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chiropractor in the news

Coweta Chiropractor Killed In Wagoner County Traffic Accident 

KOTV 6 Tulsa - Oct 05 3:40 PM
A traffic accident has killed a Coweta chiropractor.

Ex-husband says LaBarre asked him to murder chiropractor 
Boston Globe - Oct 05 4:55 AM
Murder suspect Sheila LaBarre's ex-husband said she asked him to kill a chiropractor with whom they were living, so they could inherit his Epping horse farm, according to a letter he said he sent to state police.

Ex-husband says LaBarre asked him to murder chiropractor 
Gloucester Daily Times - Oct 05 9:07 AM
BRENTWOOD, N.H. (AP) - Murder suspect Sheila LaBarre's ex-husband said she asked him to kill a chiropractor with whom they were living, so they could inherit his Epping horse farm, according to a letter he said he sent to state police. This article can be read in full with a Plus Edition account.

Chiropractor from Summit has world stage 
The Star-Ledger - Oct 04 9:49 PM
Marc Jaffe of Summit, a veteran chiropractor, has plenty of experience working with world-class athletes. In 2004, he was one of the official chiropractors for the USA Olympic Team that competed in Athens.

chiropracter

 

 

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Alternative medical systems - edit
  • Ayurveda
  • Chiropractic
  • Herbalism
  • Homeopathy
  • Naturopathic Medicine
  • Osteopathy
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • Unani
NCCAM classifications [11]

1. Alternative Medical Systems

2. Mind-Body Intervention

3. Biologically Based Therapy

4. Manipulative ciropractor and body-based methods

5. Energy chriopractor Therapy

See also
Alternative medicine


Chiropractic is a complementary and alternative health care profession chropractor which focuses on diagnosing, treating, and preventing mechanical disorders chiorpractor of the musculoskeletal system, their effects on the nervous system, and on general health. chiropactor Chiropractic's premise is that spinal joint misalignments, which chiropractors call vertebral subluxations, can chiropracor interfere with the nervous system and result in chiopractor many different conditions of diminished health.[1] In contrast, the term subluxation, as chiropactors used in conventional medicine, is usually associated chiropractor with specific conditions which are a direct consequence of injury to sacramento chiropractor joints or associated nerves.

Manipulation of the spine is the main technique in today's chiropractors chiropractic adjustment, or treatment. Though its use has been documented from rancho cordova chiropractor the time of the ancient Egyptians,[2] spinal manipulation in an gold river chiropractor attempt to correct the theoretical vertebral subluxation is solely a chiropractic endeavor. Chiropractic's contribution to the field of manipulative therapies is back pain chiropractor the concept of applying a precise adjustment to a specific affected california chiropractors vertebra, as chiropractor medical billing opposed to the generalized maneuvers of the early osteopaths. While some chiropractors adhere strictly to the use of only spinal manipulation chiropractor salary in their equine chiropractor adjustment, others include a broad range of methods directed at correcting the subluxation and/or just relieving musculoskeletal pain.

Some chiropractors specialize chiropractor in rancho cordova in treating specific musculoskeletal problems become a chiropractor or sports injuries, or they may combine chiropractic with manipulation of the define chiropractor extremities, physiotherapy, nutrition, or exercises to increase spinal strength or improve overall health. chiropractor marketing Some also use other complementary and alternative methods as a part of a holistic treatment approach. However, chiropractors do chiropractor jobs in orlando2c florida not prescribe drugs; they believe this to be the province of conventional medicine, and that malpractice insurance for chiropractors their role is to pursue drug-free alternative treatments. Depending malpractice insurance for chiropractors and medical doctors on the country new mexico chiropractor scope of practice or state in which the Chiropractic school is located, some train in minor surgery. When indicated, the doctor of chiropractic consults with, co-manages, or pinellas county chiropractor refers to other health care providers.[3]

Chiropractic was founded in 1895 by chiropractor malpractice insurance Daniel David Palmer, based on his assertion that all health problems could be prevented chiropractor school or treated using "adjustments" of the spine, and sometimes other joints, to correct what he termed "subluxations." chiropractors in fort walton beach fl florida He, and later his chiropractors in hollywood fl florida son, B.J. Palmer, proposed that subluxations were misaligned vertebrae which caused nerve compression that interfered with the transmission of chiropractors in palm coast fl florida what he named Innate Intelligence. This interference interrupted the proper flow of chiropractor buffalo ny Innate Intelligence from "above, down, inside, and out" to the organ to which it chiropractor directory traveled. As a result, the human body would chiropractors professional liability insurance experience "dis-ease" or disharmony which would result in loss of health. colorado chiropractor He compared this process to stepping on a hose that slowed arizona board of chiropractors the flow of water to a garden: if you take your chiropractor jobs in orlando florida foot off the hose, the flow returns to normal and the garden will flourish.

While the "pinched garden hose theory" chiropractor jobs orlando2c florida has mostly been abandoned, it is still used in a chiropractor tmj modified form by some chiropractors to explain vertebral subluxation. However, the chiropractors in saginaw mi michigan concept of the subluxation, which has marginal evidence, remains integral to typical chiropractic practice, and in 2003 90% denver chiropractor of chiropractors believed the vertebral subluxation complex played a significant atlanta chiropractor role in all or most diseases.[4]

There is business startup loans for chiropractors evidence that spinal manipulation is effective for the treatment of acute low back pain, tension headaches chiropractor jobs in florida and some musculoskeletal issues, but not all studies support this conclusion.[5][6] There are chiropractors in n muskegon mi michigan no objective controlled trials with definitive conclusions for or against chiropractic claims concerning other health benefits.[7]

Today, there chiropractors in royal palm beach fl florida are 17 accredited chiropractic colleges in the USA florida chiropractor and two in Canada, and an estimated 70,000 chiropractors in the news new york channel 4 chiropractor health USA, 5000 in Canada, 2500 in Australia, 1300 in the UK, and smaller numbers in about 50 other buckhead chiropractor countries. In the USA and Canada, licensed individuals who chiropractor schools practice chiropractic are commonly referred chiropractors in hilo hi hawaii to as chiropractors, doctors of chiropractic, (DC) or chiropractic physicians.

There are four main groups of chiropractors: "traditional straights", "objective straights", "mixers", chiropractors malpractice insurance and "reform". All groups, except reform, new york chiropractors manhattan ny chiropractors treat patients using a subluxation-based system. Differences are based chiropractic patient education chiropractor software on the philosophy for adjusting, claims made about the effects of those adjustments, and various additional treatments provided along with the chiropractor jobs florida adjustment.

Contents

  • 1 Chiropractic’s approach to healthcare
  • 2 History
    • 2.1 The chiropractor marketing ideas chiropractors professional liability insurance nj first chiropractic adjustment
    • 2.2 Early college of chiropractors of ontario growth
    • 2.3 Changing political and healthcare environment
    • 2.4 Osteopathy vs chiropractic
    • 2.5 Medicine jobs for chiropractor in florida vs chiropractic
    • 2.6 BJ Palmer child chiropractor atlanta re-develops chiropractic
    • 2.7 DD Palmer's last years
    • 2.8 Straight vs Mixer
    • 2.9 The chiropractor information movement toward scientific chiropractors + shreveport reform
    • 2.10 AMA plans to eliminate chiropractic
    • 2.11 Wilk chiropractors california et al. vs the American Medical Association (AMA)
  • 3 Chiropractic colleges for chiropractors in new york vertebral subluxation
  • 4 Scientific investigation of chiropractic
    • 4.1 The Manga Report
    • 4.2 Workers' difference chiropractor osteopath Compensation studies
    • 4.3 American how to become a chiropractor Medical Association (AMA)
    • 4.4 British Medical Association
    • 4.5 Safety
  • 5 Chiropractic israel chiropractor education, licensing, and regulation
    • 5.1 United pinellas county chiropractors States
    • 5.2 Australia
    • 5.3 United Kingdom
    • 5.4 South Africa
    • 5.5 Federation pro-adjuster chiropractor of Chiropractic Licensing Boards
  • 6 Practice styles and schools chiropractic patient education chiropractor marketing of thought
  • 7 References
  • 8 See chiropractor florida also
  • 9 External links
    • 9.1 Professional organizations
    • 9.2 Chiropractic chiropractor sarasota florida schools
    • 9.3 Other chiropractors + long island new york resources
    • 9.4 Internal criticism
    • 9.5 External chiropractors in marble falls tx texas criticism
    • 9.6 Abbreviations

Chiropractic’s approach to healthcare

According to Robert Mootz DC and college chiropractors ontario Reed Phillips DC, Phd, although chiropractic has much in common with other health professions, kid chiropractor atlanta its philosophical approach distinguishes chiropractic marketing chiropractor marketing chiroarticles it from modern medicine. Chiropractic philosophy involves what has been described chiropractor continuing education online as a "contextual, naturopathic approach" to health care.[8] The traditional, "allopathic" or "medical" model considers disease as generally the chiropractor software chiropractic patient education result of some external influence, such as a toxin, a parasite, an allergen, chiropractors 60077 or an infectious agent: chiropractors in manhattan ny new york the solution is to counter the perceived environmental factor (e.g., using an antibiotic for a bacterial infection). By chiropractors in palm harbor fl florida contrast, the naturopathic approach considers that lowered chiropractors in stillwater mn minnesota "host resistance" is necessary for disease to occur, so the appropriate solution is to florida chiropractor arrests direct treatment to strengthen the host, regardless of the environment. In contemporary clinical gifts for chiropractors practice, one can find elements of both naturopathic and incline village nevada chiropractors allopathic philosophy among all types of providers.[9] The degree to which a practitioner emphasizes different indianapolis chiropractors tenets of these philosophies is one factor that determines the manner in kid chiropractor buckhead which they minnesota chiropractor practice.

Chiropractic Perspectives That Reflect a Holistic Approach to Patient Care
  • noninvasive, emphasizes patient's inherent recuperative mobile chiropractors abilities
  • recognizes dynamics between lifestyle, environment, and health
  • emphasizes understanding the cause of illness in an effort to neck and back pain center chiropractor diamond bar eradicate, rather than palliate, associated symptoms
  • recognizes the centrality southern california chiropractors of the nervous system and its intimate relationship with both the structural and state of california chiropractors regulatory capacities of the body
  • appreciates the multifactorial nature of influences (structural, chemical, and psychological) on the nervous system
  • balances the ways for chiropractors to make money benefits against the risks of clinical interventions
  • recognizes as imperative the accident back car chiropractor injury md pain personal need to monitor progress and effectiveness through appropriate diagnostic procedures
  • prevents unnecessary california board of chiropractors barriers in the doctor-patient encounter
  • emphasizes a chiropractor college ontario patient-centered, hands-on approach intent on influencing function through structure
  • strives toward early intervention, emphasizing timely diagnosis and treatment of functional, reversible conditions
Source:AHCPR Chapter chiropractor in long beach 2 Chiropractic Belief Systems, Robert D. Mootz chiropractor job DC; Reed B. Phillips DC, PhD

Most patients who visit a chiropractor do so initially because of symptoms arising chiropractor marketing chiropractic patient education chiropractor solicitation accident victims police reports from musculoskeletal problems (especially low back and neck pain), although most chiropractors say they concern chiropractor south florida themselves with the overall health of the patient. According to a survey by chiropractors in forest hills ny new york the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, in chiropractors in kennesaw ga georgia 2002, chiropractic was the fourth (7.5%) most commonly used CAM therapy among adults in the USA.[10][11] The profession has chiropractors in oak forest il illinois evolved chiropractors in oak grove mo missouri so that treatment consists of hundreds of different techniques.[12] The U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook said:

Because chiropractors emphasize the chiropractors in west palm beach fl florida importance of chiropractors ontario healthy lifestyles and do not prescribe drugs or perform surgery, chiropractic care is florida chiropractors hollywood fl chiropractors appealing to many health-conscious Americans. Chiropractic treatment of the back, neck, extremities, and joints has become more accepted as a horse chiropractor result of research houston chiropractor and changing attitudes about alternative, noninvasive health care practices.[13]

Most DCs are self employed or work in how many chiropractors in concord california small groups, employing chiropractic assistants as office staff and to perform therapeutic activities. jacques lemieux quebec canada chiropractor They may also employ massage and physiotherapists as adjuncts to chiropractic neck and back pain chiropractor arlington care.

History

(see also article on new jersey chiropractor Daniel David Palmer)

DD Palmer

In 1885, the world was news new york channel 4 chiropractor health herniated disk well into the second industrial revolution, marked what is a chiropractor by innovation and creativity. Health care had recently emerged from the drastic affordable chiropractor condition dental insurance practice of heroic medicine and was well into an age of alternatives. All varieties alan e spinner chiropractor florida of treatments and cures including scientific medicine, vitalism, herbalism, magnetism bakersfield california chiropractors and leeches, lances, tinctures and patent medicines were developing and competing to be the new chest pain chiropractor method for the century. Neither consumers nor many practitioners had much knowledge of either the causes of, or chiropractor career change cures for, illnesses.[14] Allopathy, chiropractor career information fueled by Louis Pasteur's refutal of the centuries old spontaneous generation theory in 1859, was chiropractor job in florida growing rapidly just as Charles Darwin published his book on natural chiropractor job info selection. German bacteriologist, Robert Koch formulated his postulates bringing scientific clarity to what was a very confused field. chiropractor marketing chiropractic new patients Drugs, chiropractor versus doctor medicines and quack cures were becoming more prevalent and were mostly unregulated. Concerned about what he saw as chiropractors in wausau wi wisconsin the abusive nature of drugging, MD Andrew Taylor Still,[15] ventured into magnetic healing (meaning chiropractors murfreesboro tn hypnotism then) and bonesetting in 1875. He opened the email lists for chiropractors American School of Osteopathy (ASO) in Kirksville, Missouri in 1892.[16] Daniel David Palmer (DD Palmer), a teacher, grocer turned magnetic healer opened his office of magnetic falling in love with your chiropractor healing in Davenport, Iowa in 1886. After nine successful years,[17] DD find a chiropractor in florida Palmer gave the first chiropractic adjustment to a deaf janitor, florida cervical chiropractor Harvey Lillard, on September 18, 1895.

The first chiropractic adjustment

Harvey Lillard 1906

Palmer and his patient Harvey john piedmonte chiropractor Lillard gave differing accounts of when and how Palmer began to experiment with medical school for chiropractors spinal manipulation. Palmer recalled an incident in 1895 when he was investigating the new jersey chiropractors toms river nj chiropractors sample business plan chiropractor medical history of a deaf man, Harvey Lillard. Lillard informed Palmer that while working treating manic depression by a chiropractor in a cramped area seventeen years earlier, he felt a 'pop' in his back, and had been nearly deaf ever achdead chiropractor since. Palmer’s examination found a career information on chiropractor sore lump which indicated spinal misalignment and a possible cause of Lillard's deafness. Palmer corrected the misalignment, and Lillard could cartoon + chiropractor then hear the wheels of the horse-drawn carts chiropractic marketing chiropractor ads chiro101 com in the street below.[18] Palmer said there was nothing accidental about this, as it was chiropractic marketing chiropractor new patients accomplished chiropractic software chiropractic marketing chiropractor with an object in view, and the expected result was obtained. There was nothing 'crude" about this adjustment; it was specific so much chiropractor dr. doyle  maryland so that no chiropractor has equaled it.[19] However, this version chiropractor grand haven was chiropractor mn disputed by Lillard's daughter, Valdeenia Lillard Simons. She said that her father chiropractor solicitation of accident victims police reports told her that he was telling jokes to a friend in chiropractors in california md maryland the hall outside Palmer's office and, Palmer, who had been reading, joined them. When Lillard reached the chiropractors in incline village nv nevada punch line, Palmer, laughing heartily, slapped Lillard on the back with the hand holding the heavy book chiropractors in norwich ct connecticut he had been reading. A chiropractors in oak grove la louisiana few days later, Lillard told Palmer that his hearing seemed better. Palmer then decided to explore manipulation as an expansion chiropractors in south amboy nj new jersey of his magnetic healing chiropractors mn practice. Simons said "the compact was that if they can make continuing medical education for chiropractor [something of] it, then they both would share. But, it didn't happen."[20] Since DD Palmer's first claim of restoring graphics for chiropractors hearing to Harvey Lillard, there has been controversy about whether job salary info chiropractor a link actually could exist between the spinal adjustment and return of hearing. Critics asserted listings california san diego chiropractors that a spinal adjustment cannot affect long beach chiropractor certain areas -like the brain- because the lynn ma chiropractor spinal nerves do not extend into the encephalon. Years later, V. Strang, D.C. illustrated several neurological explanations including the recognition that north carolina chiropractors wilson nc chiropractors sympathetic nerves arising in the lateral tampa florida chiropractor horns of the upper thoracic levels of the spine form the upper cervical ganglion with postganglionic fibers ascending to supply, career change chiropractor among other things, blood vessels of the brain.[21]

Early growth

Rev. Samuel Weed

After the case of Harvey Lillard, Palmer stated: "I had a case of heart chiropractor association trouble which was not improving. I examined the spine chiropractor back injury and found a displaced vertebra pressing chiropractor information medical against the nerves which innervate the heart. I adjusted the vertebra chiropractor jobs in san diego county and gave immediate relief — nothing "accidental" or "crude" about this. Then I began to reason if chiropractor marketing chiropractor marketing chiropractor two diseases, so dissimilar as deafness and heart trouble, came from impingement, chiropractor new patients chiropractic marketing a pressure on nerves, were not other disease due to a similar cause? Thus the science (knowledge) and chiropractor pa chiropractors in lawrenceville ga georgia art (adjusting) of Chiropractic were formed at that time."[18]

DD Palmer asked a patient and friend, chiropractors in mackinaw city mi michigan Rev. Samuel Weed, to help him name chiropractors in north bergen nj new jersey his discovery. He suggested combining the words cheiros and praktikos (meaning "done chiropractors in panama city fl florida by hand") to describe Palmer's treatment method, creating the term "chiropractic." In 1896, DD added a school chiropractors in roswell georgia to his magnetic healing infirmary, and began to teach chiropractors in roswell, georgia others his method. It would be become known as Palmer School chiropractors in san diego of Chiropractic (PSC, now Palmer College of Chiropractic). Among the first graduates were Andrew P. Davis chiropractors in wilson nc north carolina MD, DO, William A. Seally, MD, BJ Palmer (DD's son), Solon M. Langworthy, John chiropractors n california Howard, and Shegataro Morikubo. Langworthy moved to Cedar Rapids, Iowa and opened the second chiropractic school in lesa lane chiropractor 1903, the American School of Chiropractic & Nature mattresses that chiropractors recommend Cure (ASC & NC) combining it with what would moreno valley chiropractor become naturopathic cures and osteopathy.[22] DD Palmer, naples florida chiropractor fined who was not interested in mixing chiropractic with other cures, turned down an offer to be a partner.

Changing political network chiropractors and healthcare environment

The early 19th news new york channel chiropractor health herniated disk century had seen the rise of patent medicine and the nostrum trade. Although some remedies were sold through doctors of osteopathic degree for chiropractors medicine, most were sold directly to consumers by lay people, pro adjuster chiropractor some of whom used very questionable advertising claims. The addictive, and sometimes toxic, requirements to become a chiropractor effects saint louis chiropractor of some remedies, especially morphine and mercury-based cures (known as quicksilver or quacksilber in German), prompted the popular rise of salaries chiropractor alternative and less dangerous methods of salisbury maryland chiropractors homeopathy and eclectic medicine. In the mid 1800's, as the solicitation accident victims chiropractor police reports germ theory struggled to replace the metaphysical causes of disease, the search for invisible microbes required the texas chiropractor world to embrace the scientific method as a way to discover what are the electric things chiropractors use the cause of disease.

In the USA, licensing for healthcare professionals had all but vanished around the Civil War, leaving the ackerson chiropractor profession advanced medical chiropractor in florida open to anyone who felt inclined to become a physician; the market alone determined who would prove successful albany, oregon chiropractors and who would not. Medical animal chiropractor schools were plentiful, inexpensive and mostly privately owned. With free entry into the profession, and education in medicine cheap chicago chiropractor and readily available, many men entered chiropractic ad chiropractor marketing chiroarticles com practice, leading to an overabundance of practitioners which ultimately drove down chiropractic marketing chiropractor ad chiropractic new the individual physician's income.[23] In 1847, the American Medical Association (AMA) was formed and established higher standards for chiropractic software chiropractor marketing chiro101 com preliminary medical education and for the degree of MD. At the chiropractic software chiropractor marketing chiroarticles time, most medical practitioners were unable chiropractor advertising to meet the stringent standards, so a "grandfather clause" was included. The effect was to limit the number of chiropractor and upper back and neck pain new practitioners.

In 1849, the AMA established a board to analyze quack remedies and nostrums and to chiropractor billing enlighten the public chiropractor colorado about their nature and their dangers.[24] Relationships were developed with pharmaceutical companies in an effort to curb chiropractor ellenton florida the patent medicine crisis and consolidate chiropractor gallbladder disease the patient base around the medical doctor. By the turn of the century, the AMA had created a Committee chiropractor in beverly hills on National Legislation to represent the AMA in Washington and re-organized chiropractor los angeles as the chiropractor marketing chiropractic software chiropractic national organization of state and local associations.[24] Intense political pressure by the AMA resulted chiropractor marketing strategies in unlimited and unrestricted licensing only for medical chiropractor new patients chiropractic patient education physicians that were trained in AMA-endorsed colleges. By 1901, state medical boards were created in almost every state requiring licentiates to provide a diploma chiropractor office chair from an AMA approved medical college.[23] By chiropractor schools in florida 1910, the AMA was a powerful force; this was the beginning of organized medicine.[25]

Just before 1881, the teaching profession had begun significant chiropractor software chiropractic marketing chiropractor changes as well. Advances in chemistry and science in Germany chiropractor southwest portland created strong incentives to create chiropractor supplies markets for their new products. By 1895, the new "Kulturopolitik" ideology of "First teach them; then sell chiropractor warman them" had begun creating the political pressure necessary to improve teaching in science and math in schools chiropractors in california mo missouri and colleges chiropractors in california pa pennsylvania in the US. The medical schools were the first to suffer the attack; they were ridiculed as obsolete — inadequate — and chiropractors in casa grande az arizona inefficient. The crisis attracted chiropractors in grants pass or oregon the attention of some of the world's richest men. In 1901 the "Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research" was started by John D. chiropractors in greensboro nc north carolina Rockefeller.[26] By 1906, the AMA’s Council on Medical Education chiropractors in logan ut utah had created a list of unacceptable schools that in 1910, as chiropractors in marietta ga georgia a result chiropractors in oak grove ky kentucky of the Flexner Report financed by the Carnegie Foundation, closed hundreds of private medical and homeopathic schools and chiropractors in oak grove or oregon named Johns Hopkins as the model school. The AMA had created the nonprofit, federally subsidized university hospital chiropractors in palm beach fl florida setting chiropractors in palm harbor as the new teaching facility of the medical profession, effectively gaining control of all chiropractors in saint john in indiana federal healthcare research and student aid.[23]

Osteopathy vs chiropractic

As there was no chiropractors in salisbury md maryland constitutional or patent protection for new discoveries, the chiropractors in twin falls id idaho claims for the drugless healing professions took on a life of their own. In 1896, DD Palmer's first descriptions for chiropractic were chiropractors in wichita falls tx texas strikingly similar to Andrew Still's principles chiropractors with palmer graduate in tucson az of osteopathy established a decade earlier. Both described the body as a department of labor + chiropractor salary "machine" whose parts could be manipulated to produce a drugless cure. Both professed to affect doctor office chiropractic chiropractor management the blood and nerves and promote health, though Palmer stated he concentrated on find a chiropractor reducing "heat" from friction of the misaligned florida chiropractor websites parts and Still claimed to enhance the flow of blood. Though Palmer publicly denied illinois il chiropractors oak forest il chiropractors it, osteopaths claimed that he had even studied at Dr. Still's American School of Osteopathy. Palmer john papa florida chiropractor drew further distinctions by noting that he was the first london chiropractor to use the vertebral processes as levers.[17] Osteopaths neck and back pain chiropractor began a nationwide campaign that resulted in the passing of legislation to protect their profession.

Medicine vs chiropractic

Chiropractic Caduceus

In September 1899, Davenport MD, Heinrich Matthey started a paul schirmer chiropractor campaign against drugless healers in Iowa. Suddenly, the existing state law, which referred pittsburgh chiropractors to "the healing arts", was severely robert allen vancouver washington chiropractor denounced. The demand was made for a change in the statute to prevent any drugless healer practicing salary chiropractor deltona florida in the state. Matthey warned that health education could no longer be entrusted to anyone but doctors of medicine.[26] Osteopathic schools across the country responded immediately by traveling chiropractors developing a program of college inspection and accreditation.[17] DD Palmer, whose school had just graduated its 7th student, insisted that his yandell chiropractor winter springs techniques did not american chiropractor need the same courses or license as medicine, as his graduates did not prescribe drugs or evaluate blood be your own chiropractor or urine. However, in 1901, DD was charged with misrepresenting to a student a brea chiropractor course in chiropractic which was not a real science.[26] He persisted in california chiropractic california chiropractors his strong stance against licensure citing freedom of california chiropractor choice as his cause. He was arrested chiro101 com chiropractic chiropractor marketing s twice more by 1906, and although he contended that he was not practicing medicine, he was convicted for professing he chiropractic ad chiropractor marketing chiro101 com could cure disease without a license in medicine or osteopathy.

Dr Solon chiropractic marketing chiropractor ads chiroarticles com Langworthy, who continued to mix chiropractic at chiropractic software chiropractor marketing chiropractor the ASC&NC, took a different route for chiropractic. He improved classrooms chiropractor adjustment and provided a curriculum of study instead of the single course. He narrowed the scope of chiropractic to chiropractor billing software the treatment of the spine chiropractor business plan and nerve, leaving blood to the osteopath, and began to refer to the brain as the "life force". chiropractor calgary He was the first to use chiropractor class continuing education online the word subluxation to describe the misalignment that narrowed the "spinal windows" (or intervertebral foramina) and interrupted the nerve energy. In chiropractor database 1906, Langworthy published the first book chiropractor dolan on chiropractic, called "Modernized Chiropractic" — "Special Philosophy — A Distinct System". He chiropractor florida pettibon brought chiropractic into the scientific arena.

DD responded to Langworthy with chiropractor in reno malice concerning the mixing of chiropractic, and persuaded the Governor chiropractor irvine of Minnesota to veto legislation that would have allowed ASC&NC students to chiropractor marketing chiropractic software chiropractor practice in his state. But he did accept some of the concepts laid out by Langworthy. He introduced the concept of chiropractor marketing chiropractor marketing chiropractic Innate Intelligence in about 1904. Innate, he believed, was an intelligent entity which chiropractor nyc directed all the functions of the body, chiropractor orlando florida and used the nervous system to exert its chiropractor questions influence.

After DD's conviction in 1906 and time in jail, he was forced to turn over chiropractor relief doctor his interests in the PSC to his son, BJ and wife Mabel. DD relocated chiropractor salaries first to Oklahoma and then to California, leaving BJ Palmer in charge of chiropractor virginia the PSC, the "Fountainhead of Chiropractic".

BJ Palmer chiropractor web marketing re-develops chiropractic

BJ Palmer Developer of chiropractors associations california Chiropractic 1882-1961

Prosecution of DCs for unlicensed practice after the chiropractors brooklyn center mn conviction of DD Palmer and a previous charge against BJ Palmer chiropractors in carson city nv nevada resulted in BJ and several Palmer graduates creating the Universal Chiropractic Association (UCA). Its initial purpose chiropractors in fort morgan co colorado was to protect its members by covering their legal expenses should they get arrested.[27] Its chiropractors in lawton ok oklahoma first case came in 1907, when Shegataro Morikubo DC of Wisconsin chiropractors in marathon fl florida was charged with unlicensed practice chiropractors in meridian ms mississippi of osteopathy. It was a test of the new osteopathic law. In chiropractors in murphy nc north carolina an ironic twist, using mixer Langworthy's book Modernized Chiropractic, attorney Tom Moore legally differentiated chiropractic from osteopathy by the differences in chiropractors in north palm beach fl florida the philosophy of chiropractic's "supremacy of the nerve" and osteopathy's "supremacy of the chiropractors in oak lawn il illinois artery". Morikubo was freed, and the victory reshaped the development chiropractors in oakville of the chiropractic profession, chiropractors in palm beach gardens fl florida which then marketed itself as a science, an art and a chiropractors in saint germain wi wisconsin philosophy, and BJ Palmer became the "Philosopher of Chiropractic".

John F.A. chiropractors in west college corner in indiana Howard DC, Founder National College of Chiropractic 1906

The next chiropractors in west terre haute in indiana 15 years saw the opening of 30 more chiropractic schools, including John Howard's National School of Chiropractic chiropractors job info (now the National University of Health Sciences) that moved to dog chiropractors Chicago, Illinois. Each school attempted to develop dr glenn s graham chiropractor orlando florida its own identity, while BJ Palmer continued to develop the philosophy behind his father's discovery. Fueled by the persistent and provocative advertising of dynamic chiropractor recent chiropractic graduates, local medical communities, who had the power of the education required to be a chiropractor state at their disposal, immediately futon chiropractor had them arrested. There were only 12,000 practicing grants pass oregon chiropractors chiropractors with more than 15,000 prosecutions for practicing medicine without a howard van nostrand chiropractor virginia license in the first 30 years.[28] Tom Moore and his partner, Fred john house- chiropractor Hartwell, were able to successfully defend 80% through the UCA. kansas city chiropractor BJ would later note about those battles:

"We are always mindful of those early days when UCA...used various expedients to las vegas, nv board of chiropractors defeat medical court prosecutions. We legally squirmed this way and markus thiel chiropractor that, here and there. We did not diagnose, treat, or cure disease. We new mexico cold/low level laser chiropractor analyzed, adjusted cause, and Innate in patient news chiropractor new york channel 4 cured. All were professional matters of fact in science, therefore justifiable in north bergen nj chiropractors legal use to defeat medical trials and convictions."[29]

His influence over the next several years further divided the mixers, or those ociation chiropractor florida who mixed chiropractic with other cures, from payson arizona chiropractors the straights who practiced chiropractic by itself.[22]

DD Palmer's last years

While BJ worked to protect and develop chiropractic around the Palmer school, DD Palmer continued to develop pet chiropractors his techniques from Oregon. In 1910, he theorized that nerves control philadelphia chiropractor health:

"Physiologists divide pictrues of allen kowarski chiropractor nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two classes, afferent and efferent. Impressions are made on the peripheral afferent fiber-endings; these sam walker, augusta, georgia chiropractor create sensations which are sic code for chiropractors transmitted to the center of the nervous system. Efferent nerve-fibers carry impulses out from simi valley chiropractor the center to their endings. Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called motor impulses; solicitation of accident victims chiropractor police reports some are secretory and sonia tassle chiropractor enter glands; a portion are inhibitory their function being to restrain secretion. advanced proficiency chiropractor pinellas county florida Thus, nerves carry impulses outward and sensations inward. The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become excited or allayed bc chiropractors by impingement, the result calgary chiropractor rehab being a modification of functionating—too much or not enough action—which is disease."[18]

Before his carson city chiropractor sudden and controversial death in 1913, DD Palmer chiropractic ad chiropractor marketing chiropractic patient often voiced concern for BJ Palmer's management of chiropractic. He challenged BJ's methods and philosophy and made every effort to regain chiropractic associations chiropractor association control of chiropractic. He repudiated his earlier theory that vertebral subluxations caused pinched nerves chiropractic chiropractor software chiropractic marketing in the chiropractic marketing chiropractor ad chiropractic intervertebral spaces in favor of subluxations causing altered nerve vibration, either too tense or too slack, affecting the tone(health) chiropractic marketing chiropractor marketing of the end organ and noted,

"A subluxated vertebra . . . is the cause chiropractic software chiropractor marketing chiropractic of 95 percent of all diseases. . . chiropractor ad chiropractic patient education chiropractic . The other five percent is caused by displaced joints other than those of the vertebral chiropractor blaine oneal daytona beach florida column."[18][30]

During the long fought battle for licensure in California, chiropractor brea california in 1911 he wrote of his philosophy for chiropractic, and chiropractor doctors phoenix, arizona hinted at his plan for the legal defense of chiropractic:

"You ask, what I chiropractor in england think will be the final outcome of chiropractor job in orlando2c florida our law getting. It will be that we will chiropractor jokes have to build a boat similar to Christian Science and hoist a religious flag. chiropractor locator I have received chiropractic from the other world, similar as did Mrs. Eddy. No other chiropractor malpractice in florida one has laid claim to that, NOT EVEN chiropractor marketing chiropractor software B.J. Exemption clauses instead of chiro laws by all means, and chiropractor mattress LET THAT EXEMPTION BE THE RIGHT TO PRACTICE OUR RELIGION. But chiropractor referral we must have a religious head, one who is the founder, as did Christ, Mohamed, Jo. Smith, Mrs. chiropractor school + arizona Eddy, Martin Luther and other who have chiropractor seattle founded religions. I am the fountain head. I am the chiropractor software chiropractic ads chiropracto founder of chiropractic in its science, in its art, in its philosophy and in its religious phase. Now, if chiropractor starting salary chiropractors desire to claim me as their head, their leader, the way is clear. My writings chiropractor stewart florida have been gradually chiropractor therapeutic modalities steering in that direction until now it is time to assume that we have the same right to as has chiropractor tustin Christian scientists."[31]

Straight vs Mixer

State laws chiropractor two types to regulate and protect chiropractic practice were chiropractors in ann arbor mi michigan eventually introduced in all fifty states in the US, but it was a hard-fought struggle. Medical Examining Boards worked to chiropractors in boulder city nv nevada keep all healthcare practices under their chiropractors in columbia sc south carolina legal control, but an internal struggle among DC's on how to structure chiropractors in honolulu hi hawaii the laws significantly complicated the process. Initially, the UCA, led by chiropractors in lake fork il illinois BJ Palmer, opposed state licensure altogether. Palmer feared that such regulation would lead to chiropractors in macon ga georgia allopathic control of the profession.[32] The UCA chiropractors in mission viejo california eventually caved in, but BJ remained strong in the opinion that examining boards chiropractors in muskegon heights mi michigan should be composed exclusively of chiropractors (not mixers), and the educational standards to be adhered to chiropractors in muskegon mi michigan were the same as chiropractors in new bern nc north carolina the Palmer School. A "Model Bill" was drafted in 1922 to present to all chiropractors in north carolina states that did not yet have a law.[32] They embarked on chiropractors in norwalk ct connecticut a method of "cleaning house" of mixers by warning state associations to purge their mixing members or face competition by chiropractors in south richmond hill ny new york the formation of chiropractors in south river nj new jersey a new "straight" association in their state.

Frank Margetts circa 1922

Mixers, disturbed by the edicts of the PSC having so much influence in their daily practice, community chiropractor of portland maine came together to create the American Chiropractic Association (one of the connecticut chiropractors early precursors to today's ACA). Though born conneticut chiropractors out of necessity to defend against the UCA attacks, the costa mesa chiropractor ACA's stated purposes were to advance education and research for chiropractic. Its growth was initially david creech chiropractor stunted by its resolution to recognize physio-therapy and other modalities as pertaining to chiropractic. What dr christopher brown chiropractor in plantation florida growth did occur was credited to its second president, Frank equine chiropractor florida R. Margetts, DC with support from his alma mater, National Chiropractic College. He equine chiropractor schools insisted that no college administrator could hold an official equipment for chiropractor position in the association, essentially giving doctors in the field a collective voice.[32] But a georgia chiropractors marietta ga chiropractors disagreement within the UCA in 1924 turned the tide for the hayward california chiropractors ACA. BJ was still how much money does a chiropractor make working to purge mixers from practicing chiropractic, and he saw a new invention by Dossa D. Evans, the "Neurocalometer" (NCM),[33] as the answer to all of straight chiropractic's (and particularly PSC's) legal and information on how to become a chiropractor financial problems. As the owner of the patent on the NCM, he planned lake forest california chiropractors to limit the number licensed chiropractor and florida of NCMs to 5000 and lease them only to graduates list of chiropractors in the roswell area of the Palmer related schools who were members of the UCA. He then claimed that the NCM was the only way listings california chiropractors to accurately locate subluxations, preventing over 20,000 mixers from being mark schwartz chiropractor able to defend their method of practice.[34]

John J. melbourne florida atlas orthogonist chiropractor Nugent

There was an immediate uproar among practicing DC's. Even Tom Moore, BJ's michigan chiropractors muskegon mi chiropractors long-time ally and president of the UCA, displayed his dismay by resigning (though he was later reinstated). BJ reluctantly resigned as treasurer, minneapolis chiropractor ending his relationship with the UCA. network chiropractors in santa barbara california BJ moved on to form the Chiropractic Health Bureau (today's ICA), along with his staunchest supporters and new york chiropractors forest hills ny chiropractors Fred Hartwell (Tom Moore's partner) acting as council. Membership in the UCA dropped nyack physical therapy chiropractor while the ACA membership rose. In 1930, the ACA orange county chiropractor and UCA joined to pinellas county chiropractors reviews form the National Chiropractic Association (NCA). The NCA developed a Committee on Educational Standards (CES), making John J. Nugent DC responsible for romanie chiropractor raising educational standards for the profession. The years of consolidation or closing of simi valley chiropractors unacceptable schools south florida chiropractor while developing the new standards earned Nugent the nickname "Chiropractic's Abraham Flexnor" from his admirers and "Chiropractic's Anti-christ" from upper cervical chiropractor arkansas his adversaries. The CES evolved into today's Council on Chiropractic Education wayne jakeman chiropractor (CCE), and was granted the status of chiropractic's accrediting body by activator chiropractors in northern virginia the US Department of Education. Nugent was also later instrumental in the Chiropractic Research Foundation (CRF), today's at home chiropractor blain oneal chiropractor daytona beach florida Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research (FCER). The differences in state laws that exist board of chiropractors in california today can be traced back to these early legal struggles.

The movement toward scientific chiropractic chiropractor ad chiropractic patient education reform

By the late 1950s, healthcare in the US had been transformed: the discovery of chiropractic chiropractor practice management appointment penicillin and development of the polio vaccine was restoring hope to millions, chiropractor ad chiropractic marketing chiropractor new and the homeopathic physician had all but chiropractor ad chiropractor marketing chiropractor vanished as a result of antiquackery efforts of the medical trust and leadership chiropractor alternative medicine ohieopractor efforts of the AMA. BJ reduced the adjustment to HIO (Hole In One - the adjustment chiropractor and brain tumor of only the atlas), while mixers continued to add and refine new proprietary techniques to find chiropractor and hiatal hernia and reduce subluxations chiropractor arizona and improve health. Osteopathy in the USA developed in parallel to medicine and dropped its reliance on chiropractor assistant spinal manipulation to treat illness. A similar chiropractor college reform movement began within chiropractic: shortly after the death of BJ in 1961, a second chiropractor colleges texas generation chiropractor, Samuel Homola, wrote extensively on the subject of limiting the chiropractor dale hamiester in boulder, co use of spinal manipulation, proposing that chiropractic as a medical specialty should focus on conservative care of musculoskeletal conditions.[35] His sentiments echoed those of the NCA Chairman of the Board (C.O. Watkins DC) twenty years earlier: chiropractor job information "If we will not develop a chiropractor larchmont ny scientific organization to test our own methods, organized medicine will usurp chiropractor license our privilege. When it discovers a method of value, medical science will adopt chiropractor mamaroneck ny it and incorporate it into scientific medical practice."[36] Homola's membership in the newly formed ACA was not renewed, and his position chiropractor manhattan was rejected by both straight and mixer associations.

In 1975, the National Institutes chiropractor marketing chiropractic ads chiropractor new of Health brought chiropractors, osteopaths, medical doctors and PhD scientists together chiropractor marketing chiropractic chiropractic in a chiropractor marketing chiropractor new patients c conference on spinal manipulation to develop strategies to study the effects of spinal manipulation. In 1978, the Journal of Manipulative & Physiological chiropractor marketing chiropractor software chiroarticles Therapeutics (JMPT) was launched, and in 1981 it was included in chiropractor michigan the National Library of Medicine's chiropractor newport beach Index Medicus.[37] Joseph Keating dates the birth of chiropractic as a science to a chiropractor nutrition 1983 commentary in the JMPT entitled "Notes from the (chiropractic chiropractor payson arizona college) underground" in which Kenneth F. DeBoer, then an instructor in basic science at Palmer College in chiropractor pictures Iowa, revealed the power of a scholarly journal chiropractor portland oregon (JMPT) to empower faculty at the chiropractic schools. DeBoer's opinion piece chiropractor provider list florida demonstrated the faculty's authority to challenge the chiropractor quad cities status quo, to publicly address relevant, albeit sensitive, issues related to research, training and skepticism at chiropractic colleges, and to produce "cultural change" within chiropractor reviews rating chiropractor sciatica the chiropractic schools so as to increase research and professional standards. It was a rallying call for chiropractic scientists and chiropractor software chiropractic marketing chiro scholars.[37]

AMA plans chiropractor software chiropractic marketing chiropractic to eliminate chiropractic

On November 2, 1963, the AMA Board of Reagents created the "Committee chiropractor software chiropractor marketing chiropractic on Quackery" with the goals of first containing, and then eliminating chiropractor treatment chiropractic. Doyl Taylor, the Director of the AMA Department of Investigation and Secretary of the Committee on Quackery, outlined the steps chiropractor tulsa needed:

  1. to ensure that Medicare should not chiropractor vancouver, wa he cover chiropractic
  2. to ensure that the U.S. Office of Education should not recognize or list a chiropractic chiropractor westchester ny accrediting agency
  3. to encourage continued chiropractor workmenscomp separation of the two national associations
  4. to encourage state medical societies to take the initiative in their state legislatures in regard to legislation chiropractors + long island that might chiropractors + newsletters affect the practice of chiropractic.

The AMA distributed propaganda to teachers and chiropractors - amsterdam guidance counselors, eliminated "Chiropractic" from the U.S Department of Labor's Health chiropractors calgary Careers Guidebook, and established specific educational guidelines for medical schools regarding the "hazards to individuals from the unscientific cult of chiropractic."[38]

Wilk et al. vs chiropractors for dogs the American Medical Association (AMA)

Main article: Wilk v. chiropractors in gold bar wa washington American Medical Association

Before 1980, Principle 3 of the AMA Principles of Medical Ethics stated:

"A physician should practice a method of healing founded on chiropractors in holt a scientific basis; chiropractors in kenai ak alaska and he should not voluntarily professionally associate with anyone who chiropractors in va virginia violates this principle."

Until 1983, the AMA held that it was unethical for medical doctors to associate with an "unscientific practitioner", and chiropractors office guide labeled chiropractic "an unscientific cult". As a chiropractors salaries in california result, an antitrust suit was brought against the AMA and other medical associations in 1976 - Wilk et al. vs cold laser therapy chiropractor dallas texas AMA et al.. The landmark lawsuit colorado chiropractors fort morgan co chiropractors ended in 1987 when the Federal Appeals Court found the AMA guilty of costa mesa chiropractors conspiracy and restraint of trade; the Joint Council on Accreditation of daniel york chiropractor Hospitals and the American College of Physicians were exonerated. The court recognized that the AMA had to deceased chiropractors list show its concern for patients, but dr. dan chiropractor d.c. little rock ar was not persuaded that this could not have been achieved in a manner less restrictive of competition, for instance dr. kaufman, chiropractor by public education campaigns. equine chiropractors in central ohio The AMA lost its appeal to the Supreme Court, and had to allow its eric gislason chiropractor members to collaborate with DCs.[39]

The judge in the Wilk case said:

"Evidence at the trial showed that florida board of chiropractor the defendants took active steps, florida chiropractors spring hill fl chiropractors often covert, to undermine chiropractic educational institutions, conceal evidence franklin chiropractors of the usefulness of chiropractic care, undercut insurance programs for ft lauderdale chiropractors patients of chiropractors, subvert government inquiries into the efficacy of chiropractic, engage in a massive disinformation campaign to discredit and destabilize the holistic chiropractor chiropractic profession and engage in numerous other how long does it take to become a chiropractor activities to maintain a medical physician monopoly how to become an equine chiropractor over health care in this country."

She then said that chiropractors clearly wanted "a judicial pronouncement that international chiropractor association chiropractic is a valid, efficacious, even scientific health care service". isabel velez chiropractor She said no "well designed, controlled, scientific study" had been done, and concluded jobs chiropractor "I decline to pronounce chiropractic valid or invalid on anecdotal evidence, even knoxville, tennessee chiropractors though "the anecdotal evidence in the record favors chiropractors".[39]

Chiropractic vertebral lectures in community for chiropractors subluxation

DD Palmer's early reduction of linardos chiropractor in holiday florida his chiropractic theories. Note that the 1914 remarks came from medical forms chiropractor his book, The Chiropractic Adjuster, released after his death in michael upton chiropractor 1913. Chart reprinted from Keating J (1995), D.D. Palmer's Forgotten Theories of Chiropractic"[40]
Main article: Vertebral subluxation

DD Palmer, michigan chiropractor using a vitalistic approach, imbued the term minnesota chiropractors subluxation with a metaphysical and philosophical meaning. He held missoula, mt chiropractors pettibon method that a malposition of spinal bones, which protect the spinal cord and nerve roots, interfered with the transmission of nerve impulses. Because half neil kaufman chiropractor of the nervous system network chiropractor is sensory and the other half motor (control), he postulated that living things had an Innate intelligence, a new york chiropractor kind of "spiritual energy" or new york city chiropractor life force that received the sensory information from the various parts of north carolina chiropractors new bern nc chiropractors the body and made a decision as to what the motor nerves ohio chiropractors should convey. DD Palmer claimed that subluxations interfered with this innate intelligence, and that by fixing them, all diseases could orthopedic chiropractor be treated.[18] He qualified this by noting that orthopedic diplomate chiropractor knowledge of Innate Intelligence was pediatric chiropractors not essential to the competent practice of chiropractic.[40] The idea that all rate chiropractor diseases were the result of a subluxation was in line with the common thinking of the day; requirements to become chiropractor that there was one cause for disease. The vitalistic concepts ron woods chiropractor west palm beach florida implied an intelligent governing entity that was readily perceived as spiritual constructs by many both san diego back pain chiropractor inside and outside the profession. Chiropractors used these metaphorical concepts san diego chiropractors to rationalize their thinking about the body’s self-healing capacity.[9] In 1998, Lon Morgan DC, a reform chiropractor, wrote that: "Innate Intelligence clearly has its origins in borrowed mystical and occult practices of a bygone era. It remains untestable and unverifiable and has an unacceptably high penalty/benefit ratio for the chiropractic profession. The chiropractic concept of Innate Intelligence is an anachronistic holdover from a time when insufficient scientific understanding existed to explain human physiological processes. It is clearly religious in nature and must be considered harmful to normal scientific activity."[41]

Meridel I. Gatterman DC, educator and writer observed:

"The word subluxation has been ... embodied with a multitude of meaning by chiropractors during the past one hundred years. To some it has become the holy word; to others, an albatross to be discarded ... to add to the confusion, more than 100 synonyms for subluxation have been used. Why then do we persist in using the term when it has become so overburdened with clinical, political, and philosophical ... significance ... that the concept that once helped to hold a young profession together now divides it and keeps it quarrelling over basic semantics? The obvious answer is: The concept of subluxation is central to chiropractic."[42]

Debate about the need to remove the concept of subluxation from the chiropractic paradigm has been ongoing since the mid 1960's. While straights hold firmly to the term and its vitalistic construct, reformers suggest that the mechanistic model will allow chiropractic to better integrate into mainstream medicine without making claims inherent in the term. Anthony Rosner PhD, director of education and research at the Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research (FCER) considered subluxation and the concept of Occam's razor. He suggests "there is no obvious reason to discard the concept of subluxation, while at the same time maintaining that it is not a rigid entity, but rather an important model and concept; a work in progress that undoubtedly will undergo extensive modification as our concepts of light or psychoanalysis have evolved over half a century."[43]

Scientific investigation of chiropractic

The Testable Principle The Untestable Metaphor
Chiropractic Adjustment Universal Intelligence
Restoration of structural integrity Innate Intelligence
Improvement of Health Status Body Physiology
Materialistic Vitalistic
Operational definitions possible Origin of Holism in chiropractic
lends itself to scientific inquiry cannot be proved or disproved
Table 1. Two chiropractic system constructs.

Source: Phillips RB, Mootz RD. Contemporary chiropractic philosophy. In Haldeman S (ed). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic, 2nd Ed. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1992. Chart reprinted from Keating J (1995), D.D. Palmer's Forgotten Theories of Chiropractic[12]

Chiropractic researchers Robert Mootz and Reed Phillips suggest that, in chiropractic's early years, influences from both straight and mixer concepts were incorporated into its construct. They conclude that chiropractic has both materialistic qualities that lend themselves to scientific investigation and vitalistic qualities that do not (Table 1).

With relatively little federal funding, academic research in chiropractic has only recently become established in the USA. In 1994 and 1995, half of all grant funding to chiropractic researchers was from the US Health Resources and Services Administration (7 grants totaling $2.3 million). The Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research (11 grants, $881,000) and the Consortium for Chiropractic Research (4 grants, $519,000) accounted for most of the rest. By 1997, there were 14 peer-reviewed chiropractic journals in English that encouraged the publication of chiropractic research, including The Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics (JMPT), Topics in Clinical Chiropractic, and the Journal of Chiropractic Humanities. However, of these, only JMPT is included in Index Medicus. Research into chiropractic, whether from Universities or chiropractic colleges, is however often published in many other scientific journals.[44]

While there is still debate about the effectiveness of chiropractic for the many conditions in which it is applied, chiropractic seems to be most effective for acute low back pain and tension headaches.[5] When testing the efficacy of health treatments, double blind studies are generally considered the highest standards of scientific rigor. These are designed so that neither the patient nor the doctor knows whether they are using the actual treatment or a placebo (or "sham") treatment. However, chiropractic treatment involves a manipulation; no "sham" procedure can be devised easily for this, and even if the patient is unaware whether the treatment is a real or sham procedure, the doctor cannot be unaware. Thus there may be "observer bias" - the tendency to see what you expect to see, and the potential for the patient to wish to report benefits to "please" the doctor. This problem is not confined to chiropractic - many medical treatments are not amenable to double-blind placebo-controlled trials, indeed this is true for all surgical procedures. It is also a problem in evaluating treatments; even when there are objective outcome measures, the placebo effect can be very substantial. Thus, DCs have historically relied mostly on their own clinical experience and the shared experience of their colleagues, as reported in case studies, to direct their treatment methods. In this, they are not different to the practice in much of conventional medicine.

Sociologist Leslie Biggs interviewed 600 Canadian DCs in 1997: while 86% felt that chiropractic methods needed to be validated, 74% did not believe that controlled clinical trials were the best way to evaluate chiropractic. Moreover, 68% believed that "most diseases are caused by spinal malalignment", although only 30% agreed that "subluxation was the cause of many diseases".[45]

Even when a valid mechanism of action is not determined, it is generally thought sufficient to present evidence showing benefit for the claims made. There is wide agreement that, where applicable, an evidence based medicine framework should be used to assess health outcomes, and that systematic reviews with strict protocols are important for objectively evaluating treatments. Where evidence from such reviews is lacking, this does not necessarily mean that the treatment is ineffective, only that the case for a benefit of treatment may not have been rigorously established.

A 2005 editorial in JMPT, "The Cochrane Collaboration: is it relevant for doctors of chiropractic?"[46] proposed that involvement in Cochrane collaboration would be a way for chiropractic to gain greater acceptance within medicine. The collaboration has 11,500 contributors from more than 90 countries organized in 50 review groups. For chiropractic, relevant review groups include the Back Group; the Bone, Joint, and Muscle Trauma Group; the Musculoskeletal Group; and the Neuromuscular Disease Group. The editorial states that, for example, "a chiropractor may provide conservative care supported by a Cochrane review to a patient with carpal tunnel syndrome. If the patient's symptoms become progressive, the doctor may consider referring the patient for surgery using a recent Cochrane review that examined new surgical techniques compared with traditional open surgery..."

The Cochrane Collaboration did not find enough evidence to support or refute the claim that manual therapy (including, but not limited to, chiropractic) is beneficial for asthma. Carpal tunnel syndrome trials have not shown benefit from diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, magnets, laser acupuncture, exercise or chiropractic and there is not enough evidence to show the effects of spinal manipulation (including, but not limited to, chiropractic) for painful menstrual periods. Bandolier found limited evidence that spinal manipulative therapy (including, but not limited to, chiropractic) might reduce the frequency and intensity of migraine attacks, but the evidence that spinal manipulation is better than amitriptyline, or adds to the effects of amitriptyline, is insubstantial for the treatment of migraine, although "spinal manipulative therapy might be worth trying for some patients with migraine or tension headaches." According to Bandolier, a systematic review of a small, poor quality set of trials, provided no convincing evidence for long-term benefits of chiropractic interventions for acute or chronic low back pain, despite some positive overall findings [13] but there might be some short-term pain relief, especially in patients with acute pain.[47] However, the BMJ noted in a study on long-term low-back problems "...improvement in all patients at three years was about 29% more in those treated by chiropractors than in those treated by the hospitals. The beneficial effect of chiropractic on pain was particularly clear."[48] A 1994 study by the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services endorses spinal manipulation for acute low back pain in adults in its Clinical Practice Guideline.

The first significant recognition of the appropriateness of spinal manipulation for low back pain was performed by the RAND Corporation. This meta-analysis concluded that some forms of spinal manipulation were successful in treating certain types of lower back pain. Some chiropractors claimed these results as proof of chiropractic hypotheses, but RAND's studies were about spinal manipulation, not chiropractic specifically, and dealt with appropriateness, which is a measure of net benefit and harms; the efficacy of chiropractic and other treatments were not explicitly compared. In 1993, Dr Shekelle rebuked some DCs for their exaggerated claims: ...we have become aware of numerous instances where our results have been seriously misrepresented by chiropractors writing for their local paper or writing letters to the editor....[49]

There is conflict in the results of chiropractic research. For instance, many DCs claim to treat infantile colic. According to a 1999 survey, 46% of chiropractors in Ontario treated children for colic. [50] In 1999 a Danish randomized controlled clinical trial with a blinded observer suggested that there is evidence that spinal manipulation might help infantile colic.[51] However, in 2001, a Norwegian blinded study concluded that chiropractic spinal manipulation was no more effective than placebo for treating infantile colic.[52]

In 1997, historian Joseph Keating Jr described chiropractic as a "science, antiscience and pseudoscience", and said "Although available scientific data support chiropractic's principle intervention method (the manipulation of patients with lower back pain), the doubting, skeptical attitudes of science do not predominate in chiropractic education or among practitioners". He argued that chiropractic's culture has nurtured antiscientific attitudes and activities, and that "a combination of uncritical rationalism and uncritical empiricism has been bolstered by the proliferation of pseudoscience journals of chiropractic wherein poor quality research and exuberant over-interpretation of results masquerade as science and provide false confidence about the value of various chiropractic techniques". However, in 1998, after reviewing the articles published in the JMPT from 1989-1996, he concluded,

"substantial increases in scholarly activities within the chiropractic profession are suggested by the growth in scholarly products published in the discipline's most distinguished periodical (JMPT). Increases in controlled outcome studies, collaboration among chiropractic institutions, contributions from nonchiropractors, contributions from nonchiropractic institutions and funding for research suggest a degree of professional maturation and growing interest in the content of the discipline."[53]

The Manga Report

The Manga Report was an outcomes-study funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health and conducted by three health economists led by Professor Pran Manga. The Report supported the scientific validity, safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of chiropractic for low-back pain, and found that chiropractic care had higher patient satisfaction levels than conventional alternatives. The report states that "The literature clearly and consistently shows that the major savings from chiropractic management come from fewer and lower costs of auxiliary services, fewer hospitalizations, and a highly significant reduction in chronic problems, as well as in levels and duration of disability."[54]

Workers' Compensation studies

In 1998, a study of 10,652 Florida workers' compensation cases was conducted by Steve Wolk. He concluded that "a claimant with a back-related injury, when initially treated by a chiropractor versus a medical doctor, is less likely to become temporarily disabled, or if disabled, remains disabled for a shorter period of time; and claimants treated by medical doctors were hospitalized at a much higher rate than claimants treated by chiropractors."[55] Similarly, a 1991 study of Oregon Workers' Compensation Claims examined 201 randomly selected workers' compensation cases that involved disabling low-back injuries: when individuals with similar injuries were compared, those who visited DCs generally missed fewer days of work than those who visited MDs.[56]

A 1989 study analyzed data on Iowa state records from individuals who filed claims for back or neck injuries. The study compared benefits and the cost of care from MDs, DCs and DOs, focusing on individuals who had missed days of work and who had received compensation for their injuries. Individuals who visited DCs missed on average 2.3 fewer days than those who visited MDs, and 3.8 fewer days than those who saw DOs, and accordingly, less money was dispersed as employment compensation on average for individuals who visited DCs.[57]

In 1989, a survey by Cherkin et al. concluded that patients receiving care from health maintenance organizations in the state of Washington were three times as likely to report satisfaction with care from DCs as they were with care from other physicians. The patients were also more likely to believe that their chiropractor was concerned about them.[58]

American Medical Association (AMA)

In 1997, the following statement was adopted as policy of the AMA after a report on a number of alternative therapies:[14]

Specifically about chiropractic it said,

"Manipulation has been shown to have a reasonably good degree of efficacy in ameliorating back pain, headache, and similar musculoskeletal complaints."

In 1992, the AMA issued this statement:

"It is ethical for a physician to associate professionally with chiropractors provided that the physician believes that such association is in the best interests of his or her patient. A physician may refer a patient for diagnostic or therapeutic services to a chiropractor permitted by law to furnish such services whenever the physician believes that this may benefit his or her patient. Physicians may also ethically teach in recognized schools of chiropractic. (V, VI)"[15]

British Medical Association

The British Medical Association notes that "There is also no problem with GPs [doctors] referring patients to practitioners in osteopathy and chiropractic who are registered with the relevant statutory regulatory bodies, as a similar means of redress is available to the patient."[59]

Safety

The International Chiropractic Association (ICA) suggests that chiropractic is one of the safest health professions and chiropractors have some of the lowest malpractice insurance premiums in the health care industry.[60] As with all interventions, there are risks associated with spinal manipulation. According to Harrison's, these include vertebrobasilar accidents (VBA), strokes, spinal disc herniation, vertebral fracture, and cauda equina syndrome. A 1996 Danish study determined that the greatest risk is with manipulation of the first two vertebra of the cervical spine, particularly passive rotation of the neck, known as the "master cervical" or "rotary break."[61] However, serious complications after manipulation of the cervical spine are estimated to be just 1 in 3-4 million manipulations or fewer, based on international studies of millions of chiropractic cervical adjustments from 1965 to the present. The RAND Corporation's extensive review estimated "one in a million."[62] Dvorak cites figures of 1 in 400,000, while Jaskoviak reported no vertebral artery strokes or serious injury in approximately 5 million cervical manipulations from 1965 to 1980 at The National College of Chiropractic Clinic in Chicago.[63] By contrast, cervical spine surgery, an alternative to spinal manipulation for neck pain and radiating arm pain, has a 3-4% complication rate and 4,000-10,000 deaths per million neck surgeries.

Statistics on the reliability of incident reporting for spinal manipulation vary; the RAND study assumed that only 1 in 10 cases would have been reported. However, Dr Ernst surveyed neurologists in Britain for cases of serious neurological complication occurring within 24 hours of cervical spinal manipulation (not specifically by a chiropractor); 35 cases had been seen by the 24 who responded, but none had been reported. He concluded that underreporting was close to 100%, rendering estimates "nonsensical."[64] The NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination agreed that the survey had methodological problems with data collection.[65] Both NHS and Ernst noted that bias is a problem with the survey method of data collection.

A 2001 study in the journal Stroke found that vertebrobasilar accidents (VBAs) were five times more likely in those aged <45 years who had visited a chiropractor in the preceding week, compared to controls who had not visited a chiropractor. No significant associations were found for those aged >45 years. The authors concluded; "While our analysis is consistent with a positive association in young adults... The rarity of VBAs makes this association difficult to study despite high volumes of chiropractic treatment."[66] The NHS notes that this study collected data objectively by using administrative data, involving less recall bias than survey studies, but the data were collected retrospectively and probably contained inaccuracies.[65]

There are also concerns about using cervical manipulation for conditions for which it is not indicated. In 1996, Coulter et al. surveyed 4 MDs, 4DCs and 1 MD/DC to evaluate the risks and benefits of manipulation or mobilization of the cervical spine (not necessarily performed by a chiropractor). After looking at more than 700 conditions, there was consensus in only 11% of those conditions that cervical manipulation or mobilization was appropriate.[62]

Few studies of stroke and cervical manipulation take account of the differences between "manipulation" and the "chiropractic adjustment". According to a report in the JMPT, manipulations administered by a Kung Fu practitioner, GPs, osteopaths, physiotherapists, a wife, a blind masseur, and an Indian barber had all been incorrectly attributed to chiropractors. The report goes on to say:

"The words chiropractic and chiropractor have been incorrectly used in numerous publications dealing with SMT injury by medical authors, respected medical journals and medical organizations. .... Such reporting adversely affects the reader's opinion of chiropractic and chiropractors."[67]

Chiropractic adjustments are set apart from manipulation due to their precision and specificity.[68] While there are nearly 200 different chiropractic techniques, which vary considerably, such differences have never been taken into account in relation to safety.

A New Zealand Commission report in 1979 said "We are satisfied that chiropractic treatment in New Zealand is remarkably safe... By the end of the inquiry we found ourselves irresistibly and with complete unanimity drawn to the conclusion that modern chiropractic is a soundly based and valuable branch of the health care in a specialized area." (Report of the Commission of Inquiry Into Chiropractic 1979:p 77). However, the judge in the Wilk vs AMA case described this report as "unsatisfactory", and a review by the US Congress' Office of Technology Assessment found 'serious problems' in its treatment of safety and efficacy issues.[39]

In a 1993 study, J.D. Cassidy DC and co-workers concluded that the treatment of lumbar intervertebral disk herniation by side posture manipulation is "both safe and effective."[69]

Chiropractic education, licensing, and regulation

United States

Graduates of chiropractic school receive the degree Doctor of Chiropractic (DC), are referred to as "doctor", and are eligible to seek licensure in all jurisdictions. The Council on Chiropractic Education [16] (CCE) sets minimum guidelines for chiropractic colleges, but additional requirements may be needed for a license depending on the jurisdiction where a chiropractor chooses to practice. All 19 chiropractic institutions are accredited by the CCE. In 1991, the University of Bridgeport established its College of Chiropractic, becoming the first chiropractic school in the USA to be affiliated with a university.[17]

Students often enter chiropractic school with a Bachelor's degree, but, in 2005, only one chiropractic college required this as an admission requirement. [18] The minimum prerequisite for enrollment in a chiropractic college set forth by the CCE is 90 semester hours, and the minimum cumulative GPA for a student entering is 2.50. Commonly required classes include: psychology, biology, organic and inorganic chemistry, and physics. Other common medical classes are: anatomy or embryology, physiology, microbiology, diagnosis, neurology, x-ray, orthopedics, obstetrics/gynecology, histology, and pathology. Chiropractic programs require at least 4,200 hours of combined classroom, laboratory, and clinical experience. The last 2 years stress courses in manipulation and spinal adjustment and provide clinical experience in physical and laboratory diagnosis, orthopedics, neurology, geriatrics, physiotherapy, and nutrition.

To qualify for licensure, graduates must pass 4 examinations from the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners [19] and complete State specific requirements; most State boards require at least 2 years of undergraduate education, and an increasing number require a 4-year bachelor’s degree. All licensing boards in the US require the completion of a 4-year program at an accredited college leading to the DC degree. Once licensed, most States require chiropractors to attend 12-48 hours of continuing education annually. Chiropractic colleges also offer postdoctoral training in neurology, orthopedics, sports injuries, nutrition, rehabilitation, industrial consulting, radiology, family practice, pediatrics, and applied chiropractic sciences. After such training, chiropractors may take exams leading to "diplomate" status in a given specialty including orthopedics, neurology and radiology.

Australia

In Australia, chiropractic is taught at three universities: RMIT in Melbourne, Murdoch University in Perth and Macquarie University in Sydney. To be registered by various state Chiropractic Registration Boards, a Bachelor of Chiropractic Science, a Bachelor of Science or health-related degree, plus the successful completion of a full-fee paying postgraduate qualifying program for the Master of Chiropractic is required.

United Kingdom

In the UK, chiropractic currently has two colleges accredited by both the General Chiropractic Council (GCC) (the UK governmental regulatory body for Chiropractic) and the European Council on Chiropractic Education. These are the Anglo European College of Chiropractic (AECC), a faculty of Bournemouth University, and the Welsh Institute of Chiropractic (WIOC) a faculty of Glamorgan University. The AECC graduates chiropractors with both a Bachelor of Science and a Masters degree. The WIOC graduates chiropractors with a Bachelor of Science (Hon). It is a legal requirement that all chiropractors in the UK register with the GCC to practice.

South Africa

In SA there are two schools of chiropractic: Durban Institute of Technology and University of Johannesburg Doornfontein campus. They are both 6 year full-time courses leading to a MTECH or Masters of technology in Chiropractic. It's a legal requirement that to practice Chiropractic in SA chiropractors must be registered with the Allied Health Professions Council of SA. Being a member of the Chiropractic Association of SA (CASA) is voluntary. CASA is the only association in the country and aims to promote the profession through publications in newspaper, interviews, internet and public enquires over the phone.


Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards

Main article: Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards

The FCLB is a conglomeration of all 50 US state licensing boards and the District of Columbia. It also includes several Canadian provinces and US territories. Its stated purpose is to protect the public and to serve the member boards by promoting excellence in chiropractic regulation.[70]

Each state has a regulatory board that is appointed by its Governor. The board's responsibilities include:

  • to investigate consumer complaints;
  • to oversee the general application of health care laws;
  • to help update and develop regulations which better define appropriate conduct by professionals and clarify what the consumer may expect;
  • to continually review required credentials for doctors to practice safely, effectively, and ethically;
  • to apply appropriate disciplinary action or retraining to doctors who may have broken the public trust through violation of statute or regulation;
  • to function in the global regulatory community to assist other professions or jurisdictions affected by chiropractic.

The requirements to enter licensed chiropractic practice are defined by laws and regulations designed to protect the public's health, safety and welfare.

An essential part of the regulatory board's responsibility is to discipline and/or retrain doctors who step outside law and regulation. After sufficient inquiry determines a doctor has committed an offense, the severity of the offense will determine what sanctions are appropriate:

  • Formal letter of reprimand
  • Fine
  • Probation
  • Suspension
  • Revocation of License
  • Retraining / re-examination
  • Other appropriate sanctions

The public may contact the licensing board in each jurisdiction to determine the status of the doctor's license. The Federation also maintains an on-line, international databank, known as CIN-BAD. This databank carries information on public actions by chiropractic regulatory agencies related to licenses of individual practitioners. It also lists doctors prohibited from receiving Medicare reimbursement due to federal sanctions imposed by U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Members of the public may use a query form to request a search of the database.[70]

Practice styles and schools of thought

Contemporary chiropractic can be divided into several approaches to patient care: all are based on non-invasive, non-medication approaches, with many based on the use of manipulation as a treatment for mechanical musculoskeletal dysfunction of the spine and extremities. Most chiropractors advertise themselves as primary care doctors, and consider themselves part of "alternative health care", but there can be large differences between practitioners.[71] The differences between straights and mixers are reflected in multiple national practice associations, but most chiropractors are not members of any national organization.

  1. Traditional Straight chiropractors are the oldest movement; they adhere to the tenets, set forth by DD and BJ Palmer, that vertebral subluxation leads to interference of the human nervous system and is a primary underlying risk factor for almost any disease. Straights view the diagnosis of patient complaints, which they consider to be "secondary effects", to be unnecessary for treatment. Instead, patients are typically screened for "red flags" of serious disease, and treated based on a practitioner's preferred chiropractic technique. This stance against diagnosing has been a source of contention between mixers and straights, because accreditation standards mandate that differential diagnosis be taught in all chiropractic programs so that patient care is safe and relevant to their complaints. Additionally, several state chiropractic licensing boards mandate that patient complaints be diagnosed before receiving care. The most popular national association for traditional straights is the International Chiropractors Association (ICA).
  2. Mixing chiropractors are an early offshoot of the straight movement. This branch originated from naturopathic, osteopathic, medical, and even chiropractic doctors who attended the Palmer College of Chiropractic and then re-organized the treatment system to include more diagnostic and treatment approaches. They eventually split from the traditional straight group and formed various other chiropractic schools including the National College of Chiropractic. Their treatments may include naturopathic remedies, physical therapy devices, or other CAM methods. While still subluxation based, mixers also treat problems associated with both the spine and extremities, including musculoskeletal issues such as pain and decreased range of motion. Mixers describe vertebral subluxations as a form of joint dysfunction or osteoarthritis. Diagnosis is made after ruling out other known disorders and noting general signs of mechanical dysfunction in the spine. They tend to be members of the American Chiropractic Association, and all the major groups in Europe are also in membership of the European Chiropractors Union.[72]
  3. Objective Straight chiropractors [20] are a recent off-shoot of the traditional straights and are a minority. This group is differentiated from traditional straights mainly by the claims made. While traditional straights claimed that chiropractic adjustments are a plausible treatment for a wide range of diseases, objective straights only focus on the correction of chiropractic vertebral subluxations. Like traditional straights, objective straights typically do not diagnose patient complaints. They also don't refer to other professionals, but do encourage their patients "to see a medical physician if they indicate that they want to be treated for the symptoms they are experiencing or if they would like a medical diagnosis to determine the cause of their symptoms". [21] Most objective straights limit treatment to spinal adjustments; they tend to be members of the Federation of Straight Chiropractic Organization (FSCO) and the World Chiropractic Alliance (WCA).
  4. Reform chiropractors, also a minority group, are primarily mixers who advocate the use of manipulation as a treatment for osteoarthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions. They do not subscribe to Palmer philosophy or the vertebral subluxation theory. Instead they recommend the use of palpation and manipulation to identify and treat painful joints which may contain adhesions. This group is very similar in practice to mixer chiropractors, though they tend not to use CAMs.

References

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  16. ^ Still National Osteopathic Museum
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  18. ^ a b c d e Palmer DD (1910) The Science, Art and Philosophy of Chiropractic Portland, Oregon: Portland Printing House Company
  19. ^ Daniel David Palmer short history
  20. ^ Westbrooks B (1982) The troubled legacy of Harvey Lillard: the black experience in chiropractic. Chiropractic History 2:46­53
  21. ^ Strang, V (1984) Essential Principles of Chiropractic Davenport : Palmer College of Chiropractic, OCLC: 12102972
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  23. ^ a b c Goodman J, Musgrave G (1992)How The Cost-Plus System Evolved , excerpted from: John C. Goodman and Gerald L. Musgrave Patient Power Washington, DC: Cato Institute W67 [4]
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  25. ^ Healthcare history timeline
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  29. ^ Keating J. BJ Palmer Chonology
  30. ^ Keating J.(1996).Early Palmer Theories of Dis-ease
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  34. ^ Chiropractic History Archives Neurocalometer
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  37. ^ a b Keating J Faulty Logic & Non-skeptical Arguments in Chiropractic
  38. ^ Phillips R (2003), Dynamic Chiropractic Truth and the Politics of knowledge
  39. ^ a b c Wilk vs American Medical Association Summary
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  54. ^ Manga P, Angus D. (1998) Enhanced Chiropractic Coverage Under OHIP as a Means of Reducing Health Care Costs, Attaining Better Health Outcomes and Achieving Equitable Access to Health Services. Retrieved 08 29 2006, from OCA
  55. ^ Wolk S. (1988) An analysis of Florida workers' compensation medical claims for back-related injuries. J Amer Chir Ass 27:50-59
  56. ^ Nyiendo J. (1991) Disability low back Oregon workers' compensation claims. Part II: Time loss. J Manip Physiol Ther 14:231-239
  57. ^ Johnson M. (1989) A comparison of chiropractic, medical and osteopathic care for work-related sprains/strains. J Manip Physiol Ther 12:335-344
  58. ^ Cherkin CD, MacCornack FA, Berg AO (1988) Managing low back pain. A comparison of the beliefs and behaviours of family physicians and chiropractors.West J Med 149:475–480
  59. ^ British Medical Association, Referrals to complementary therapists
  60. ^ ICA website
  61. ^ Klougart N, Leboeuf-Yde C, Rasmussen L. "Safety in chiropractic practice, Part I; The occurrence of cerebrovascular accidents after manipulation to the neck in Denmark from 1978-1988.". J Manip Physiol Ther 19: 371-7. PMID 8864967.
  62. ^ a b Coulter ID, Hurwitz EL, Adams AH, et al. (1996) The appropriateness of manipulation and mobilization of the cervical spine 'Santa Monica, CA, Rand Corp: xiv [RAND MR-781-CCR]. Current link
  63. ^ Lauretti W "What are the risk of chiropractic neck treatments?" retrieved online 08 028 2006 from www.chiro.org
  64. ^ Ernst E (2002). "Spinal manipulation: its safety is uncertain.". CMAJ 166: 40-1. PMID 11800245. Original article
  65. ^ a b NHS Evaluation of the evidence base for the adverse effects of spinal manipulation by chiropractors
  66. ^ Rothwell D, Bondy S, Williams J (2001). "Chiropractic manipulation and stroke: a population-based case-control study.". Stroke 32: 1054-60. PMID 11340209. Original article
  67. ^ Terrett AGJ (1995) Misuse of the literature by medical authors in discussing spinal manipulative therapy injury. J Manip Physiol Ther 18:203. PubMed - PMID: 7636409
  68. ^ Chiropractic and the Risk of Stroke retrieved 08 28 2006 WCA website
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  70. ^ a b Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards Mission statement
  71. ^ James W. Healey, DC (1990) [http://www.chiroweb.com/archives/08/21/13.html It's Where You Put the Period. Dynamic Chiropractic October 10, 1990, Volume 08, Issue 21
  72. ^ Souza T (2005) Differential Diagnosis and Management for the Chiropractor, Third Edition : Protocols and Algorithms Jones and Bartlett Publishers Inc. 3rd edition

See also

  • Applied kinesiology
  • Manipulative therapy
  • Naprapathy
  • Osteopathy
  • Physical therapy
  • Reflexology

External links

Professional organizations

  • American Chiropractic Association (ACA)
  • Association of Chiropractic Colleges (ACC)
  • British Chiropractic Association (BCA)
  • Canadian Chiropractic Association (CCA)
  • Chiropractic Association of South Africa (CASA)
  • Chiropractic Doctors' Association of Hong Kong (CDAHK)
  • Council on Chiropractic Education - USA (CCE-USA)
  • European Chiropractors' Union (ECU)
  • Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards (FCLB)
  • Federation of Straight Chiropractors and Organizations (FSCO)
  • Foundation for the Advancement of Chiropractic Education (F.A.C.E.)
  • Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research (FCER)
  • Hong Kong Chiropractors' Association (HKCA)
  • International Chiropractic Pediatric Association (ICPA)
  • International Chiropractors Association (ICA)
  • Japanese Association of Chiropractors (JAC)
  • National Association for Chiropractic Medicine (NACM)
  • National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE)
  • United Chiropractic Association (UCA)
  • World Chiropractic Alliance (WCA)
  • World Federation of Chiropractic (WFC)

Chiropractic schools

  • See article: Chiropractic schools

Other resources

  • Chiropractic History Archive - Joseph C. Keating Jr, PhD
  • The Chiropractic Profession and Its Research and Education Programs
  • Chiropractic in the United States: Training, Practice, and Research (1997) - Cherkin, Daniel C.; Mootz, Robert D.
  • Chiropractic Resource Organization
  • Chiropractic treatments for back pain - Steven G. Yeomans, DC. A Spine-health.com feature (use menu points on left side)
  • Dynamic Chiropractic Online - ChiroWeb, Chiropractic news source
  • National Directory of Chiropractic - Listing of Chiropractors and information on education and the profession.
  • National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine - National Institute of Health - Manipulative and Body-Based Practices
  • The Future of Chiropractic Revisited: 2005 to 2015
  • Olympic Games Inspire Optimal Athletic Care

Internal criticism

  • Can Chiropractors and Evidence-Based Manual Therapists Work Together? An Opinion From a Veteran Chiropractor
Samuel Homola DC, a notable and outspoken dissident within the profession, expresses his opinion that evidence-based chiropractic is the only way forward.
  • Chiropractic, Bonesetting, and Cultism - Samuel Homola (entire book on-line).
This book, published in 1964, contains trenchant criticism of the profession, and the following year Homola's application to renew his membership of the ACA was rejected. In 1991, David J. Redding, chairman of the ACA board of governors, welcomed Homola back to membership of the ACA, and in 1994, 30 years after its publication, the book was reviewed for the first time by a chiropractic journal. [22]
  • Chiropractic Ethics: An Oxymoron?
JC Smith, a chiropractor in private practice, writes in 1999 that ethical issues are "in dire need of debate" because of "years of intense medical misinformation/slander" and because of well publicised examples of tacky advertising, outlandish claims, sensationalism and insurance fraud.
  • Chiropractic: Science and Antiscience and Pseudoscience Side by Side
Joseph C. Keating, Jr, PhD, professor at the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic and notable historian of chiropractic, warns of pseudoscientific notions that still persist in the mindsets of some chiropractors
  • Faulty Logic and Non-skeptical Arguments in Chiropractic
Dr Keating critically distinguishes between sound and unsound arguments in support of chiropractic
  • Critical thinking
Christopher Kent, DC president of the Council on Chiropractic Practice, advises his colleagues of the importance of high standards of evidence, noting that in the past chiropractors were too ready to accept anecdotal evidence
  • Open Letter to the Profession (See Chiroweb for commentary.)
A 1992 letter from ACA attorney, George P. McAndrews, warns the chiropractic profession that advertising of scare tactic subluxation philosophy damages the newly won respect within the AMA.
  • Quackery in Chiropractic -
A 1991 editorial from chiropractic trade magazine, Dynamic Chiropractic, where Joseph C. Keating Jr discusses his concerns for advertising products before they are scientifically evaluated.
  • Subluxation - The Silent Killer
A 2000 commentary by Ronald Carter, DC, MA, Past President, Canadian Chiropractic Association in the Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association discussing his opinion that the subluxation story regardless of how it is packaged is not the answer. He suggests it is now time for the silent majority to make their voices heard and come together to present a rational and defensible model of chiropractic so that is not just included in the health care system, but an essential member of the health care team.

External criticism

  • A Different Way To Heal? - PBS, Scientific American Frontiers, Web Feature
  • Chirobase: Skeptical guide to chiropractic history, theories, and current practices - Stephen Barrett, MD, and Samuel Homola, DC (combines internal and external criticism)
  • Chiropractic: Flagship of the Alternative Medicine Fleet, Part One and Part Two - Steven Novella, MD 1997

Abbreviations

  • AMA, The American Medical Association
  • BMJ, The British Medical Journal
  • DC, Doctor of Chiropractic
  • FDA, Food and Drug Administration
  • JMPT, The Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
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