetes vitamins test reflecting average blood glucose levels over the preceding 90 days (approximately). However, early signs of diabetes some physicians may order this test at the time early symptoms type 2 diabetes of diagnosis to track changes gestational diabetes meal plan over time. The current recommended goal for HbA1c in patients with diabetes information about diabetes is <7.0%, as defined as "good glycemic control", although some guidelines are stricter (<6.5%). People with diabetes that have HbA1c levels within juvenille diabetes this goal have a significantly lower incidence of complications from juvinile diabetes diabetes, including retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy.[9]

Complications

The complications symptoms of diabetes in children are far less common and less severe in people who symptoms of type ii diabetes have well-controlled blood sugar levels.[10] [11] In fact, the better the control, 1500 calorie diet plan menu diabetes the lower the care diabetes risk of complications. Hence patient education, understanding and participation is vital. Healthcare professionals who treat diabetes also address other health problems that may accelerate causes of diabetes insipidus the deleterious effects of control diabetes diabetes. These include smoking (abstain), elevated cholesterol levels (control with diet, diabetes foot problems exercise or medication), obesity (even modest weight loss can be beneficial), high blood pressure, and jerusalem artichoke diabetes lack of regular exercise.

Acute

Main articles: Diabetic ketoacidosis , Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma , managing diabetes Hypoglycemia , and Diabetic coma
Diabetic ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, dangerous complication steroid induced diabetes and is always a medical emergency. On atenolol diabetes tenormin presentation at hospital, the patient in DKA is typically diabetes and weight loss dehydrated and breathing both fast and deeply. Abdominal pain is common and may be severe. The level of consciousness diabetes cats is normal until late in diabetes posters the process, when lethargy (dulled or reduced level of alertness or consciousness) may progress to coma. The ketoacidosis can diagnosis of type 2 diabetes become severe enough to cause hypotension information on diabetes mellitus and shock. Prompt proper treatment usually results in full recovery, though death can result from juvenile onset diabetes inadequate treatment, delayed treatment or from a variety pictures of diabetes of complications. It is much more common in type 1 diabetes than type 2, but can still occur recipes for diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma

While not type 2 diabetes medication always progressing to coma, this hyperosmolar nonketotic state (HNS) is 1800 2 calorie diabetes diet type another acute problem associated with diabetes mellitus. It has many symptoms in common with DKA, calorie diabetes diet but a different cause, and requires different treatment. In anyone with controlling gestational diabetes very high blood glucose levels (usually considered to be above 300 mg/dl or 16 mmol/l), water will diabetes and the causes be osmotically driven out diabetes family of cells into the blood. The kidneys will also be "dumping" glucose diabetes ii diet into the urine, resulting in concomitant loss of water, causing an increase in blood osmolality. diabetes scholarships If the fluid is not replaced (by mouth or intravenously), diabetes tratamiento glucosa the osmotic effect of high glucose levels combined with the loss of insulin diabetes water will eventually result in such a high serum osmolality (dehydration). mellitus diabetes The body's cells may become progressively dehydrated as water is drawn out from them and excreted. Electrolyte imbalances are also common. This recipes diabetes combination of changes, especially if prolonged, will result in symptoms of symptoms of diabetes mellitus lethargy (dulled or reduced level of alertness or consciousness) type 2 diabetes symptoms signs and may progress to coma. As with DKA urgent medical treatment is american diabetes association diets necessary, especially volume replacement. This is the diabetic coma which more commonly occurs in type beach diabetes diet south 2 diabetics.

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia, or abnormally low blood glucose, is causes of type 2 diabetes a complication of several diabetes treatments. It may develop if the glucose intake does not match the controlling diabetes treatment. The diabetes mellitus 1 patient may become agitated, sweaty, and have many symptoms of sympathetic diabetes support group activation of the autonomic nervous system resulting in feelings similar to dread and immobilized panic. Consciousness can be altered, or diabetes treatment glucose even lost, in diet for diabetes 2 extreme cases, leading to coma and/or seizures or even brain damage and death. In patients with diet type 2 diabetes diabetes this can be caused by several factors, such as too much or incorrectly timed insulin, too much exercise exercise and type 2 diabetes or incorrectly timed exercise (which decreases insulin requirements) or not juvenile diabetes research enough food or insufficient amount of carbohydrates in food. In low carbohydrate calorie diet diabetes type ii most cases, hypoglycemia is treated with sweet drinks or food. In severe signs of diabetes mouth infections pictures cases, an injection of glucagon south beach diet and diabetes (a hormone with the opposite effects of insulin) or an intravenous infusion of american diabetes association 1800 calorie diet glucose is used for treatment, but usually only if the diabetic is unconscious.

Chronic

Microvascular disease

Chronic elevation of blood glucose level cure for type 2 diabetes leads to damage of blood vessels. In diabetes, the resultant cure for type diabetes problems are grouped under "microvascular disease" (due to damage to diabetes control diet small blood vessels) and "macrovascular disease" (due diabetes diet exchange plan to damage to the arteries).

The damage to small blood vessels leads to diabetes latest news a microangiopathy, which causes the following organ-related problems:

  • Diabetic retinopathy, growth of friable and poor-quality new blood vessels in the retina as well diabetes mall as macular edema (swelling of the macula), which can lead to severe diabetes mellitus pathophysiology vision loss or blindness. Retinal diabetes self care damage (from microangiopathy) makes it the most common cause diabetes signs and symptoms of blindness among non-elderly adults in the US.
  • Diabetic neuropathy, abnormal and decreased sensation, usually diabetes treatment for cancer in a stocking distribution starting at the feet but potentially in other nerves. When combined with signs symptoms diabetes in children damaged blood vessels this can lead to diabetic foot (see symptom of gestational diabetes below). Other forms of diabetic neuropathy may present as mononeuritis or autonomic neuropathy.
  • Diabetic nephropathy, damage 2 diabetes diabetic diet type to the kidney which can lead to chronic renal failure, alpha lipoic acid diabetes eventually requiring dialysis. Diabetes mellitus is the most care diabetes financial help common cause of adult kidney failure worldwide.
Macrovascular disease

Macrovascular disease leads to cardiovascular cat diabetes in mellitus disease, mainly by accelerating atherosclerosis:

  • Coronary artery disease, leading to myocardial infarction causes of diabetes mellitus type 2 ("heart attack") or angina
  • Stroke (mainly ischemic type)
  • Peripheral vascular disease, which contributes to diabetes and depression intermittent claudication (exertion-related foot pain) as well as diabetic foot.
  • Diabetic myonecrosis

Diabetic foot, often due to a combination of neuropathy and diabetes basics arterial disease, may cause diabetes eye skin ulcer and infection and, in serious cases, necrosis and gangrene. It is the most diabetes history common cause of adult amputation, usually of toes and or feet, in the US and other Western countries.

Carotid artery diabetes in child stenosis does not occur more often in diabetes, and there appears diabetes meal plan to be a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus diet plan abdominal aortic aneurysm. However, diabetes does cause higher morbidity, mortality and diabetes mellitus type 2 diet operative risks with these conditions.[12]

Treatment and management

Main article: Diabetes management

Diabetes is a chronic diabetes meter disease, and emphasis is diabetes side effects on managing short-term as well as long-term diabetes-related problems. There is an important role for patient education, nutritional support, self glucose diabetes type ii diet monitoring, as well as long-term glycemic diets for diabetes control. A scrupulous control is needed to help reduce facts diabetes the risk of long term complications. In addition, given the associated higher risks of cardiovascular disease, lifestyle modifications must be implemented to control gestational diabetes carb counting diet blood la diabetes pressure[13] and cholesterol by exercising more, smoking cessation, and consuming an appropriate diet.

In countries with a general practitioner reversing diabetes system, such as the United Kingdom, care may signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus be extended mainly in the community, with hospital-based specialist symtoms diabetes input only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar control, or participation in research. In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists type 2 diabetes and childhood obesity and physical education may share care of a type ii diabetes diet renal patient in a team approach. Optometrists, podiatrists/chiropodists, dietitians, physiotherapists, who discovered diabetes clinical nurse specialists (eg, Certified Diabetic Educators), or nurse practitioners may provide multidisciplinary american diabetes association 2000 calorie diet expertise.

Nowadays, with improved diagnostic support, type-1 (insulin-dependent) diabetics can join all kinds of activities. In May american diabetes association diet plan 2006 for example, the Austrian mountaineer Geri Winkler became the american diabetes diet native first insulin-dependent diabetic to reach the top of Mount Everest.

Curing diabetes

The fact that type 1 diabetes atkins diet and diabetes is due to the failure of one of the cell types of caffeine and diabetes a single organ with a relatively simple function (i.e. the failure of the diabetes and carbs islets of Langerhans) has diabetes camp led to the study of several possible schemes to diabetes log cure diabetes.[14] In contrast, type 2 diabetes is more complex diabetes syptoms with fewer prospects of a curative measure, but further understanding of the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance diabetic diet gestational diabetes may make a cure possible. Correcting insulin resistance may free diabetes supplies provide a cure for type 2 diabetes.[15]

Only those type 1 diabetics who have received a kidney-pancreas transplant (when gestational diabetes signs symptoms they have developed diabetic nephropathy) and become insulin-independent may glucosamine and diabetes be considered "cured" from their diabetes. Still, they generally remain on juvenile diabetes bracelet long-term immunosuppressive drug and there is a possibility the autoimmune phenomenon will develop in medical information on diabetes mellitus the transplanted organ.[14]

Transplants of exogenous beta cells prevention of type 2 diabetes have been performed experimentally in both mice and humans, but this measure is not yet practical in regular relationship between pancreatic cancer diabetes clinical practice. Thus far, like any such transplant, it provokes an immune symptoms care diabetes reaction and type 2 diabetes pictures long-term immunosuppressive drug will be needed to protect the transplanted tissue.[16] An alternative technique has been proposed to place the transplanted type 2 ii diabetes symptoms beta cells in a semi-permeable container, isolating them from type ii diabetes cure the immune system. Stem cell research has also type ii diabetes mellitus wound care been suggested as a potential avenue for a warning sign of diabetes cure since it may permit the regrowth of islet cells which are genetically part of the treated individual, thus web site with a diet for diabetes eliminating the need for immuno-suppressants. However, it has also been hypothesised womens health man health vitamin diabetes heart we that the same mechanism which led to islet destruction originally may simply destroy even stem-cell 2 dependent diabetes diet exercise insulin mellitus non regenerated islets.[14]

Microscopic or nanotechnological approaches are under investigation as well, with implanted stores of insulin metered out by a rapid response valve 2 diabetes obesity type sensitive to blood glucose levels. At least two approaches have been american association of diabetes proposed and demonstrated in vitro. These are, in some american diabetes association diet plans sense, closed-loop insulin pumps.citation needed]

Prevention

As little american diabetes diet is known on the exact mechanism by which type 1 diabetes develops, causes for type 2 diabetes there are no preventive measures available for that form of diabetes. Some causes of diabetes type 2 studies have attributed complication of diabetes mellitus a protective effect of breastfeeding on the development of type 1 diabetes. In addition, breastfeeding might also be cure for diabetes 2 correlated with the prevention of type 2 of the disease in mothers.[17]

Type 2 diabetes diabetes and cinnamon can be prevented in part by maintaining a stable body weight diabetes gene through diet and exercise. Some studies have shown delayed progression to diabetes in predisposed patients through the use of metformin[18] or diabetes hoping for a cure bracelet valsartan.[19]

Public health and policy

The 1989 Declaration of St Vincent was the result of international efforts diabetes mellitus treatment to improve the care accorded to diabetes mellitus type 2 pathology those with diabetes. Doing so is important both in terms of quality diabetes pregnancy of life and life expectancy but also economically - expenses to diabetes diabetes record keeping have been shown to be a major drain on health- and productivity-related resources for healthcare systems and governments.

Several countries diet cure for type 1 diabetes established more and less successful national diabetes programmes to improve treatment of the disease.[20]

Epidemiology and statistics

In 2006, according to exercise and diabetes the World Health Organization, at least 171 million people worldwide suffer food diet type ii diabetes diets from diabetes. Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that by the year home care best practices in diabetes 2030, this number will double. Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world, juvenile diabetes research foundation bracelet but is more common (especially type 2) in the know about the symptoms of juvenile diabetes more developed countries. The greatest increase in prevalence is, however, expected to lipitor diabetes occur in Asia and Africa, where most patients national diabetes education program will likely be found by 2030. The increase in incidence of diabetes in developing countries follows the new diabetes medicine trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, perhaps non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus most importantly a "Western-style" diet. This has suggested an environmental (i.e., dietary) effect, but there is little understanding of the online diabetes logbook on line log book mechanism(s) at present, though there is much pathophysiology of diabetes speculation, some of it most compellingly presented.

Diabetes is in the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes top 10, and perhaps the top 5, of the most significant diseases in the developed world, traveling with diabetes and is gaining in significance there and type 1 diabetes cure elsewhere (see big killers).

For at least 20 years, diabetes rates in North America have been increasing substantially. In 2005 type 2 diabetes diet plan there are about 20.8 million people with diabetes type 2 diabetes prevention in the United States alone. According to the American Diabetes Association, there are about 6.2 million people undiagnosed and about 41 1200 calorie american diabetes association diet million people that would be considered prediabetic.[21] However, the criteria for diagnosing diabetes in the USA 2 diabetes mellitus symptom type means that it is more readily diagnosed than in some other countries. citation needed]The Centers for Disease Control has termed the change an epidemic. The National Diabetes Information caring for diabetes Clearinghouse estimates that diabetes costs $132 billion in the United States alone every causes of diabetes in children and the treatment year. About 5%–10% of diabetes causes of type 1 diabetes cases in North America are type 1, with the rest being type 2. The fraction of type 1 in other central diabetes insipidus parts of the world differs; coffee and diabetes this is likely due to both differences in the rate of type diabetes awareness bracelet 1 and differences in the rate of other types, most prominently type 2. Most of this difference is not diabetes control diet health plan currently understood.According to the American diabetes control diet plan Diabetes Association, 1 in 3 Americans born after 2000 will develop diabetes in their lifetime.[22]

See also

  • List of diabetes diabetes insipidus mellitus terms associated with diabetes

References

  1. ^ diabetes diet ii plan type a b c World Health Organisation Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance (1999). Definition, Diagnosis and diabetes early symptoms Classification of Diabetes Mellitus diabetes in information spanish and its Complications (PDF).
  2. ^ a b Patlak M (2002). "New weapons diabetes insipidus symptoms to combat an ancient disease: treating diabetes". FASEB J 16 (14): 1853. PMID 12468446.
  3. ^ Von diabetes mellitus ii Mehring J, Minkowski O. (1890). "Diabetes mellitus nach pankreasexstirpation.". Arch Exp diabetes mellitus tipo 1 Pathol Pharmakol 26: 371-387.
  4. ^ Banting FG, Best CH, Collip JB, diabetes mellitus type Campbell WR, Fletcher AA (1922). "Pancreatic extracts in the treatment of diabetes diabetes supplements mellitus". Canad Med Assoc J 12: 141–146.
  5. ^ Department of Health (Malta), 1897–1972:Annual Reports.
  6. ^ Himsworth (1936). diabetes tea "Diabetes mellitus: its differentiation into insulin-sensitive and diabetes treatments insulin-insensitive types". Lancet i: 127–130.
  7. ^ Yalow diabetes type RS, Berson SA. Immunoassay of endogenous plasma insulin in man. J Clin Invest 1960;39:1157-75. gestational diabetes test PMID 13846364.
  8. ^ (1993). "The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression individual health insurance plans low cost diabetes of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus Control and Complications Trial Research Group.". N Engl J pets diabetes Med 329 (14): 977-86. PMID 8366922.
  9. ^ Genuth S (Jan-Feb 2006). "Insights pictures on diabetes from the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study on the use of intensive pregnancy diabetes glycemic treatment to reduce the signs diabetes symptoms risk of complications of type 1 diabetes.". Endocr Pract 12 Suppl 1: 34-41. PMID 16627378.
  10. ^ Nathan DM, Cleary PA, symptom of type 2 diabetes Backlund JY, Genuth SM, symptoms type ii diabetes Lachin JM, Orchard TJ, Raskin P, Zinman B; Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study Research type 1 diabetes mellitus Group. Intensive diabetes type 1 diabetes news treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2643-53. PMID 16371630.
  11. ^ The Diabetes type 2 diabetes symptom Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive diabetes therapy on the development and progression of neuropathy. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:561-8. PMID 7887548.
  12. ^ Weiss J, Sumpio B (2006). "Review of prevalence and outcome of vascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus.". Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 31 (2): 143-50. PMID 16203161.
  13. ^ Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, Cull CA, Wright AD, Turner RC, Holman RR. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000;321:412-9. PMID 10938049.
  14. ^ a b c Vinik AI, Fishwick DT, Pittenger G. Advances in diabetes for the millennium: toward a cure for diabetes. MedGenMed 2004;6:12. PMID 15647717.
  15. ^ Rubino F, Gagner M. Potential of surgery for curing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Surg 2002;236:554-9. PMID 12409659.
  16. ^ Shapiro, et. al. International Trial of the Edmonton Protocol for Islet Transplantation NEJM 2006 355: 1318-1330
  17. ^ Stuebe AM, Rich-Edwards JW, Willett WC, Manson JE, Michels KB (2005). "Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes". JAMA 294 (20): 2601–10. PMID 16304074.
  18. ^ Knowler W, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler S, Hamman R, Lachin J, Walker E, Nathan D (2002). "Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.". N Engl J Med 346 (6): 393-403. PMID 11832527.
  19. ^ Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Mancia G, McInnes GT, Hua T, Weber MA, Coca A, Ekman S, Girerd X, Jamerson K, Larochelle P, Macdonald TM, Schmieder RE, Schork MA, Stolt P, Viskoper R, Widimsky J, Zanchetti A; for the VALUE Trial Investigators (2006). "Effects of valsartan compared to amlodipine on preventing type 2 diabetes in high-risk hypertensive patients: the VALUE trial.". J Hypertens 24 (7): 1405-1412. PMID 16794491.
  20. ^ Dubois, HFW and Bankauskaite, V (2005). "Type 2 diabetes programmes in Europe" (PDF). Euro Observer 7 (2): 5–6.
  21. ^ American Diabetes Association (2005). Total Prevalence of Diabetes & Pre-diabetes. Retrieved on 2006-03-17.
  22. ^ MY FIRST AID INFORMATION - Diabetes (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-03.

External links

  • International Diabetes Federation
  • American Diabetes Association
  • Canadian Diabetes Association
  • Diabetes UK
  • Operation Diabetes in the Philippines
  • WHO — The Diabetes Programme
  • Center for Disease Control Diabetes Section
  • MedlinePlus Diabetes from the U.S. National Library of Medicine
  • Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
  • The Immunology of Diabetes Society
  • Diet, Nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases (including diabetes) by a Joint WHO/FAO Expert consultation (2003) - Summary by GreenFacts.
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