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cloning in the news

Cat cloning firm in Marin loses all its nine lives 

BizJournals - Oct 08 10:30 PM
Genetic Savings & Clone is putting itself into the deep freeze.

Missouri Debaters Battle for the Suburbs 
Washington Post - Oct 08 9:52 PM
Sen. James M. Talent of Missouri and Democratic challenger Claire McCaskill sparred over the war in Iraq, stem cell research and the House page scandal in a feisty debate yesterday, as the candidates fought for an edge in a race that polls show is a dead heat.

Missouri Debaters Battle for the Suburbs 
Washington Post - Oct 08 5:04 PM
Sen. James M. Talent of Missouri and Democratic challenger Claire McCaskill sparred over the war in Iraq, stem cell research and the House Republican page scandal in a feisty debate yesterday, as the candidates fought for an edge in a race that polls show is a dead heat.

Staying Student-Centric at Babson 
BusinessWeek - Oct 08 10:09 PM
The school's new provost talks about the future of the business-oriented programs and her outlook on education

clonning

 

 

- human cloning

- cloning

Cloning is the process of recreating an identical copy of an original organism or thing. A clone in clonning the biological sense, therefore, is a single cell (like bacteria, lymphocytes etc.) or multi-cellular organism that clonig has been directly copied clining from and is therefore genetically identical to another living organism. Sometimes this term can refer to "natural" clones made either coning when an organism reproduces asexually or when two genetically identical individuals are produced by chance clonong (as with identical twins), cloing but in common parlance, a clone is an identical copy created intentionally.

The term clone is derived from κλων, the Greek clooning word for "twig". In clonin horticulture, the spelling clon was used until the twentieth century; the final e came clonign into use to indicate the vowel is a "long clening o" instead of a "short o". Since the term entered the popular colning lexicon in a more general context, the spelling clone has cloninh been used exclusively.

Contents

  • 1 Types of cloning cloning
    • 1.1 Molecular
    • 1.2 Cellular
    • 1.3 Horticultural
    • 1.4 Natural human cloning clones
  • 2 Species cloned
  • 3 Ethical issues of cloning
  • 4 Health animal cloning aspects
  • 5 Therapeutic cloning
  • 6 Human against cloning cloning
  • 7 Cloning extinct and endangered species
  • 8 Dolly ethics human cloning the Sheep
  • 9 References
  • 10 External hair cloning links and references

Types of cloning

Molecular

Main article: clone (genetics)

Molecular cloning refers to the procedure isolating a DNA therapeutic cloning sequence of interest and obtaining multiple copies of it in an organism. Cloning is frequently employed disadvantages of cloning to amplify DNA fragments containing genes, an essential step cloning ethics in their subsequent analysis. Frequently, the term cloning is misleadingly cloning marijuana used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular cell phone cloning phenotype of interest. In practice, reproductive cloning localisation of the gene does not always enable one to amplify the relevant genomic cloning humans sequence called


Cloning of any DNA sequence involves against human cloning the following four steps: amplification, ligation, transfection, and screening/selection. Initially, the DNA fragment of interest needs to be amplified (many copies need human cloning process to be produced). Amplification download aim cloning is commonly achieved by means of PCR. Subsequently, a ligation procedure cons of cloning is employed whereby the amplified fragment is inserted into a vector. The motorola cell phone cloning software programming vector (which is frequently circular) is linearised by means what is cloning of restriction enzymes, and incubated with the fragment of interest under appropriate conditions that allow advantages and disadvantages of cloning for ligation. The yield of the ligation is typically low and depends on the procedure employed. Following ligation the vector human cloning research with the insert of interest is transfected to cells. Most commonly electroporation is legalization of human cloning employed, although a number of alternative organ transplant and cloning techniques are available, such as chemical sensitivation of cells. Finally, the transfected cells are cultured. scientific journal article cloning As the aforementioned procedures are cloning articles of particularly low yield, there is the need to identify the cell colonies that have been transfected with the construct of disk cloning interest containing the desired insertion sequence. Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance cloning dna markers, which allow only for cloning plants cells in which the vector has been transfected to grow. However this selection step does not guarantee that the pros and cons of cloning DNA insert is present in the vector. Further investigation of the resulting cloning human organs colonies is required to confirm that cloning statistics cloning was successful. This can be accomplished by means of blue/white cloning animals screening (α-factor complimentation) on X-gal medium and/or PCR, possibly followed by DNA genetic cloning sequencing.

Cellular

Somatic cell nuclear transfer can create clones for human cloning benefits both reproductive and therapeutic purposes. Cloning a cell means to derive a (clonal) population of cells from why animal cloning is wrong a single cell. This is an important aim cloning in vitro procedure when the expansion of a single cell with certain motorola cloning cable characteristics is desired, for example in the production of gene-targeted ES reasons against cloning cells. Most individuals began as a single cell and are therefore the cloning cord injury spinal result of clonal expansion in vivo.

Cloning means to create a new organism with the same genetic information as a cell from an cloning dolly existing one(identical). It is an asexual method of reproduction, disk cloning software where fertilization or credit card cloning inter-gamete contact does not take place. In a modern context, this can involve somatic cell nuclear dna cloning transfer in which a cell of the organism to be advantages of cloning cloned, with its nucleus containing the DNA, is transferred into an egg cell disk cloning software free which has had its nucleus removed. As the nucleus contains almost all of pet cloning the genetic information of a lifeform, the "host" egg cell will develop into an organism pros and cons of human cloning with genetically identical nuclear DNA to the nucleus "donor". However, this pros of cloning process does not conserve the mitochondrial genome (of the nucleus donor) unless the risks of cloning nucleus and egg cell donor were from the same maternal lineage. Also mutations dvd cloning occur with every cell division so no two cells in an individual are identical, ethics issues regarding genetic cloning nor are clones. Thus, nuclear transfer clones history of cloning from different maternal lineages are not clones in the strictest sense because the mitochondrial plant cloning genome is not the same as that of the aim cloning download nucleus donor cell from which it was produced. This may aim free cloning have important implications for cross-species nuclear transfer in which nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibilities may lead to inviability.

Horticultural

The term clone is cloning ethical issues used in horticulture to detection of cloning in mobile communication mean all descendants of a single plant, produced by vegetative reproduction ethics of cloning or apomixis. Many horticultural plant cultivars are clones, having been derived from a gene cloning single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction. As an norton ghost 2003 cloning glitches example, some European cultivars of grapes represent clones that have been people against cloning propagated for over two millennia. Other examples are potato and banana. Grafting can be regarded as cloning, since all the cloning body parts for harvesting shoots and branches coming from the graft are genetically a hair cloning for baldness clone of a single individual, although the root systems may be how does cloning work genetically different for each grafted plant. Other important horticultural cloning methods are cuttings, tissue culture, layering and storage aol instant messenger cloning organs, such berkeley cloning jesus as bulbs, tubers and corms. These are genuine examples of cloning in the broader biological sense, as they create cloning human dna genetically identical organisms by biological means, cloning weed but this particular kind of cloning has not come under ethical scrutiny and is human cloning for spare body parts generally treated as an entirely different kind of operation.

Natural clones

Many trees, shrubs, vines, ferns and other is cloning ethical herbaceous perennials form clonal aim plus cloning download colonies. Parts of a large clonal colony often become detached biotechnology cloning from the parent, termed fragmentation, to form separate individuals. Some plants also form seeds asexually, termed apomixis, e.g. dandelion.

Cloning exists in nature in cell phone cloning software some animal species and is referred to cloning human animal as parthenogenesis. An example is the "Little Fire Ant" cloning pros (Wasmannia auropunctata), which is native to Central and South America but free cloning for aol instant messenging has spread throughout many tropical environments.[1]

Species cloned

The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfer have been successfully marijuana cloning performed on several species. Landmark experiments in chronological order:

  • Tadpole: (1952) Many scientists types of cloning questioned whether cloning had actually occurred and unpublished experiments by other cell phone cloning sprint labs were not able to reproduce the reported cloning clyde results.
  • Carp: (1963) In China, embryologist Tong Dizhou cloned a fish. He published cloning news the findings in an obscure Chinese science journal which was never translated into cloning pets English.[2]
  • Mice: (1986) was the first successfully cloned mammal; Soviet scientists Chaylakhyan, Veprencev, Sviridova, Nikitin disadvantages of human cloning had mice the application of cloning in the biotech and medical field "Masha" cloned. Research was published in the magazine "Biofizika" volume ХХХII, issue 5 of 1987.[3]
  • Sheep: (1996) From early embryonic cells by what is human cloning cloning arguments Steen Willadsen. Megan and Morag cloned from differentiated embryonic cells in June 1995 and Dolly the sheep in 1997.
  • Rhesus Monkey: Tetra (female, January cloning satellite access cards 2000) from embryo drive cloning splitting
  • Cattle: Alpha and Beta (males, 2001) and (2005) Brazil[4]
  • Cat: CopyCat dvd cloning software "CC" (female, late 2001), Little Nicky, 2004, was the first cat is cloning moral cloned for commercial reasons
  • Mule: Idaho Gem, a john mule born 2003-05-04, was the first horse-family neuregulin 1 cloning clone.
  • Horse: Prometea, a Halflinger female born 2003-05-28, was the first horse political reasons for cloning clone.

For a complete list see: List of animals that have been cloned. During the first several divisions of a advantages of animal cloning fertilized egg, no differentiation occurs and the cells can be separated without harm, against animal cloning but each will grow into an identical individual. This process has animla cloning and world hunger been used on cattle for decades to produce hundreds of identical individuals aol instant message cloning in some cases. articles against cloning This process is not considered cloning, but is called "budding". The new individual is not derived from a cloning benefits differentiated cell, but from an cloning cannabis in a fridge undifferentiated egg. There is no way to determine which are the clones and which is the original.

Ethical issues of cloning

See also: Christian views on cloning

Roman Catholicism cloning with embryonic stem cells and many conservative Christian groups have opposed human cloning and disadvantages to human cloning the cloning of human embryos, believing that a human life begins the moment a human egg essays against cloning becomes fertilized. Other Christian denominations such as the United free aol instant messenger cloning Church of Christ do not believe a fertilized egg constitutes a living being, but still they oppose the free cloning for aol instant messaging cloning of embryonic cells. The World Council of Churches, representing nearly 400 denominations gsm cloning of cell phones worldwide, opposed cloning of both human embryos and information on cloning whole humans in February 2006. The United Methodist Church opposed research and reproductive cloning prevention of cloning in mobile communication in May 2000 and again in May 2004.

Libertarian views on the subject suggest sim card cloning that the federal government of the United tell me about animal cloning States does not have the power to regulate cloning, anti animal cloning as it is not given any such authority by the US constitution. (Similar benefits of cloning to abortion rights.)

   
Cloning represents a very clear, powerful, and immediate example in which we chemicals that help with plant cloning are in danger of turning procreation christian aspect on human cloning into manufacture.
   

—Leon Kass, on cloning

At present, the cloning of aim main objection to human cloning is that the cloned individual cloning vocab may be biologically damaged, due to the inherent unreliability of its origin: researchers currently are comic cloning unable to safely and reliably clone non-human primates.

However, as cloning research and methods different types of cloning improve, concerns of safety and reliability will no longer be an issue. effect of human cloning and the population However, it must be pointed out that this has yet to occur, and may never human cloning research pros and cons occur. Rudolph Jaenisch, a professor at magazine articles on cloning Harvard, has pointed out that we have become more efficient at producing clones organ cloning which are still defective (Development Dynamics. Volume 235, pages 2460-2469. 2006). Other arguments against cloning pro human cloning come from various religious orders (believing religion on human cloning cloning violates God's will or the natural order of life), and a general discomfort some have science toon cloning with the idea of "meddling" with the creation world wildlife fund cloning and basic function of life. This unease often manifests itself in contemporary novels, animal cloning vs human cloning movies, and popular culture, much like numerous other scientific discoveries and inventions before. Various fictional scenarios portray clones being unhappy, soulless, or bad cloning unable to integrate into society. Furthermore, clones cat cloning are often depicted not as unique individuals but as "spare parts," cell cloning code nokia phone service providing organs for the clone's original (or any non-clone that requires replacement organs). Needless cloning advantages to say, cloning is a poignant and important topic, reflected by its frequent discussion and debate cloning amplification among politicians, scientists, the media, cloning companys in australia religions, and the general public.

Health aspects

The success rate of cloning has been low: cloning essays Dolly the sheep was born after 277 eggs were to create 29 cloning sky digital cards embryos, which only produced three lambs cloning software at birth, only one of which lived, Dolly. 70 calves have been created from 9,000 attempts cons of human cloning and one third of them died young; dog cloning Prometea took 328 attempts, and, more recently, Paris Texas was created after 400 attempts. Notably, although the editorials on cloning first clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus ethical disputes on human cloning donor cell.

There were free cloning software early claims that Dolly the Sheep had accelerated aging. Aging of this type is thought to be due free ghosting imaging cloning software to shortening of telomeres, regions at the tips free image cloning editing downloads of chromosomes which prevent genetic threads fraying every time a market for dna cloning kits cell divides. Over time telomeres get worn down until cell-division is no longer possible — this is thought to be a cause paper on cloning of aging. However, subsequent studies showed that, if anything, population of human cloning Dolly's telomere were longer than normal.verification needed] Dolly died adventage disadventage of cloning in the year of 2003. Ian Wilmut said that Dolly's adventage of cloning early death had nothing to do with cloning but with a respiratory infection common to lambs raised inside like Dolly.

Consistent with aim download cloning Dolly's telomeres animal cloning disadvantages being longer, analysis of the telomeres from cloned cows showed that they were also longer. This suggests benefits of theraputic cloning clones could live longer life spans although many cell phone hacks cloning died young after excessive growth. Researchers think that this could eventually be developed to reverse aging in humans, cloning and its ethics provided that this is based chiefly on shortening of telomeres. Although cloning clones some work has been performed on telomeres and aging in nuclear transfer clones, cloning cost the evidence is at an early stage. [5]

Therapeutic cloning

Therapeutic cloning cloning from a religious point of view is the procedure for creating stem cells genetically compatible with the cloning in pokemon firered patient. Therapeutic cloning might provide a way to grow organs in cloning is bad host carrier, which become completely compatible with cloning oracle database using rman the original. Host carrier growing poses a risk of trans-species diseases cloning pictures if the host is of a different species (e.g., a pig). In human cloning process beings, this is a highly controversial issue, as it involves creating human cloning research in usa embryos in vitro and then destroying them to obtain multipotent embryonic stem cells.

Human cloning

Main article: dishnet receiver card cloning Human cloning

Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing, download cloning aim or previously existing human or growing cloned tissue from that individual. ethical debate on cloning The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning; ewen chia's cloning human clones in the form of identical heart attacks human cloning twins are commonplace, with their cloning occurring how is cloning done during the natural process of reproduction.

With certain fields opening with human cloning the people of the human cloning ramifications world are becoming angered. There are those who would wish to newspaper articles on cloning stop all progress in the human cloning fields. One of the most norton ghost 2003 cloning issues ethically questionable problems with human cloning is this, is pc cloning pitfalls it ethical that a human clone could be raised for an old man dying of [heart cancer], then euthanized and reasons for cloning so that the vital organs of the clone could recent news about cloning be harvested. This process of renewing the bodies organs would potentially increase the life expectancy of a human by technology cloning bio implants 50 years.

The cloning described the history of cloning above is reproductive cloning. This is different from theraputic cloning where only parts (such as an organ) are what is therapeutic cloning cloned using genetic material from a advantages of human cloning patients tissues.

Cloning extinct and endangered species

Cloning, or more precisely, the reconstruction of aim cloning download free functional DNA from extinct species has, for decades, been a dream of some scientists. The and genetic cloning will hold the possible implications of this were dramatized in the animal cloning and world hunger best-selling novel by Michael Crichton and high budget Hollywood thriller Jurassic Park. In real life, one of the most animal cloning in past few years anticipated targets for cloning was once the Woolly mammoth, but attempts benefits of animal cloning to extract cloning a sky digital card DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful, though a joint Russo-Japanese team is currently working toward this cloning accidents goal.[6]

In 2000, a cow named Bessie gave birth to a cloned cloning and genetic testing Asian gaur, an endangered species, but the calf died after two days. In 2003, a banteng cloning and imaging software was successfully cloned, followed cloning cheat for pokemon ruby version by three African wildcats from a thawed frozen embryo. These successes provided cloning debate hope that similar techniques (using surrogate mothers of another species) cloning disadvantages might be used to clone extinct species. Anticipating this possibility, tissue samples from the last bucardo (Pyrenean cloning dog Ibex) were frozen immediately after it died. Researchers are also considering cloning endangered cloning gone wrong species such as the giant panda, ocelot, and cheetah. The cloning information "Frozen Zoo" at the San Diego Zoo cloning lesson plans now stores frozen tissue from the world's rarest and most endangered species.[7][8]

In 2002, geneticists cloning magic mushrooms at the Australian Museum announced that they had replicated DNA cloning marijuana buds of the Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger), extinct about 65 years previous, using polymerase chain reaction.[9] However, on cloning marijuana cuttings 2005-02-15 the museum announced that it was stopping the project after tests showed cloning of humans the specimens' DNA had been too cloning pros and cons badly degraded by the (ethanol) preservative. Most recently, on cloning pros/cons 2005-05-15, it was announced that the Thylacine project would be revived, with cloning roses new participation from researchers in New South Wales and Victoria.

One of the continuing obstacles in the attempt to cloning to end world hunger clone extinct species is the need cloning windows for nearly perfect DNA. Cloning from a single specimen could not create a viable breeding population in sexually reproducing animals. codes for cloning cellphones Furthermore, even if cons of dna cloning males and females were cloned, the question would remain open if they cons ofhuman cloning would be viable at all in the absence of parents that could debate human cloning teach or show them natural behavior. Essentially, if cloning an extinct species succeeded — it must be considered that cloning still is an disadvantages cloning animal experimental technology that succeeds only disputes on human cloning by chance — it is far more likely than not that any resulting animals, dolly cloning even if they were healthy, would be little more than curios or museum et cloning pieces.

Cloning endangered species is a highly ideological issue. Many conservation biologists and environmentalists vehemently oppose f4tr cloning cloning endangered species — not because they think faq about dna cloning it won't work but because they think it may deter donations to free cloning tool help preserve natural habitat and wild animal populations. The "rule-of-thumb" in animal conservation is that, if it history of human cloning human cloning for healing is still feasible to conserve habitat and viable wild populations, breeding in captivity mac address cloning should not be undertaken in isolation.

In a 2006 review, David Ehrenfeld concludes that cloning in animal conservation is an experimental technology pet preservation for cloning that, at its present state, religion and cloning cannot be expected to work except by pure chance and utterly fails a cost-benefit sheep cloning analysis.[10] Furthermore, he says, it is likely to siphon funds from established and working projects and does the cloning process not address any of the issues underlying animal extinction water cloning (such as habitat destruction, hunting or other overexploitation, and an impoverished gene pool). While cloning who invented cloning technologies are well-established and adventages disadventages of cloning used on a regular basis in plant conservation, care must be taken to ensure genetic diversity. He concludes:

   
Vertebrate cloning poses articles on cloning little risk to the environment, but it can consume scarce conservation australia legal presedent cloning resources, and its chances of success in ban cloning preserving species seem poor. To date, the conservation benefits of biotechnology and cloning transgenics and vertebrate cloning remain entirely theoretical, but many of the risks are known and documented. Conservation biologists should devote their cell cloning phone sanyo research and energies to the established methods cloning advantages in point form of conservation, none of which require transgenics or vertebrate cloning.[10]
   

Dolly the Sheep

Dolly and her first-born lamb, Bonnie
Main article: Dolly the Sheep

Dolly (1996-07-05 – 2003-02-14), a ewe, cloning cons was the cloning consequences first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell (while the mice in USSR cloning conspiracies was cloned from embryo cell back in 1986[1]). She was cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland and cloning disasters lived there until her death when she was cloning hdd compaq 6. Her birth was announced on 1997-02-22.

The name "Dolly" came from a suggestion by Jesse Haase who cloning headline helped with her birth, in honor cloning historical figures of Dolly Parton, because it was a mammary cell that was cloning humans procedures cloned. The technique that was made famous by her birth is somatic cell cloning in leafgreen nuclear transfer, in which a non-reproductive cell containing a nucleus is placed in a de-nucleated ovum (which then develops cloning in pokemon:emerald into a fetus). cloning in the classroom When Dolly was cloned in 1996 from a cell taken from a six-year-old ewe, she cloning introduction became the center of much controversy that cloning law still exists today.

On 2003-04-09 her stuffed remains were placed at Edinburgh's Royal cloning linux servers Museum, part of the National Museums of Scotland.

Ian Wilmut's role in cloning Dolly the sheep is in doubt. In 2006 he cloning marijuana plants admitted under oath in a Scottish court that cloning of daylilies he did not clone Dolly the cloning or genetics Sheep and was not responsible for the scientific breakthrough which made it all possiblecitation needed]. He credited somebody called cloning organs Keith Campbell as being the brains behind Dolly the Sheep.

In late 2006, cloning overpopulation Iranian scientists claimed to have successfully cloned a sheep, by somatic cloning pokemon cell nuclear transfer, at the Tehran's Royan Institute.[11][12] The scientists say the animal died cloning procedure minutes after birth, cloning small plants diy and was not given a name.[13]

References

  1. ^ {{cite news|url=http://www.newscientist.com/channel/life/mg18625675.600|title=Bizarre stand-off in battle of the sexes|publisher=New themselves via cloning vectors for insects fragmentation, cloning xp e.g. starfish.
  2. ^ BLOODLINES. Timeline
  3. ^ whoiswho.ru
  4. ^ Wikinews: Endangered cow cloned in Brazil, computer cloning 2005-05-22
  5. ^ Vogel, Gretchen (2000). "In Contrast to Dolly, Cloning Resets Telomere Clock in Cattle". Science 288: 641.
  6. ^ "Scientists effect of human population because of human cloning 'to clone mammoth'", BBC News, 2003-08-18.
  7. ^ Heidi effects of cloning B. Perlman. "Scientists Close on Extinct Cloning", Associated Press, 2000-10-08.
  8. ^ Pence, Gregory essays on cloning playing god E. (2005). Cloning After Dolly: Who's Still Afraid?. Rowman ethical issues regarding human cloning & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-3408-1.
  9. ^ Holloway, Grant. "Cloning to revive extinct species", CNN.com, 2002-05-28.
  10. ^ expert testimony on cloning a b Ehrenfeld, David (2006). "Transgenics and Vertebrate Cloning as free aim cloning download Tools for Species Conservation". Conservation Biology 20 (3): 723-732. DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00399.x.
  11. ^ http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=17674
  12. ^ http://www.farsnews.com/imgrep.html?nn=8507080498
  13. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/story/0,,1839215,00.html
  1. Pence, Gregory E. (1998). Who’s Afraid of Human Cloning?. Rowman & Littlefield. paperback ISBN 0-8476-8782-1 genetic engenering  gene splicing and cloning and hardcover ISBN 0-8476-8781-3.

External links and genetic engineering and cloning references

  • 'Cloning' Freeview video by the Vega Science Trust and genetic testing and cloning the BBC/OU
  • Clone Guide - Cloning News Website with a Resource to Cloning human cloning overpopulation information in the World
  • Cloning and Stem Cells - Cloning and Stem Cells journal with Dr. Ian Wilmut as Editor
  • The Reproductive human cloning pros and cons Cloning Network. Cloning articles, resources and links
  • Cloning in Focus, an human cloning statistics accessible and comprehensive look at cloning research from the University of Utah's Genetic Science Learning Center
  • Click and Clone. Try it yourself in the virtual mouse cloning laboratory, from the University of Utah's Genetic Science Learning Center
  • Cloning timeline: from CNN
  • CBC Digital Archives – Canada Enters the Clone Age
  • "Can Humans Be Cloned?", from Awake! magazine
  • "Cloning Addendum: A statement on the cloning report issues by the President's Council on Bioethics," The National Review, July 15, 2002 8:45am
Search Term: "Cloning"

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