- This article is about male circumcision. For the practice sometimes referred to circuncision as "female circumcision", see Female genital cutting.
Seixas Family circumcision set and trunk, ca. eighteenth cicumcision century.
Wooden box covered in cow hide with silver implements: silver trays, clip, pointer, silver flask, spice vessel.
Circumcision is the removal circumision of some or all of the curcumcision foreskin (prepuce) from the penis. The frenulum may also be removed at the same time, in a procedure called frenectomy. The word "circumcision" comes from circimcision Latin circum (meaning circumcisiom "around") and caedere (meaning "to cut"). The practice of circumcision predates recorded human history, with depictions found in stone-age cave drawings and Egyptian circumcisio tombs. The circumcusion origins of the practice are lost in antiquity. Theories include circucision that circumcision is a form of ritual sacrifice or offering, a sign of submission to a deity, a rite of passage to circumcsion adulthood, a mark of defeat or cirumcision slavery, or an attempt to alter esthetics or sexuality. Circumcision of males is a religious requirement of the circmcision Muslim and Jewish faiths. It is also practiced by the majority circumcision surgery in texas of Americans, South circumcision Koreans, and Filipinos.
The American Medical Association, in a report confined to discussing circumcisions that are not performed for female circumcision ritualistic or religious purposes, states that medical associations in self circumcision the US, Australia, and Canada do not recommend “non-therapeutic” circumcision, which it defines as non-religious, non-ritualistic, male circumcision not medically necessary, elective circumcision of male newborns. In the US when women circumcision non-ritualistic elective circumcision is chosen, it is largely because of social or cultural expectations, partial circumcision rather than medical concerns. The genital integrity movement jewish circumcision condemns infant circumcision as a infant circumcision form of male genital mutilation that they consider comparable to female circumcision. Those who is circumcision normal support circumcision sometimes explain their views in terms of the perceived medical benefits of the circumcision styles procedure.
Circumcision is recommended by some physicians to treat medical conditions in males, such circumcision is good as phimosis, chronic inflammation of circumcision pictures the penis, and penile cancer while other physicians believe there are less invasive treatments for circumcision stories these conditions that can be tried first.
- 1 The circumcision photos procedures of circumcision
- 2 Cultures and religions
- 2.1 Judaism
- 2.2 Christianity
- 2.3 Islam
- 2.4 Hinduism
- 2.5 Sikhism
- 2.6 Aesthetics
- 2.7 Secular boy circumcision female circumcision video tight circumcision tradition
- 2.8 Non-Western initiatory traditions
- 3 Ethical issues
- 3.1 Consent
- 3.2 Emotional circumcisions consequences
- 3.3 Legality
- 3.4 Religious actual male circumcision circumcision of minors
- 4 Medical circumcision male aspects
- 4.1 Risks of circumcision
- 4.2 HIV
- 4.2.1 Studies
- 4.2.2 Mechanism
- 4.3 HPV
- 4.4 Hygiene
- 4.5 Infectious circumcision pics and female circumcision pictures chronic conditions
- 4.6 Penile pharaonic circumcision cancer
- 4.7 Phimosis and paraphimosis
- 4.8 Urinary tract infections
- 4.9 Policies clitoral circumcision of various national medical associations
- 4.9.1 United States
- 4.9.2 Canada
- 4.9.3 United girls opinions on circumcision incomplete circumcision Kingdom
- 5 Sexual
- 6 History of circumcision
- 6.1 Circumcision in the ancient world
- 6.2 Medical circumcision procedures circumcision in the 19th century circumcision process and early 20th century
- 6.3 Circumcision since 1950
- 7 Prevalence scandinavia circumcision of circumcision
- 7.1 United Kingdom
- 7.2 Denmark
- 7.3 South teenage circumcision Korea
- 7.4 United States
- 7.5 Canada
- 8 See judaism circumcision also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
- 10.1 Circumcision boys circumcision techniques
- 10.2 Circumcision opposition
- 10.3 Circumcision circumcision procedure promotion
- 11 Further reading
The procedures of turkish circumcision circumcision
Circumcision removes the foreskin from the penis. For infant circumcision, clamps, such as the Gomco clamp, african circumcision Plastibell, and Mogen before and after circumcision are often used. These clamps are meant to protect the glans while circumcision for woman they crush the foreskin and stop any bleeding. With the Plastibell clamp, circumcision in taiwan the foreskin and the clamp come away in three to seven days. Before a Gomco clamp is used, a section circumcision performed of skin is crushed with a hemostat then slit with scissors. Then, the foreskin is drawn radical circumcision over the bell shaped circumcision training portion of the clamp, which is then inserted through a circumcised circumcision hole in the base of the clamp, and the clamp is tightened, "crushing the foreskin between the bell and the circumcision images base plate" (this crushing action provides the hemostasis necessary to limit bleeding). With the flared bottom japanese circumcision of the bell fit tightly against the hole newborn circumcision of the base plate, the foreskin is cut away with a scalpel from above the base circumcision scar plate, while the bell covers the glans to prevent it being reached by the scalpel.
With a circumcision video Mogen clamp, used by many physicians and all mohels (Jewish ritual circumcisers), the foreskin is dissected away from the glans with a blunt female circumcision in africa probe and/or curved hemostat (as with circumcision style the first part of the Gomco procedure). The foreskin is then grabbed dorsally with a straight hemostat, and tented up as the her circumcision Mogen clamp is slid between the glans and hemostat. The clamp is celebrity circumcision status then locked shut, and a scalpel used to remove the foreskin from the flat (upper) circumcision complications side of the clamp.
According to circumcision operations a 1998 study, anaesthesia is used half circumcision by 45% of physicians performing infant circumcisions. Dorsal penile nerve block was the most commonly used form. Obstetricians were notable in the perform circumcision study for a significantly self done circumcision lower rate of anaesthesia use (25%) than pediatricians (71%) or family practitioners (56%). A 2004 Cochrane review concluded that what is circumcision dorsal penile nerve block is the most circumcision reversal effective form of anaesthesia, while EMLA (topical anaesthesia) was less effective. The authors noted that both anaesthetics circumcision videos-online appear safe, but neither of them completely eliminated pain. Adult forced circumcision circumcisions are often performed without clamps, and require 4 to 6 weeks of abstinence from high circumcision masturbation or intercourse after the operation to allow the wound to watching circumcision heal.
Uncircumcised penis flaccid (left) and erect (right)
Circumcised penis, flaccid (left) and erect (right)
Cultures and religions
- For information on circumcision in circumcision image the Bible, see circumcision in the Bible.
Some cultures circumcise their circumcision methods males as a matter of tradition, either shortly after birth, in circumcision photographs childhood or around puberty, when it may be (or form part of) a rite of passage. The practice is most notable circumcision ring among Jews and Muslims, and is more prevalent in the United States than in other Western nations.
- See also: Circumcision in the Bible
Circumcision is girls circumcision a religious practice traditionally required by Judaism, usually performed in a medical circumcision ceremony called a Brit milah (or Bris milah, colloquially simply bris) (Hebrew for "Covenant self circumcision kits of circumcision"). A mohel performs the teenage boys in circumcision ceremonies ceremony on the eighth day after birth unless health reasons force a delay. According to the a teenage circumcision Torah (Genesis, chapter 17 verses 9-14), God commanded Abraham benefits of circumcision to circumcise himself, his offspring and his slaves as circumcision history jewish of part of an everlasting covenant. According to Jewish law, failure to follow the commandment carries the penalty circumcision in australia of karet, or being cut off from the community by God. Brit milah circumcision information is so important that should the eighth day fall on Shabbat, actions that would normally be forbidden because of circumcision photo the sanctity of the day are permitted in order to fulfill circumcision statistics the requirement to circumcise.
Less commonly practised, and the circumcision types subject of greater controversy, is metzitzah b'peh, or oral suction. This is a procedure where after removing the vaginal circumcision foreskin, the mohel will suck out the blood from the wound to clean circumcision forum it, although today this is usually done with a glass tube.
Catholic, Protestant, circumcision girls Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Christianity do not prescribe circumcision. The circumcision methods males first Church Council in Jerusalem decided that circumcision female circumcision after was not a requirement (Acts 15), and St. Paul history of circumcision warned gentile Christians against adopting the practice as a means of grace. However, individual Christians and Christian traditions history of jewish circumcision may have different customs. For example, circumcision is customary among members of the Coptic Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox, loose circumcision and Eritrean Orthodox churches in their home countries. On 1 January, the muslum circumcision Catholic Church celebrates the Solemnity of Mary. This has replaced the liturgical feast of the Circumcision of ritual circumcision Christ, which was formerly celebrated africa and female circumcisions on that day and is still celebrated under that name by child circumcision some Traditional Catholics.
The origin circumcision how to of the requirement of circumcision in Islam is a matter of religious and scholarly debate. It is mentioned in some female circumcision videos parts of the Hadith, but perform a self circumcision not in the Qur'an. Fiqh scholars have different opinions about circumcision in Shariah, depending photographs of circumcision on which Hadith are accepted and how they are interpreted. According to some it picture of jewish circumcision is a recommended practice (Sunnah). According to others, it is sunnat circumcision obligatory. Moreover, there are some who interpret verses in the Qur'an to surgical site prep + circumcision imply that the requirement of circumcision is based on the covenant with Abraham.
The timing of Muslim circumcision varies. Some Muslim communities perform circumcision on the eighth day of life, as with Jews; others, earlier or later. Turkish, Balkan, rural Egyptians and circumcision blog Central and South Asian Muslims typically circumcise boys between the ages of six and eleven — circumcision david copperfield though in the middle class it girl circumcision is more usually a matter of routine in infancy and largely unremarked upon — and in traditional koran - circumcision society the event may be viewed communally my circumcision as a joyous occasion and celebrated with sweets and feasting. In Turkey this feast is called "Sünnet Düğünü" and considered picture of female circumcision a very important celebration in man's life as a voluntary female circumcision passage to a man from childhood in Turkey. In contrast, Iranian Muslims are typically circumcised in the hospital boys scared of circumcision at birth without much ado. Urban Egyptians, as with many industrialized countries such as the care for your baby's circumcision USA, perform the procedure at a hospital. Kamyar et al describe it as an 'obligatory circumcision and scarring and what to look for in an infant custom', and note that circumcision clamp it is not necessary for the circumciser to be a Muslim.
There is no specific reference to male circumcision female circumcision in the Hindu holy books, and Hindus in India generally do circumcision female preference not practise circumcision.
"Circumcision holds no relevance to a Sikh." All rituals circumcision in films which do not hold relevance are strictly forbidden. For Sikhs, "acceptance of Nature's beautiful female african circumcision body is an female circumcision in the middle east important component of the Sikh value system."
Circumcision may be undertaken as a body hospital circumcisions modification of the genitals to change the look of the penis to appeal more islam circumcision to certain aesthetics. In a few cultures, circumcision male circumcision pictures may be one of other modifications of the penis, such as a split penis or a subincision.
Routine circumcision practices muslim circumcision in South Korea are largely the result of American cultural and military my circumcision pictures influence following the Korean plastibell circumcision War. The origin of the practice in the Philippines is uncertain according recent news articles on female circumcision to one newspaper article, although it speculatively attributes it to the influence of western colonizers. This is types of circumcisions supported by the seventeenth century text of Antonio de Morga's african culture female circumcision and effects History of the Philippine Islands, which equally speculatively attributes circumcision to Islamic botched circumcision influence. In West Africa infant circumcision may have had tribal significance as a rite of passage or otherwise circumcision customs of mexican culture in the past; today in non-Muslim Nigerian circumcision foreskin smegma societies it is medicalised and is simply a cultural norm.
Non-Western initiatory circumcision galleries traditions
Circumcision can be part of an initiation rite in some African, Pacific Islander, and certain isolated Australian aboriginal traditions: circumcision in adolescence male in Arnhem Land, for example where the practice was introduced by Makassar traders from Sulawesi in the Indonesian Archipelago. Circumcision ceremonies among circumcision infant certain Australian aboriginal societies are noted for their painful nature, circumcision photos of men including subincision for some aboriginal peoples in the Western Desert. In the Pacific, ritual circumcision is nearly universal in the Melanesian circumcision videos islands of Fiji and Vanuatu; participation in the traditional land diving on Pentecost Island is cost of circumcision reserved for those who facing circumcision video have been circumcised. Circumcision is also commonly practised in the Polynesian islands of Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Tikopia. female african circumcision pictures In Samoa, it is accompanied by a celebration. Among female circumcision and picture some West African animist groups, such as the Dogon and Dowayo, it is taken to represent a removal of "feminine" female circumcision in senegal aspects of the male, turning boys into fully masculine males. Among Nilotic peoples, such as the Nandi, circumcision is a rite girl's circumcision of passage observed collectively by a number of boys every few years, no to the circumcision and boys circumcised at the same time are taken pro circumcision mothers to be members of a single age set.
Circumcising infants as a public health measure is controversial. Circumcision advocates assert statistics circumcision that circumcision is a significant public health measure, preventing infections, and possibly slowing down what is female circumcision + photos the spread of AIDS, while the genital integrity movement asserts that infant circumcision is a human rights zhenxi circumcision ring violation and baby circumcision a sexual assault, and that the practice of circumcising infants or children should be discouraged or banned.
Debate often focuses on botched circumcisions what limits, if any, should be placed on a caregiver's ability to have childhood circumcision a child circumcised. The procedure is irreversible, the immediate medical value is disputed and the circumcision and mens health result may not be in accordance with the child's wishes when he is circumcision and mental health issues an adult. Some question the apparent inconsistency of allowing male circumcision circumcision appointments orange county but prohibiting female genital cutting. Some circumcision australia assert that circumcision causes sexual harm and emotional scarring circumcision care later in life, or urge that the procedure should be left until the boy is mature enough to make the choice for himself. Others assert circumcision for prevention of aids that circumcision is less traumatic when performed in infancy and point out that it circumcision in indonesia may disturb some religious circumcision news communities and interfere with the traditional right of parents to make circumcision online movies this decision on behalf of their child. Most major worldwide medical associations accept that the parents should determine what is in the circumcision prince charles best interest of the infant or child.
Much attention has been given to the emotional impact of female genital cutting but the emotional circumcision women's views impact of male circumcision is mostly ignored. Issues does urologist perform circumcision about the rights of the child are often overlooked, and so is the possibility that circumcision may cause female circumcision real pictures emotional and physical harm to males. There high tight circumcision are even some organizations that have been created as support groups for history of female circumcision circumcised men who are upset with their status. In the USA, the horse circumcision majority of neonatal circumcisions are performed without anaesthesia. Several studies suggest that circumcised infants do not korean circumcision forget the pain during circumcision easily, as a correlation between circumcision with ineffective anaesthesia and intensity of pain response male circumcision circumcision sensation during vaccination months later has been noted.
The mainstream older circumcision medical organizations do not consider circumcision to be a legal issue as long as the decision for price of circumcision circumcision was made by the legal guardians, pros and cons of circumcision and that they have given their informed consent.
Religious circumcision of minors
In Islamic and Jewish revival circumcision law, it is obligatory for women circumcision pictures boys to be circumcised.
A controversial law passed in Sweden in 2001 restricts neo-natal circumcisions to be performed by persons certified by the advantages of circumcision National Board of Health, requires that a medical doctor or africa female circumcision an anesthesia nurse accompany them, and requires that asian circumcision anaesthetic be applied prior to the procedure. Most Jewish mohels have been so certified.
The direct circumcision and aids medical benefits of neonatal circumcision are still under debate, with various studies reaching different opinions. The studies have been conducted using cost-benefit analyses. The circumcision and counseling complication morbidity is circumcision bangladesh compared to the potential gain in expected longevity, and the medical costs of circumcision are compared to the expected reduction in lifetime circumcision before after health costs. In the circumcision boy words of the BMA, “There is significant disagreement about whether circumcision is overall a circumcision brisbane beneficial, neutral or harmful procedure. At present, the medical literature on the health, including sexual health, implications of circumcision circumcision clinics is contradictory, and often subject circumcision controversy to claims of bias in research.” Biases notwithstanding, some studies decided that circumcision has a net benefit, some decided that it has a net decrement, and others decided that circumcision gallery the benefits and risks balance each other out and that other factors must circumcision hate be taken circumcision high tight into consideration.
The American Medical Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians all suggest that anasthesia be circumcision hygene used if performing circumcision.
Risks of circumcision
Example of a "skin bridge", one of the possible negative side circumcision mothers effects of circumcision.
Circumcision is a surgical procedure. While the risks of circumcision-related complications circumcision procedure photographs are very low, the complications resulting from a circumcision restraint devices poorly carried out circumcision, post-operative bleeding, or infection can be catastrophic. Bleeding and infection are circumcision revision the most common complications of the procedure, according to the AMA, although in the majority of cases, bleeding circumcision watch video is minor and circumcision without anesthetic for men hemostasis can be achieved by pressure application. Kaplan identified longer term complications, including circumcisions videos urinary fistulas, chordee, cysts, lymphedema, ulceration of the glans, necrosis forced teenage male circumcision of all or part of the penis, hypospadias, epispadias, impotence and removal of too much tissue, sometimes causing secondary phimosis. He stated how to do the circumcision “Virtually all of these complications are preventable with only husband wont go on holiday because of circumcision a modicum of care. Unfortunately, most such complications occur at the hands of inexperienced operators who jehovah's witness beliefs circumcision are neither urologists nor surgeons.” Infant circumcision may cause problems such as skin jewish circumcision ritual bridges, when the cut pictures of circumcision skin does not heal neatly but attaches to the glans penis instead. post circumcision erections This does not commonly require surgical correction; rather, a brief, simple, office procedure may be performed. Meatal stenosis may be a common practice of female circumcision longer-term complication from circumcision. Recent publications give a prince charles circumcision frequency of occurrence between 0.9% in Iran and sermons circumcision of the heart 9% to 10% in the U.S. Loss of the penis itself has been documented. The RACP states that show female circumcision the penis is lost in 1 in 1,000,000 circumcisions.
The American south africa female circumcision Medical Association quotes a sunna circumcision complication rate of 0.2%–0.6%, based on the studies of Gee and Harkavy. These same studies are quoted by the teaching children circumcision American Academy of Pediatrics. The American Academy of Family Physicians quotes a toddler circumcision range of anywhere between 0.1% and 35%. The types of male circumcision Royal Australasian College 12065 circumcision of Physicians and the Canadian Paediatric Society bring the AMA results together with other studies with results ranging anywhere between 2005 circumcision statistics 0.06% to 55%, and bring Williams & Kapila citing that a 2%–10% african female circumcision seems reasonable.
Fatal complications have been reported. The American Academy of Family Physicians states that american college of obstetrics + circumcision preparation death is rare, and cites an estimated death rate bbc circumcision with circumcisions of infants of 1 in 500,000. Gairdner's 1949 bedouin circumcision study reported that an average of 16 children boy circumcision pictures per year, out of an estimated 90,000 circumcisions per year, died following circumcision in the UK during the 1940s. At that circoncision circumcision circoncir time, deaths attributed to phimosis and circumcision were grouped together, but Gairdner stated that the circumcision advantages deaths were more likely due to circumcision. Gairdner circumcision age in pakistan also stated that most deaths had occurred suddenly under anaesthesia, and could not be explained further, but haemorrhage circumcision and hiv infection and infection had also proven fatal.
The Jewish practice of metzitzah b'peh has also been implicated in the circumcision at 6 weeks old fatal transfer of HSV carried by the mohel circumcision by culture to the child. In either 2003 and 2004, there were a few infants upon whom this procedure was performed in circumcision cut styles New York City who contracted herpes, one of which circumcision disease von willebrand died. However, there remains no conclusive medical evidence as to whether it was caused by circumcision doctors the mohel performing the circumcision foreskin procedure or not.
The possibility that circumcision reduces HIV circumcision forums transmission remains the subject of ongoing research and debate in the medical community. While the most recent data indicates that circumcision hiv circumcision is correlated with reduced risks of HIV transfer, circumcision instruments there are fears that some may mistakenly believe they will be circumcision movies protected against HIV through circumcision and see circumcision as a safe alternative to other forms of circumcision nurse story protection, such as condoms.
The March 2005 Cochrane review of the medical evidence concluded that, circumcision of prince william “Although the positive results of these observational studies circumcision phoenix arizona suggest that circumcision is an intervention worth evaluating in randomised circumcision prep controlled trials, the current quality of evidence is insufficient to consider implementation of circumcision as a circumcision reversal surgical procedures public-health intervention.” Initial population based studies suggesting that circumcision might play circumcisions - loss of sensitivity a protective role were criticised because confounding factors such circumcisions for 6 month olds as religion may have skewed the results; the reviewers therefore commented that the results of randomised complications in juveniles due to lack of circumcision controlled trials now underway will be critical.
More recently, cosmetic circumcision the results of the first randomised controlled trials were published in November 2005, did jesus condemn circumcision reporting that male circumcision provides a degree of protection against acquiring HIV infection, equivalent to what a vaccine of high efficacy would have achieved. do jehovah's witness practice circumcision Male circumcision may provide an important way of reducing the spread does the military required circumcision of males of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, affording a 60% reduction in the rate of new HIV infection dog circumcision (from 2.1 per 100 to 0.85 easiest circumcision procedure per 100 in the intervention group). Results of female circumcision africa two further randomised trials to investigate the possible protective effect of circumcision against female circumcision reversal HIV infections will become available in 2007.
Research by the World Health Organization published female circumcision story in the US Public Library of Science Medicine journal showed that men who history of femile circumcision had been circumcised had a significantly lower risk of infection with the AIDS virus, and calculated that if all men were infant circumcision and yeast infection circumcised over the next 10 islam and circumcision years, some two million new infections could be avoided.
If circumcision does protect against HIV transmission, jewish circumcision ceremony the mechanism by which it does so male genital circumcision uncut foreskin is unclear. One possibility relates to Langerhans cells, a part of the human immune system. men circumcision Szabo and Short suggest that Langerhans cells in the foreskin may provide an men dissatisfied with their circumcision entry point for viral infection. Three studies identified high concentrations of Langerhans and other HIV target mens health circumcision cells in the human prepuce. Additionally, McCoombe, Cameron, and Short found that the keratin is thinnest on mohel circumcision video the foreskin and frenulum. Conversely, some authors believe that the prepuce has an important no harm circumcision immunological function, and that its removal increases the chances of infections. This hypothesis has been criticised on technical grounds.
Several studies pediatric circumcision surgeon tucson, az have shown that non-circumcised men are at greater risk of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. While most genital HPV strains are considered harmless, some can cause genital warts or cancer. One post circumcision study found no statistically significant difference between men with pro circumcision groups foreskins for HPV infection than those who are circumcised, but did note routine infant circumcision a significantly higher incidence of HPV lesions and urethritis in uncircumcised men.
Circumcision reduces the amount of smegma produced by semi circumcision the male.
Smegma is a steve irwin circumcision combination of exfoliated epithelial cells, transudated skin oils, and moisture that can accumulate sweden banning circumcision under the foreskin of males and within the female vulva area. It has a characteristic strong odor and taste, sydney australia pediatric circumcision and is common to all mammals—male and female. turk circumcision While smegma is generally not believed to be harmful to health, the strong odour may be considered to be a nuisance or give undoing circumcision the impression of us national circumcision rates a lack of hygiene. In rare cases, accumulating smegma may help cause balanitis.
The Royal women & circumcision Australasian College of Physicians emphasizes that a non-circumcised infant's penis requires no special care and women and male circumcision should be left alone, stating that attempts to forcibly retract the foreskin, e.g. to women circumcision in egypt clean it, are painful, often injure the foreskin, and can lead to women think about circumcision scarring, infections and pathologic phimosis. It is recommended that, while there is no special age aap guidelines for circumcision where the foreskin should be retractable, once the foreskin becomes retractible, the child abnormal circumcision should gently wash it with soap and african boys circumcision water. It has been suggested, however, that excessive washing of the foreskin and the glans will make infections such as balanitis more african circumcision rituals likely.
It has been suggested that circumcision arose in peoples living ama, circumcision in arid and sandy regions as a public health measure american circumcision intended to prevent recurring irritation and infection caused by sand accumulating under the foreskin. Darby, after checking the bc children cosmetic surgery circumcision official war histories of Britain, benefit of circumcision Australia and New Zealand and other records, and finding no mention of ‘balanitis’ or ‘foreskin’ or circoncision circoncir circumcision ‘circumcision’ dismissed this idea as a “medical urban myth,” concluding that “‘sand circumcision about under the foreskin,’ balanitis, and circumcision were not circumcision and female preference significant problems during either of the World Wars.”
Infectious and chronic circumcision and rites or ceremony and kikuyu conditions
Non-circumcised boys and men tend to have higher rates of various infections and inflammations circumcision and scarring of the penis, and of the foreskin, than circumcised men. The reasons are unclear, but several hypotheses have been suggested:
- The foreskin circumcision boards may harbor bacteria circumcision care instructions and become infected if it is not cleaned properly.
- The foreskin may become inflamed if it is cleaned circumcision center too often with soap.
- The forcible retraction of the foreskin in boys can lead to infections.
There are less circumcision clinic in orlando invasive treatments than circumcision for posthitis.
Balanitis, an inflammation of the glans penis, has a circumcision debate variety of causes. Some of these, such as anaerobic circumcision doctors canada infection, occur more frequently in uncircumcised men, while others, such as fungal infection, have no circumcision done improperly statistically significant differences in frequency of occurrence circumcision electrosensitivity between circumcised and uncircumcised men. There are less invasive treatments than circumcision that have been shown effective circumcision groups in treating most mild cases of balanitis. Birley, et al, circumcision implications also agrees that for many mild forms of balanitis there circumcision in austrailia are less invasive procedures, but does state that there are times when circumcision “might be of benefit in a circumcision in bc patient whose balanitis relapses despite these measures, and remains the principal treatment for specific conditions circumcision in boys such as lichen sclerosus and plasma cell balanitis.” Also, less circumcision in louisville ky invasive procedures are not circumcision in nashville as successful in treating balanitis xerotica obliterans, or BXO, which is harder circumcision in turkey to treat.
Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) produces a whitish-yellowish patch circumcision infection on the skin, and is not believed to be always harmful or circumcision jewish painful, and may sometimes disappear without intervention. Some consider balanitis xerotica obliterans to be circumcision mishaps a form of LSA that happens to be on the foreskin, where it may cause pathological phimosis. Circumcision circumcision molds is believed to reliably reduce the threat of BXO.
Penile cancer is cancer of the penis, i.e. circumcision of the amish on the glans or the foreskin. Most cases have been found to circumcision online occur in men over the circumcision patient education age of 70. Kochen and McCurdy performed a life table analysis on penile circumcision physicians cancer rates. Their basic assumptions were that these cancers occur exclusively in uncircumcised males and that age-specific rates calculated from older groups were applicable circumcision preference circumcision preputioplasty to the 1971 birth cohort. Their overall analysis finds an estimated occurrence rate in uncircumcised circumcision psychological damage males of 1 in 600, or 0.167%, with a median circumcision recovery age of occurrence of 67 years old. However, they close their predictions section with the following “Since the uncircumcised male is uniquely susceptible, virtually all circumcision results of these cancers are preventable by circumcision scandenavia neo-natal circumcision. The number of lifetime incident cancers that could be prevented annually by circumcision can circumcision scar line be estimated with birth circumcision story statistics available for 1971. In that year, there were 1,822,910 recorded live male births. If none had been neonatally circumcised, our analysis predicts circumcision tara clamp that one in 600, circumcision tools or more than 3,000 would have penile cancer in their lifetimes.”
However, a small risk is associated with non-classic circumcision tribe vigorous circumcisions that leave scarring.
In 2005, the American Cancer Society said that while studies suggest that circumcision may reduce the risk of more invasive forms circumcision video clip of penile cancer, it is important to concentrate on the main risk factors: cleaning up the neighborhood circumcision poor hygiene, having unprotected sex with multiple partners, and cigarette smoking. They consequences of circumcision further state that the custom house circumcision current consensus of most experts is that circumcision should not be recommended as a prevention strategy for penile cancer.
The American Academy of easiest circumcision mohel Pediatrics states that studies suggest extreme circumcision that neonatal circumcision confers some protection from penile cancer, but circumcision at a later age does not seem to confer the same female circumcision picture level of protection. Further, penile cancer is a rare florida circumcision disease and the risk of penile cancer developing in an free sermon circumcision uncircumcised man, although increased compared with a circumcised man, remains low.
The American half circumcisions Medical Association states similarly that although how is circumcision done neonatal circumcision seems to lower the risk of contracting penile cancer, because it is rare and occurs later in life, the use of improper circumcisions circumcision as a preventive practice is not justified.
Phimosis and paraphimosis
Pathological phimosis incorrect circumcisions is a condition of a very tight foreskin that makes retraction over infant circumcision risks the glans painful or impossible. Rickwood suggested that the islam female circumcision term 'phimosis' should be restricted to cases in which the prepuce loses suppleness jehovah's witness beliefs regarding circumcision and becomes scarred. Paraphimosis is an acute condition where the jewish circumcision tools tight foreskin is stuck behind the glans and cannot be moved back, curbs the blood male circumcision ritual flow from the glans. In children, it is sometimes caused by a caregiver trying to male circumcision video forcibly retract the infant foreskin.
The AAP marriage circumcision state that the true frequency of such problems is unknown. Fergusson et al found phimosis medical associations statements on circumcision in 16% of non-circumcised need for circumcision photos boys, while Herzog and Alvarez found it in 2.6%. Rickwood and Walker raised concern that phimosis is neonatal circumcision frequently misdiagnosed by physicians confusing it with the developmentally non-retractible foreskin.
Several studies have identified phimosis as newborn circumcision healing normal a risk factor for penile cancer, leading Willcourt to state nursing care during circumcision that it would be irresponsible to expose a patient over circumcision to risk for longer than necessary.
Urinary tract infections
Twelve studies have indicated that neonatal circumcision reduces the occurrence rate paul and circumcision of Urinary tract infections in male infants pharoonic circumcision by a factor of about 10. The March 1999 AAP statement notes philipine cobra circumcision pictures that premature infants are usually not circumcised because of their fragile health photos prior yo and following circumcision status. Studies have found that 1 in 10 premature infants will have pics of baby circumcision a urinary tract infection during the first month of life.  Some of the UTI studies have been criticised for not taking pictures after circumcision these and other factors into account. A Swedish study found that the plastic bell circumcision cumulative incidence of UTIs in boys under 2 years of age was 2.2%. The president kennedy circumcision AMA cites evidence that the incidence of UTI’s is “small (0.4%-1%)” in uncircumcised infants, and “depending on the model employed, approximately 100 prevention of infection for infant circumcision to 200 circumcisions would need to sanna circumcision be performed to prevent 1 UTI…One model of decision analysis self circumcision kit concluded that the incidence of UTI would have to be substantially higher in uncircumcised males to justify circumcision sponcered circumcision as a preventive measure against this condition.”
The Canadian Paediatric Society poses the question of whether increased UTI styles of circumcision and balanitis rates in non-circumcised male infants may be caused suanna circumcision by forced premature retraction. According to the Lerman and Liao, aside tear on circumcision from its effects on UTI infection rates, "Most of the other medical benefits the jewish word for circumcision of circumcision probably can be realized without circumcision as long as tight circumcisions access to clean water and proper penile hygiene are achieved."
Policies of various national medical associations
The medical associations noted united states circumcision statistics below find the current data insufficient to recommend neonatal circumcision. They agree that parental choice remains a legitimate reason to perform the procedure.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the following:
Existing scientific evidence demonstrates potential woman pro circumcision medical benefits of newborn male circumcision; however, these data are not sufficient to young circumcision recommend routine neonatal circumcision. In the case a moyer: jewish ritual circumcision of circumcision, in which there are potential benefits and risks, yet the procedure is not a partial circumcision essential to the child’s current well-being, parents should determine what is in the best interest of the actual stories of women circumcision child. To make an informed choice, parents of all male infants should be adult circumcision in st. louis given accurate and unbiased africa circumcision information and be provided the opportunity to discuss this decision. It is legitimate for parents albanian circumcision to take into account cultural, religious, and ethnic traditions, in addition to the medical factors, when making this decision. Analgesia is safe and american circumcision history effective in reducing the procedural pain associated with circumcision; therefore, atlanta circumcision center if a decision for circumcision is made, procedural analgesia australia circumcision statement should be provided. If circumcision is performed in the newborn australia pediatric paediatric circumcision period, it should only be done on infants who are stable and healthy.
—Circumcision Policy Statement, American Academy of Pediatrics
The American Medical average circumcision cost Association supports the general principles of the 1999 Circumcision avoid circumcision Policy Statement of the American Academy bc circumcision of older children of Pediatrics.
The Fetus and Newborn Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society issued the following guidelines in 1996. The guidelines before and after adult circumcision went under revision in 2004, although no new statement seems before and after pictures of adult circumcision to have been issued.
We undertook this literature review to consider whether the CPS should change its biblical history of circumcision position on routine neonatal big brother circumcision circumcision from that stated in 1982. The review led us to conclude the following. There is evidence boy circumcision video that circumcision results in an approximately 12-fold reduction in the incidence boyhood circumcision of UTI during infancy. The overall incidence of UTI in male infants appears to be 1% to 2%. The incidence rate of british circumcision the complications of circumcision reported in published articles varies, but it is generally in british columbia childen circumcision the order of 0.2% to 2%. Most complications are minor, but can circumcision be reversed occasionally serious complications occur. There is a canadian opinion polls on circumcision need for good epidemiological data on the incidence of the surgical complications christianity and circumcision of circumcision, of the later complications of circumcision and of problems associated circumcision + infant with lack of circumcision. Evaluation of alternative methods of preventing UTI in infancy is required. More circumcision + pictures information on the effect of simple hygienic interventions is needed. circumcision 12 years Information is required on the incidence of circumcision that is truly needed in later childhood. There is evidence that circumcision results in a reduction circumcision 2 year old in circumcision aids june the incidence of penile cancer and of HIV transmission. However, there is inadequate information to recommend circumcision as a public health measure to circumcision anatomy prevent these diseases. When circumcision circumcision and its relationship to attachment impairment is performed, appropriate attention needs to be paid to pain relief. The overall evidence of the benefits circumcision bible and harms of circumcision is so evenly balanced that it does not circumcision buy support recommending circumcision as a routine procedure for newborns. There is therefore no indication that the position taken by circumcision buy best the CPS in 1982 should be changed. When circumcision buy free parents are making a decision about circumcision, they should be advised of the present state circumcision care for of medical knowledge about its benefits and harms. Their decision may ultimately be based circumcision cartoon on personal, religious or cultural factors.
—Neonatal circumcision revisited, Canadian Paediatric Society
As of circumcision clamps June of 2006, the British Medical Association's position was as follows:
Circumcision for medical purposes
Unnecessarily circumcision clinic ottawa invasive procedures circumcision clips should not be used where alternative, less invasive techniques, are equally efficient and available.…Therefore, to circumcise for therapeutic reasons where circumcision dangers medical research has shown circumcision delash other techniques to be at least as effective and less invasive would be circumcision dissolving stitches unethical and inappropriate.…Male circumcision in cases where there is a clear clinical need is not normally controversial.…If there circumcision doctor is doubt about whether treatment is needed, or what is the most circumcision doctor online appropriate course of management, specialist advice should be sought.
There is a spectrum of views within circumcision doctors in orange county the BMA’s membership about whether non-therapeutic male circumcision circumcision drawings is a beneficial, neutral or harmful procedure or whether it is superfluous, and whether it should ever circumcision engineer be done on circumcision engineer contest a child who is not capable of deciding for himself. The medical harms or benefits have not circumcision engineer general been unequivocally proven except to the extent that there are clear risks of harm if the procedure circumcision finland is done inexpertly. The Association has no policy on these issues. Indeed, it would be difficult circumcision for muslims to formulate a policy in the absence of unambiguously clear and circumcision herpes consistent medical data on the implications of the intervention. As a general rule, however, the circumcision history BMA believes that parents should be entitled to make choices about how best to promote circumcision in cuba their circumcision in japan children’s interests, and it is for society to decide what limits should be imposed on parental choices.
—The law and ethics of male circumcision in which too much foreskin has been removed circumcision - guidance for doctors, British Medical Association
There are circumcision integration few studies on sexual partner preference for penises with or without foreskins, and the results are inconclusive. They are discussed circumcision kellogg more fully in the circumcision males full article.
The American Academy of Pediatrics states "a survey of adult males using self-report suggests more varied sexual practice and less circumcision medical justification sexual dysfunction in circumcised adult men. There circumcision men are anecdotal reports that penile sensation and sexual satisfaction are circumcision message boards decreased for circumcised males." The American Academy of Family Physicians states "The effect of circumcision military circumcision on penile sensation or sexual satisfaction is unknown. Because the epithelium of a circumcised glans becomes cornified, and because some feel circumcision mom nerve over-stimulation leads to desensitization, many believe that the glans of a circumcision new brunswick college of physicians circumcised penis is less sensitive. Opinions differ about circumcision newborn how this decreased sensitivity, which may result in prolonged time to orgasm, affects sexual satisfaction. An investigation of the circumcision of women exteroceptive and light tactile discrimination of the glans of circumcised and circumcision on television uncircumcised men found no difference on comparison. (24) No valid evidence to date, circumcision operative tools however, supports the notion that being circumcised affects sexual sensation or satisfaction. circumcision pain erections "
History of circumcision
It has been variously proposed that circumcision pain ethics circumcision began as a religious sacrifice, as a rite of passage marking circumcision partial a boy's entrance circumcision party into adulthood, as a form of sympathetic magic to ensure virility, as a means of circumcision peoria il suppressing (or enhancing) sexual pleasure, as an aid to hygiene where regular bathing was impractical, as a means of circumcision practitioners marking those of lower (or higher) social status, as a means of circumcision problems differentiating a circumcising group circumcision problems in infants from their non-circumcising neighbors, as a means of discouraging masturbation or other socially proscribed sexual behaviors, to remove "excess" pleasure, to increase a man's circumcision pros and cons attractiveness to women, as a symbolic castration, as a demonstration of one's ability to endure circumcision rate in finland pain, or as a male counterpart to menstruation or circumcision rate of america the breaking of the hymen. It is possible that circumcision arose independently circumcision rates australia in different cultures for different reasons.
Ancient Egyptian circumcision rates in scandenavia caved scene of circumcision, from the inner northern wall of circumcision rates in the usa the Temple of Khonspekhrod at the Precinct of Mut, Luxor, Egypt. Eighteenth dynasty, Amenhotep circumcision rates us III, c. 1360 BC.
Köçeks at a fair
Köçek troupe circumcision reduces std transmission dancing at Sultan Ahmed III's 14-day celebration of his circumcision religious sons' circumcision in 1720. Miniature from the Surname-i Vehbi
, Topkapi Palace, Istanbul.
Circumcision in the ancient world
The oldest documentary evidence for circumcision comes from ancient Egypt. Tomb artwork from the Sixth Dynasty circumcision risk (2345-2181 BCE) shows circumcision rites around the world men with circumcised penises, and one relief from this period shows the rite being performed on a standing adult circumcision scar lines male. The Egyptian hieroglyph for "penis" depicts either a circumcised or an erect circumcision scarring photos organ. The examination of Egyptian mummies has found some with foreskins circumcision scars 26 botox and others who were circumcised.
Circumcision was common, although not universal, among ancient Semitic peoples. The Book circumcision skin grow together of Jeremiah, written in the sixth century BCE, lists the Egyptians, Jews, Edomites, Ammonites, and Moabites circumcision smegma as circumcising cultures. Herodotus, writing in the circumcision stats fifth century BCE, would add the Colchians, Ethiopians, Phoenicians, and Syrians to that list.
In the circumcision stitches aftermath of the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greek dislike of circumcision the chosen circumcision led to a decline in its incidence among many peoples that circumcision vs. non-circumcision had previously practised it. The writer of the 1 Maccabees wrote that under circumcision was done first in egypt or by the hebrews the Seleucids, many Jewish men attempted to hide or reverse their circumcision so they could exercise in Greek gymnasia, where nudity was the norm. First Maccabees also relates that the Seleucids forbade the practice of brit milah (Jewish circumcision), and punished those who performed it–as well as the infants who underwent it–with death.
Medical circumcision in the 19th century and early 20th century
Several hypotheses have been raised in explaining the American public's acceptance of infant circumcision as preventive medicine. The success of the germ theory of disease had not only enabled physicians to combat many of the postoperative complications of surgery, but had made the wider public deeply suspicious of dirt and bodily secretions. Accordingly, the smegma that collects under the foreskin was viewed as unhealthy, and circumcision readily accepted as good penile hygiene. Second, moral sentiment of the day regarded masturbation as not only sinful, but also physically and mentally unhealthy, stimulating the foreskin to produce the host of maladies of which it was suspected. In this climate, circumcision could be employed as a means of discouraging masturbation. All About the Baby, a popular parenting book of the 1890s, recommended infant circumcision for precisely this purpose. Interestingly, a 1410-man survey in the United States in 1992, Laumann found that circumcised men were more likely to report masturbating at least once a month.
With the proliferation of hospitals in urban areas, childbirth, at least among the upper and middle classes, was increasingly undertaken in the care of a physician in a hospital rather than that of a midwife in the home. It has been suggested that once a critical mass of infants were being circumcised in the hospital, circumcision became a class marker of those wealthy enough to afford a hospital birth.
By the 1920s, advances in the understanding of disease had undermined much of the original medical basis for preventive circumcision. Doctors continued to promote it, however, as good penile hygiene and as a preventive for a handful of conditions local to the penis: balanitis, phimosis, and penile cancer.
Routine infant circumcision was taken up in the English-speaking parts of Canada, the United States and Australia, and to a lesser extent in New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Although it is difficult to determine historical circumcision rates, one estimate of infant circumcision rates in the United States holds that 30% of newborn American boys were being circumcised in 1900, 55% in 1925, and 72% in 1950.
Circumcision since 1950
In 1949, a lack of consensus in the medical community as to whether circumcision carried with it any notable health benefit motivated the United Kingdom's newly-formed National Health Service to remove routine infant circumcision from its list of covered services. One factor in this rejection of circumcision may have been Douglas Gairdner’s famous study, The fate of the foreskin, which revealed that for the years 1942–1947, about 16 children per year had died because of circumcision in England and Wales, a rate of about 1 per 6000 performed circumcisions. Since then, circumcision has been an out-of-pocket cost to parents, and the proportion of newborns circumcised in England and Wales has fallen to less than one percent.
In Canada (where public medical insurance is universal and there is no private insurance), individual provincial health services began delisting circumcision in the 1980s.
In South Korea, circumcision was largely unknown before the establishment of the United States trusteeship in 1945 and the spread of American influence. More than 90% of South Korean high school boys are now circumcised, but the average age of circumcision is 12 years .
In some South African ethnic groups, circumcision has roots in several belief systems, and is performed most of the time on teenage boys:
- "...The young men in the eastern Cape belong to the Xhosa ethnic group for whom circumcision is considered part of the passage into manhood... A law was recently introduced requiring initiation schools to be licensed and only allowing circumcisions to be performed on youths aged 18 and older. But Eastern Cape provincial Health Department spokesman Sizwe Kupelo told Reuters news agency that boys as young as 11 had died. Each year thousands of young men go into the bush alone, without water, to attend initiation schools. Many do not survive the ordeal..." .
Prior to 1989, the American Academy of Pediatrics had a long-standing opinion that medical indications for routine circumcision were lacking. This stance, according to the AMA, was reversed in 1989, following new evidence of reduction in risk of urinary tract infection. A study in 1987 found that the prominent reasons for parents choosing circumcision were "concerns about the attitudes of peers and their sons' self concept in the future," rather than medical concerns. A 1999 study reported that reasons for circumcision included "ease of hygiene (67 percent), ease of infant circumcision compared with adult circumcision (63 percent), medical benefit (41 percent), and father circumcised (37 percent)." The authors commented that "Medical benefits were cited more frequently in this study than in past studies, although medical issues remain secondary to hygience and convenience." A 2001 study reported that "The most important reason to circumcise or not circumcise the child was health reasons."A 2005 study speculated that increased recognition of the potential benefits may be responsible for an observed increase in the rate of neonatal circumcision in the USA between 1988 and 2000. In a 2001 survey, 86.6% of parents felt respected by their medical provider, and parents who did not circumcise "felt less respected by their medical provider".
The major medical societies in Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand do not support routine non-therapeutic infant circumcision. Major medical organizations in the United States do not recommend routine circumcision, but instead state that parents should decide what is in their child's best interests. Neonatal circumcision remains the most common pediatric operation carried out in the U.S. today.
Table 1: International circumcision rates
||Neonatal circumcisions (%)
Prevalence of circumcision
Estimates of the proportion of males that are circumcised worldwide vary from one sixth to one third.
Rickwood et al estimated that 3.8% of male children in the UK are currently (2000) being circumcised by the age of 15., having fallen from about 6.5% in the mid 1980s. The authors considered half of these circumcisions unnecessary, and called for a target to reduce to the level of 2%. Dave et al, reporting on a national survey in 2000, found that 11.7% of 16-19 year olds, and 19.6% of 40-44 year olds said they had been circumcised .
Denmark has a circumcision rate which has been stable for the last fifty years amongst male children at about 2%. For example, only 511 out of approximately 478000 Danish boys aged 0-14 years were circumcised in 1986, corresponding to a cumulative national circumcision rate of around 1.6% by the age of 15 years. 
It has been estimated on the basis of an academic medical survey that some 78% of South Korean men may be circumcised and it has been stated that "South Korea has possibly the largest absolute number of teenage or adult circumcisions anywhere in the world. Because circumcision started through contact with the American military during the Korean War, South Korea has an unusual history of circumcision."
Statistics from different sources give different pictures of infant circumcision rates in the United States. Deferral of discussion until after birth, combined with the fact that many parents’ decisions about circumcision are preconceived, contribute to the high rate of elective circumcision.
A recent study, which used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (a sample of 5-7 million of the nation's total inpatient stays, and representing a 20% sample taken from 8 states in 1988 and 28 in 2000), stated that circumcisions rose from 48.3% in 1988 to 61.1% in 1997.
Figures from the Nationwide Hospital Discharge Survey (for the 2003 survey based on a sample of 320,000 inpatient stays in 426 non-Federal short-stay hospitals), state that circumcision rates declined from 64.7% in 1980 to 59.0% in 1990, then rose to 64.1% in 1995, and fell again to 55.9% in 2003. Overall, the West saw the most significant change, declining from 61.8% in 1980 to 31.4% in 2003. The decline in the West has been partly attributed to increasing births among Latin Americans, who usually do not circumcise.
It has been noted that the statistics from these national samples differs from higher rates that have been documented in individual centers. One explanation is that "the published results of national statistical surveys represent only coded diagnoses obtained from birth centers; the reported figures do not include males who are circumcised at a later date for religious, medical, or personal reasons or who received newborn circumcision that was not coded."
A national survey of adult men found that 91% of men born in the 1970s, and 83% of men born in the 1980s were circumcised.
Some obstetricians have been accused of using circumcision as a quick and easy way of making money . Medicaid funding for infant circumcision used to be universal in the United States however sixteen states no longer pay for the procedure under Medicaid . One study in the Midwest of the US found that this had no effect on the newborn circumcision rate but it did affect the demand for circumcision at a later time.
The incidence of child circumcision in Canada has been declining steadily. The National Institute for Health Information reports that the percentage of newborn boys circumcised in hospital was 9.2 percent in 2005.
- Brit shalom
- Circumcision advocacy
- Circumcision scar
- Foreskin restoration
- Genital integrity
- Holy Prepuce
- Zeved habat
- ^ Wrana, P. (1939). "Historical review: Circumcision". Archives of Pediatrics 56: 385–392. as quoted in: Zoske, Joseph (Winter 1998). "Male Circumcision: A Gender Perspective". Journal of Men’s Studies 6 (2): 189–208. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
- ^ Gollaher, David L. (February 2000). Circumcision: a history of the world’s most controversial surgery. New York, NY: Basic Books, 53–72. ISBN 0-465-04397-6 LCCN 99-40015.
- ^ Circumcision. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
- ^ Beidelman, T.. (1987). "CIRCUMCISION". The Encyclopedia of religion Volume 3: 511–514. Ed. Mircea Eliade. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishers. LCCN 86-5432 ISBN 0029094801. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
- ^ Ku, J.H., M.E. Kim, N.K. Lee, and Y.H. Park (2003). "Circumcision practice patterns in South Korea: community based survey" (PDF). Sexually Transmitted Infections 79 (1): 65–67. DOI:10.1136/sti.79.1.65. PMID 12576619. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
- ^ Lee, R.B. (2005). "Circumcision practice in the Philippines: community based study" (PDF). Sexually Transmitted Infections 81 (1): 91. DOI:10.1136/sti.2004.009993. PMID 15681733. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Report 10 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (I-99):Neonatal Circumcision. 1999 AMA Interim Meeting: Summaries and Recommendations of Council on Scientific Affairs Reports pp. 17. American Medical Association (December 1999). Retrieved on 2006-06-13.
- ^ Van Howe, R.S., J.S. Svoboda, J.G. Dwyer, and C.P.Price (January 1999). "Involuntary circumcision: the legal issues" (2006-06-13). BJU International 83 (Suppl 1): pp. 63–73.
- ^ a b Schoen, Edgar J. (September 1997). "Benefits of newborn circumcision: is Europe ignoring medical evidence?" (PDF). Archives of Disease in Childhood 77 (3): pp. 258–260. PMID 9370910. Retrieved on 2006-06-13.
- ^ Dewan, P.A., Tieu H.C., and Chieng B.S. (August 1996). "Phimosis: Is circumcision necessary?". Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 32 (4): 285–289. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
- ^ Beaugé, Michel (September/October 1997). "The causes of adolescent phimosis". British Journal of Sexual Medicine 26. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
- ^ Holman, John R., Evelyn L. Lewis, Robert L. Ringler (August 1995). "Neonatal circumcision techniques - includes patient information sheet". American Family Physician 52 (2): 511–520. ISSN 0002-838X PMID 7625325. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
- ^ Peleg, David, Ann Steiner (September 15, 1998). "The Gomco Circumcision: Common Problems and Solutions". American Family Physician 58 (4): 891–898. ISSN 0002-838X PMID 9767725. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
- ^ Pfenninger, John L., Grant C. Fowler  (July 21, 2003). Procedures for primary care, 2nd, Mosby. ISBN 0-323-00506-3 LCCN 2003-56227.
- ^ Reynolds, RD (July 1996). "Use of the Mogen clamp for neonatal circumcision" (Abstract). American Family Physician 54 (1): 177–182. PMID 8677833. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
- ^ a b Stang, Howard J., Leonard W. Snellman (June 1998). "Circumcision Practice Patterns in the United States" (PDF). Pediatrics 101 (6): e5–. DOI:10.1542/peds.101.6.e5. ISSN 1098-4275. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
- ^ Brady-Fryer, B, Wiebe N, Lander JA (July 2004). "Pain relief for neonatal circumcision". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): Art. No.: CD004217. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD004217.pub2. PMID 15495086. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
- ^ Holman, John R., Keith A. Stuessi (March 15, 1999). "Adult Circumcision". American Family Physician 59 (6): 1514–1518. ISSN 0002-838X PMID 10193593. Retrieved on 2006-06-30.
- ^ "The practice is known as oral suction, or in Hebrew, metzitzah b'peh: after removing the foreskin of the penis, the practitioner, or mohel, sucks the blood from the wound to clean it." Newman, Andy. "City Questions Circumcision Ritual After Baby Dies", The New York Times, August 26, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-28.
- ^ "Metzizah b’peh — loosely translated as oral suction — is the part of the circumcision ceremony where the mohel removes the blood from the baby’s member; these days the removal of the blood is usually done using a sterilized glass tube, instead of with the mouth, as the Talmud suggests." Hartog, Kelly.Death Spotlights Old Circumcision Rite, The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, February 18, 2005.
- ^ Al-Munajjid, Muhammed Salih. Question #9412: Circumcision: how it is done and the rulings on it. Islam Q&A. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Al-Munajjid, Muhammed Salih. Question #7073: The health and religious benefits of circumcision. Islam Q&A. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Al-Munajjid, Muhammed Salih. Question #14624: The time for circumcision. Islam Q&A. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Sikh basics and misconceptions. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Singh, Jasprit. Questions and Answers. Akal Sangat. Akal Publications. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Rebollido, Rommel G.. "Passage to manhood", General Santos, Sun Star Publishing, Inc., March 21, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ de Morga, Antonio  (1907). “11”, History of the Philippine Islands, Translated by Alfonso de Salvio, Norman F. Hall, and James Alexander Robertson. LCCN unk82-42869. Retrieved on 2006-07-01. “These Borneans are Mahometans, and were already introducing their religion among the natives of Luzon, and were giving them instructions, ceremonies, and the form of observing their religion.…and those the chiefest men, were commencing, although by piecemeal, to become Moros, and were being circumcised and taking the names of Moros.”
- ^ Ajuwon et al., "Indigenous surgical practices in rural southwestern Nigeria: Implications for disease," Health Educ. Res..1995; 10: 379-384 Health Educ. Res..1995; 10: 379-384 Retrieved 3 October 2006
- ^ Aaron David Samuel Corn, "Ngukurr Crying: Male Youth in a Remote Indigenous Community," South East Arnhem Land Collaborative Research Project Working Papers Series No. 2, 2001 (Wollongong, NSW: University of Wollongong, 2001) p.5.
- ^ Australia-Indonesia Arts and Community, "Migration and Trade," Green Turtle website http://www.mfgsc.vic.edu.au/greenturtledreaming/EKmigrate.htm Retrieved 1 October 2006.
- ^ Jones, IH (June 1969). "Subincision among Australian western desert Aborigines". British Journal of Medical Psychology 42 (2): 183–190. ISSN 0007-1129 PMID 5783777.
- ^ RECENT GUEST SPEAKER. Australian AIDS Fund Incorporated (2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Weird & Wonderful. United Travel. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ [www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=514&letter=C Circumcision]. Jewish Encyclopedia (1906). Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
- ^ Circumcision amongst the Dogon. The Non-European Components of European Patrimony (NECEP) Database (2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
- ^ Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny (2003). Similarities in Attitudes and Misconceptions toward Infant Male Circumcision in North America and Ritual Female Genital Mutilation in Africa.. The FGC Education and Networking Project. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Task Force on Circumcision (March 1, 1999). "Circumcision Policy Statement" (PDF). Pediatrics 103 (3): 686–693. DOI:10.1542/peds.103.3.686. ISSN 0031-4005 PMID 10049981. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ a b c d e Fetus and Newborn Committee (March 1996). "Neonatal circumcision revisited". Canadian Medical Association Journal 154 (6): 769–780. Retrieved on 2006-07-02.
- ^ a b c Medical Ethics Committee (June 2006). The law and ethics of male circumcision - guidance for doctors. British Medical Association. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Goldman, R. (January 1999). "The psychological impact of circumcision" (PDF). BJU International 83 (S1): 93–102. DOI:10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.0830s1093.x. Retrieved on 2006-07-02.
- ^ National Organization of Restoring Men (2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Taddio, Anna, Joel Katz, A Lane Ilersich, Gideon Koren (March 1997). "Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination" (PDF — free registration required). The Lancet 349 (9052): 599–603. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)10316-0. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (November 8, 2005). Sweden. International Religious Freedom Report 2005. US Department of State. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Schoen, Edgar J., Christopher J. Colby, Trinh T. To (March 2006). "Cost Analysis of Neonatal Circumcision in a Large Health Maintenance Organization" (Abstract). The Journal of Urology 175 (3): 1111–1115. DOI:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00399-X. PMID 16469634. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Alanis, Mark C., Richard S. Lucidi (May 2004). "Neonatal Circumcision: A Review of the World’s Oldest and Most Controversial Operation" (Abstract). Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey 59 (5): 379-395. PMID 15097799. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
- ^ Van Howe, Robert S. (November 2004). "A Cost-Utility Analysis of Neonatal Circumcision" (Abstract). Medical Decision Making 24 (6): 584–601. DOI:10.1177/0272989X04271039. PMID 15534340. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Ganiats, TG, Humphrey JB, Taras HL, Kaplan RM. (Oct–Dec 1991). "Routine neonatal circumcision: a cost-utility analysis". Medical Decision Making 11 (4): 282–293. PMID 1766331. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Lawler, FH, Bisonni RS, Holtgrave DR. (Nov–Dec 1991). "Circumcision: a decision analysis of its medical value.". Family Medicine 23 (8): 587–593. PMID 1794670. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Analgesia. Paediatric Policy - Circumcision. The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (October 2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-02.
- ^ Christakis, Dmitry A., Eric Harvey, Danielle M. Zerr, Chris Feudtner, Jeffrey A. Wright, and Frederick A. Connell (January 2000). "A Trade-off Analysis of Routine Newborn Circumcision" (PDF). Pediatrics 105 (1): 246–249. DOI:10.1542/peds.105.1.S2.246. PMID 10617731. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Ahmed A,, A, Mbibi NH, Dawam D, Kalayi GD (March 1999). "Complications of traditional male circumcision". Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 19 (1): 113–117. PMID 10605531 ISSN 0272-4936. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Kaplan, George W., M.D. (August 1983). "Complications of Circumcision" (HTML). UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA 10 (3): 543–549. Retrieved on 2006-09-29.
- ^ Naimer, Sody A., Roni Peleg, Yevgeni Meidvidovski, Alex Zvulunov, Arnon Dov Cohen, and Daniel Vardy (November 2002). "Office Management of Penile Skin Bridges with Electrocautery" (PDF). Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 15 (6): 485–488. PMID 10605531. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Yegane, Rooh-Allah, Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi, Nour-Allah Salehi, Mohammad Bashashati, Jamal-Aldin Khoshdel, and Mina Ahmadi (May 2006). "Late complications of circumcision in Iran" (Abstract). Pediatric Surgery International 22 (5): 442–445. DOI:10.1007/s00383-006-1672-1. PMID 16649052. Retrieved on 2006-07-02.
- ^ Angel, Carlos A. (June 12, 2006). http://www.emedicine.com/PED/topic2356.htm. eMedicine. WebMD. Retrieved on 2006-07-02.
- ^ a b Complications Of Circumcision. Paediatric Policy - Circumcision. The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (October 2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
- ^ Gee, W.F., J.S. Ansell (December 1976). "Neonatal circumcision: a ten-year overview: with comparison of the Gomco clamp and the Plastibell device" (Abstract). Pediatrics 58 (6): 824–827. PMID 995507. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
- ^ Harkavy, K.L. (April 1987). "The circumcision debate" (Pubmed Entry). Pediatrics 79 (4): 649–650. PMID 3822689. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
- ^ a b Circumcision: Position Paper on Neonatal Circumcision. American Academy of Family Physicians (2006). Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Williams, N, L. Kapila (October 1993). "Complications of circumcision" (Abstract). British Journal of Surgery 80 (10): 1231–1236. DOI:10.1002/bjs.1800801005. PMID 8242285. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
- ^ a b c Gairdner, Douglas (December 1949). "The Fate of the Foreskin". British Medical Journal 2 (4642): 1433–1437. Retrieved on 2006-07-01.
- ^ Gesundheit, B., et al. (August 2004). "Neonatal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection After Jewish Ritual Circumcision: Modern Medicine and Religious Tradition" (PDF). Pediatrics 114 (2): e259–e263. ISSN 1098-4275. Retrieved on 2006-06-28.
- ^ Newman, Andy. "City Questions Circumcision Ritual After Baby Dies", The New York Times, August 26, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-06-28.
- ^ Clarke, Suzan. "State offers new guidelines on oral-suction circumcision", The Journal News, Gannet Company, Inc., June 21, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-28.
- ^ Circumcision 'reduces HIV risk'. BBC News (October 25, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
- ^ a b Siegfried, N, M Muller, J Deeks, J Volmink, M Egger, N Low, S Walker, and P Williamson (March 2005). "HIV and male circumcision—a systematic review with assessment of the quality of studies" (PDF — free registration required). The Lancet Infectious Diseases 5 (3): 165–173. DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(05)01309-5. PMID 15766651. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
- ^ Auvert, Bertran, Dirk Taljaard, Emmanuel Lagarde, Joëlle Sobngwi-Tambekou, Rémi Sitta, Adrian Puren (November 2005). "Randomized, Controlled Intervention Trial of Male Circumcision for Reduction of HIV Infection Risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial" (PDF). PLoS Medicine 2 (11): 1112–1122. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020298. PMID 16231970. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Williams, Brian G., James O. Lloyd-Smith, Eleanor Gouws, Catherine Hankins, Wayne M. Getz, John Hargrove, Isabelle de Zoysa, Christopher Dye, Bertran Auvert (July 2006). "The Potential Impact of Male Circumcision on HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa" (PDF). PLoS Medicine 3 (7): e262. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030262. PMID 16822094. Retrieved on 2006-07-13.
- ^ Szabo, Robert, Roger V. Short (June 2000). "How does male circumcision protect against HIV infection? " (PDF). BMJ 320 (7249): 1592–1594. DOI:10.1136/bmj.320.7249.1592. PMID 10845974. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Patterson, Bruce K., Alan Landay, Joan N. Siegel, Zareefa Flener, Dennis Pessis, Antonio Chaviano, and Robert C. Bailey (2002). "Susceptibility to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection of Human Foreskin and Cervical Tissue Grown in Explant Culture" (PDF). American Journal of Pathology 161 (3): 867–873. PMID 12213715. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Donoval, BA, AL Landay, S Moses, K Agot, JO Ndinya-Achola, EA Nyagaya, I MacLean, and RC Bailey (March 2006). "REQUIRED" (Abstract). American Journal of Clinical Pathology 125 (3): 386–391. DOI:10.1309/JVHQ-VDJD-YKM5-8EPH. PMID 16613341. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Hussain LA, LA, T. Lehner (July 1995). "Comparative investigation of Langerhans' cells and potential receptors for HIV in oral, genitourinary and rectal epithelia" (Abstract). Immunology 85 (3): 475–484. PMID 7558138. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ McCoombe SG, Cameron PU, Short RV (July 7, 2002). "The distribution of HIV-1 target cells and keratin in the human penis." (Abstract). International AIDS Society. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Fleiss, PM, FM Hodges, RS Van Howe (October 1998). "Immunological functions of the human prepuce" (PDF). Sexually Transmitted Infections 74 (5): 364–367. PMID 10195034. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Waskett, Jake H. (June 20, 2005). Apocrine glands in inner prepuce doubtful. Electronic letters. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Castellsagué, Xavier, et al. (April 11, 2002). "Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer" (PDF — free registration required). The New England Journal of Medicine 346 (15): 1105–1112. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa011688. PMID 11948269. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Lajous, Martín, Nancy Mueller, Aurelio Cruz-Valdéz, Luis Victor Aguilar, Silvia Franceschi, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila, and Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce (2005 July). "Determinants of Prevalence, Acquisition, and Persistence of Human Papillomavirus in Healthy Mexican Military Men" (PDF). Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 14 (7): 1710–1716. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0926. PMID 16030106. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Aynaud, O., D. Piron, G. Bijaoui, and JM Casanova (1999 July). "Developmental factors of urethral human papillomavirus lesions: correlation with circumcision" (PDF). BJU International 84 (1): 57–60. DOI:10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.00104.x. PMID 10444125. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Care Of The Foreskin. Paediatric Policy - Circumcision. The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (October 2004). Retrieved on 2006-07-13.
- ^ Hutson, J.M. (June 2004). "Circumcision: a surgeon’s perspective" (PDF). Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (3): 238–240. DOI:10.1136/jme.2002.001313. PMID 15173354. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ Darby, Robert (July 2005). "The riddle of the sands: circumcision, history, and myth" (PDF). The New Zealand Medical Journal 118 (1218): 76–82. ISSN 11758716 PMID 16027753. Retrieved on 2006-07-09.
- ^ a b Fergusson, DM, JM Lawton and FT Shannon (1988 April). "Neonatal circumcision and penile problems: an 8-year longitudinal study". Pediatrics 81 (4): 537–541. PMID 3353186. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
- ^ O’Farrel, Nigel, Maria Quigley and Paul Fox (August 2005). "Association between the intact foreskin and inferior standards of male genital hygiene behaviour: a cross-sectional study" (Abstract). International Journal of STD & AIDS 16 (8): 556–588(4). DOI:10.1258/0956462054679151. PMID 16105191. Retrieved on 2006-08-20. Editor’s note: I cannot confirm that the article substantiates the claim as I cannot access the full article.
- ^ Birley, HD, MM Walker, GA Luzzi, R Bell, D Taylor-Robinson, M Byrne, and AM Renton (October 1993). "Clinical Features and management of recurrent balanitis; association with atopy and genital washing". Genitourinary Medicine 69 (5): 400–403. PMID 8244363. Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
- ^ a b Au, T.S., K.H. Yeung (2003). “Balanitis, Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Genital Conditions”, Pedro Sá Cabral, Luís Leite, and José Pinto (eds.) HANDBOOK OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, 2nd ed., Lisbon, Portugal: Department of Dermatology—Hospital Pulido Valente. ISBN 962 3340303. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
- ^ Edwards, Sarah (June 1996). "Balanitis and balanoposthitis: a review". Genitourinary Medicine 72 (3): 155–159. PMID 8707315. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
- ^ Birley, HDL, MM Walker, GA Luzzi, R Bell, D Taylor-Robinson, M Byrne, and AM Renton (October 1993). "Clinical features and management of recurrent balanitis; association with atopy and genital washing". Genitourinary Medicine 69 (5): 400–403. PMID 8244363. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
- ^ Vincent, Michelle Valerie, Ewan MacKinnon (April 2005). "The response of clinical balanitis xerotica obliterans to the application of topical steroid-based creams" (Abstract). Journal of Pediatric Surgery 40 (4): 709–712. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2004.12.001. PMID 15852285. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
- ^ Wright, J.E. (May 1994). "The treatment of childhood phimosis with topical steroid". The Australian and New Zealand journal of surgery 64 (5): 327–328. PMID 8179528. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
- ^ Webster, T.M., M.P. Leonard (April 2002). "Topical steroid therapy for phimosis" (Abstract). The Canadian journal of urology 9 (2): 1492–1495. PMID 12010594. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
- ^ Scheinfeld, Noah S.; George C. Keough, Daniel Lehman (January 11, 2006). http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic46.htm. Diseases Of The Dermis. EMedicine. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
- ^ Mattioli, G., P. Repetto, C. Carlini, C. Granata, C. Gambini, and V. Jasonni (May 2002). "Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in children with phimosis and hypospadias" (Abstract). Pediatric Surgery International 18 (4): 273–275. DOI:10.1007/s003830100699. PMID 12021978. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
- ^ Cancer of the penis (penile cancer). Questions and Answers: Penis cancer questions. Cancer Research UK (January 14, 2004). Retrieved on 2006-09-26. “Penile cancer is more common in older men. Most cases are in men over 70. It is rare in men under 40.”
- ^ a b Kochen, Mosze, Stephen McCurdy (May 1980). "Circumcision and the risk of cancer of the penis. A life-table analysis". American Journal of Diseases of Children 134 (5): 484–486. DOI:10.1001/archpedi.134.5.484. PMID 7377156. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
- ^ Seyam, Raouf M., Nabil K. Bissadac, Alaa A. Mokhtar, Walid A. Mourada, Muhammad Aslam, Naser Elkumb, Said A. Kattan, and Kamal A. Hanash (February 2006). "Outcome of Penile Cancer in Circumcised Men" (Abstract). The Journal of Urology 175 (2): 557–561. DOI:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00234-X. PMID 16406995. Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
- ^ What Are the Risk Factors for Penile Cancer?. Cancer Reference Information. American Cancer Society (May 31, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
- ^ Can Penile Cancer Be Prevented?. Cancer Reference Information. American Cancer Society (May 31, 2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-01.
- ^ (1980-4-1)"Phimosis in Boys". BRITISH JOURNAL OF UROLOGY 52 (April 1980): 147-150.
- ^ Singh-Grewal, D., J. Macdessi, and J. Craig (August 1, 2005). "Circumcision for the prevention of urinary tract infection in boys: a systematic review of randomised trials and observational studies" (PDF). Archives of Disease in Childhood 90 (8): 853-858. DOI:10.1136/adc.2004.049353. PMID 15890696. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
- ^ Jakobsson 1999, et al. Minimum incidence and diagnostic rate of first urinary tract infection. Pediatrics. 1999 Aug;104(2 Pt 1):222-6. (full text)
- ^ Lerman SE, Liao JC. Neonatal circumcision. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001 Dec;48(6):1539-57. PMID 11732129
- ^ Williams N, Kapila L. Complications of circumcision. Brit J Surg. 1993;80:1231-6. (full text)
- ^ Crawford DA. Circumcision: a consideration of some of the controversy. J Child Health Care. 2002 Dec;6(4):259-70. PMID 12503896
- ^ J.H. Ku1, M.E. Kim, N.K. Lee and Y.H. Park, "Circumcision practice patterns in South Korea: community based survey" (Sex Transm Inf 2003;79:65-67 http://sti.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/79/1/65 retrieved 1 October 2006
- ^ Nelson, CP., R. Dunn, J. Wan, JT. Wei (March 2005). "The increasing incidence of newborn circumcision: data from the nationwide inpatient sample" (Abstract). Journal of Urology 173 (3): 978–981. DOI:10.1097/01.ju.0000145758.80937.7d. ISSN 0022-5347 PMID 15711354. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
- ^ National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2003 Annual Summary With Detailed Diagnosis and Procedure Data pp. 1. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005-02-08). Retrieved on 2006-9-30.
- ^ National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2003 Annual Summary With Detailed Diagnosis and Procedure Data pp. 52. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005-02-08). Retrieved on 2006-9-30.
- ^ Trends in circumcisions among newborns. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005-02-08). Retrieved on 2006-9-30.
- ^ Schoen, Edgar J. (July 2006). "Ignoring evidence of circumcision benefits". Pediatrics 118 (1): 385–387. ISSN 0031-4005 PMID 16818586. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
- ^ Xu, F, L Markowitz, M Sternberg, and S Aral (2006). "Prevalence of circumcision in men in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002". XVI International AIDS Conference. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
- ^ Quayle, SS., DE. Coplen, PF. Austin (October 2003). "The effect of health care coverage on circumcision rates among newborns". Journal of Urology 170 (4 Pt 2): 1533–1536. ISSN 0022-5347 PMID 14501653. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
- Description of an adult circumcision from the AAFP.
- Description of a Plastibell circumcision from the Medical College of Georgia.
- National Organization of Circumcision Information and Resource Center
- National Organization to Halt the Abuse and Routine Mutilation of Men
- History of Circumcision by Robert Darby BA, B Litt, PhD
- Benefits of circumcision: medical, health and sexual a literature review by Professor Brian Morris
- Circumcision: a lifetime of medical benefits by Dr. Edgar Schoen
- Circumcision Information by Dr. Gerald N. Weiss
- Billy Ray Boyd. Circumcision Exposed: Rethinking a Medical and Cultural Tradition. Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press, 1998. (ISBN 0-89594-939-3)
- Anne Briggs. Circumcision: What Every Parent Should Know. Charlottesville, VA: Birth & Parenting Publications, 1985. (ISBN 0-9615484-0-1)
- Robert Darby. A surgical temptation: The demonization of the foreskin and the rise of circumcision in Britain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. (ISBN 0-226-13645-0)
- Aaron J. Fink, M.D. Circumcision: A Parent's Decision for Life. Kavanah Publishing Company, Inc., 1988. (ISBN 0-9621347-0-8)
- Paul M. Fleiss, M.D. and Frederick Hodges, D. Phil. What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Circumcision. New York: Warner Books, 2002. (ISBN 0-446-67880-5)
- Leonard B. Glick. Marked in Your Flesh: Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. (ISBN 0-19-517674-X)
- David L. Gollaher. Circumcision: A History of the World's Most Controversial Surgery. New York: Basic Books, 2000. (ISBN 0-456-04397-6)
- Ronald Goldman, Ph.D. Circumcision: The Hidden Trauma. Boston: Vanguard, 1996. (ISBN 0-9644895-3-8)
- Brian J. Morris, Ph.D., D.Sc. In Favour of Circumcision. Sydney: UNSW Press, 1999. (ISBN 0-86840-537-X)
- Rosemary Romberg. Circumcision: The Painful Dilemma. South Hadley, MA Bergan & Garvey, 1985. (ISBN 0-89789-073-6)
- Edgar J Schoen, M.D. Ed Schoen, MD on Circumcision. Berkeley, CA: RDR Books, 2005. (ISBN 1-57143-123-3)
- Edward Wallerstein. Circumcision: An American Heath Fallacy. New York: Springer, 1980 (ISBN 0-8261-3240-5)
- Gerald N. Weiss M.D. and Andrea W Harter. Circumcision: Frankly Speaking. Wiser Publications, 1998. (ISBN 0-9667219-0-X)
Categories: NPOV disputes | Articles with sections needing expansion | Articles with unsourced statements | Articles lacking sources | Circumcision | Circumcision debate | Body modification | Penis