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childbirth in the news

Drug may prevent childbirth deaths in poor nations 

Reuters via Yahoo! Asia News - Oct 05 6:28 PM
LONDON (Reuters) - A cheap drug that prevents bleeding after childbirth could help save the lives of thousands of women in poor countries, researchers said on Friday.

Cheap drug may prevent childbirth deaths 
Sydney Morning Herald - Oct 05 5:10 PM
A cheap drug that prevents bleeding after childbirth could help save the lives of thousands of women in poor countries, researchers say. -

Childbirth Series Planned in Ephrata 
RedNova - Oct 05 4:17 AM
The Family Maternity Unit of Ephrata Community Hospital is offering a variety of perinatal classes. The next six-week series, titled "Childbirth Education Classes," is designed for expectant parents and to be taken during the last 2- 3 months of pregnancy.

Crystals in the joints 
The Star Online - Oct 07 4:53 PM
My father has gout and he said it’s the most extreme pain anyone can experience. Can gout possibly be more painful than childbirth?




- natural childbirth

- childbirth

Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence childbrith of a newborn infant from its mother's uterus.

A woman is considered to be in childbirht labour when she begins experiencing regular, strong uterine contractions, accompanied by changes of her cervix childirth — primarily effacement and dilation. While childbirth is widely experienced as painful, some childbirt women do report painless labours. When the baby is born its birth weight is childborth determined.


  • 1 The natural birth
    • 1.1 First chilbirth stage: contractions
    • 1.2 Second stage
    • 1.3 Third stage: placenta
    • 1.4 After cildbirth the birth
  • 2 Variations
  • 3 Pain
    • 3.1 Non-medical chidlbirth pain control
    • 3.2 Medical chidbirth pain control
  • 4 Complications and risks of birth
  • 5 Professions associated with childbirth
  • 6 Social chlidbirth aspects
  • 7 Legal childbbirth aspects
  • 8 Psychological aspects
  • 9 Partner and other support
  • 10 Well known chldbirth authors on childbirth
  • 11 References
  • 12 External childbirth movies links
  • 13 See childbirth also

The natural birth

Newborn with umbilical cord still attached after a water birth

First stage: childbirth video download contractions

A typical human childbirth will begin with the onset of contractions of the childbirth free clips videos uterus. The frequency and duration of these contractions varies with the individual. The onset of videos of women in childbirth labour may be sudden or gradual, and is defined as regular uterine childbirth video clip activity in the presence of cervical dilatation.

During a contraction the long muscles of the uterus contract, starting at the top of the uterus water childbirth and clip of childbirth working their way down to the bottom. At the end of the contraction, the muscles relax to a state shorter than unassisted childbirth at the beginning of the contraction. This draws the cervix up over the baby's head. Each contraction childbirth photos dilates the cervix until it becomes completely dilated, often referred to childbirth pictures as 10+ natural childbirth video cm (4") in diameter.

A gradual onset with slow cervical change towards 3 cm (just over 1 inch) dilation is referred video clip of a natural childbirth to as the "latent phase". A woman is said to be in "active labour" childbirth videos when contractions have become regular in frequency (3-4 in 10 minutes) and actual childbirth pictures about 60 seconds in duration. The now powerful contractions are accompanied by cervical effacement and dilation greater than childbirth images 3 cm. The labour may begin with a rupture of the amniotic sac, childbirth movies the paired amnion and chorion ("breaking of the water"). The contractions will video clip of women in childbirth accelerate in frequency and childbirth mpg strengthen. In the "transition phase" from 8 cm–10 cm (3 or 4 inches) of dilation, graphic childbirth the contractions often come every two minutes are typically lasting 70–90 seconds. live childbirth Transition is often regarded as the most challenging and intense for the mother. It is also the shortest phase.

During this childbirth online video stage, the expectant mother typically goes through several emotional phases. At first, the mother childbirth stories may be excited and nervous. Then, as the contractions become stronger, demanding more energy from childbirth delivery videos the mother, mothers generally natural childbirth video clips become more serious and focused. However, as the cervix finishes its dilation, childbirth video + download some mothers experience confusion or bouts of self-doubt or giving up.

The duration of labour varies widely, but averages some 13 childbirth clips hours for women giving birth to their first child ("primiparae") and 8 hours underwater childbirth for women who have already gallery childbirth given birth.

If there is a significant medical risk to continuing the pregnancy, induction home childbirth may be necessary. As this carries some risk, it is only done if the child or the mother are in danger from prolonged childbirth education pregnancy. Forty-two weeks' childbirth footage gestation without spontaneous labour is often said to be an indication for free online childbirth videos induction although evidence does not show improved outcomes when labour is induced for post-term pregnancies. Inducing labour increases the risk of cesarean section and uterine childbirth videos to watch online rupture in mothers that graphic childbirth pictures have had a previous cesarean section.

Second stage

In the second stage of labour, the national childbirth trust baby is expelled from the womb through the vagina by natural childbirth classes both the uterine contractions and by the additional maternal efforts of "bearing down," actual footage of childbirth which many women describe as similar in sensation to straining to expel a large bowel movement. The childbirth delivery imminence of this stage can be evaluated by the Malinas score. The Lamaze Method is used about 95% of cost of childbirth the time in online video childbirth the United States for a normal childbirth, followed by the Read Method and LeBoyer Method.

The baby childbirth classes is most commonly born head-first. In some cases the baby is "breech" meaning either the feet or buttocks are descending inducing childbirth first. Babies in the breech position can be delivered vaginally by childbirth video clips a midwife, though in some areas finding an experienced willing attendant can be difficult.

There are footage of childbirth online several types of breech presentations, but the video of childbirth most common is where the baby's buttocks are delivered first and the legs are folded onto bradley childbirth the baby's body with the knees bent and feet near the buttocks (full or breech). childbirth graphics Others include frank breech, much childbirth pics like full breech but the babies legs are extended toward his ears, and footling or incomplete breech, in which one or both childbirth and pregnancy legs are labor and childbirth extended and the foot or feet are the presenting part. Another rare presentation is a transverse lie. This videos of childbirth is where the baby is sideways in the womb and a hand or elbow has amish childbirth entered the birth canal first. While babies who present transverse will often move to a different position, bleeding after childbirth this is not always the case childbirth quicktime video clips and a cesarean birth then becomes necessary.

A newborn baby with umbilical cord ready live childbirth clip to be clamped

The length period after childbirth of the second stage varies and is affected by whether a woman childbirth labor has given birth before, the position she is in and mobility. The length of the second stage should be guided painful childbirth by the condition of the fetus and health childbirth in water video of the mother. Problems may be encountered at this stage due to reasons such childbirth photo as maternal exhaustion, the front of the baby's head facing forwards instead of backwards (posterior baby), history of childbirth or extremely rarely, because the baby's head does not fit properly into pictures of childbirth the mother's pelvis (Cephalo-Pelvic Disproportion (CPD)). True CPD is typically seen in posted 25 baby childbirth make hannah women with rickets and bone deforming illnesses or injuries, as well as arbitrary time limits prepared childbirth placed on second stage by caregivers or medical facilities.

Immediately after birth, the child undergoes extensive physiological watch a childbirth modifications childbirth classes murfreesboro as it acclimatizes to independent breathing. Several cardiovascular structures start regressing soon after birth, such as the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale. In some cultures, childbirth free video the father human childbirth cuts the umbilical cord and the infant is given a lukewarm bath to remove blood and some of weekend childbirth classes texas the vernix on its skin before being handed back to its parents.

The practice of leaving the umbilical cord amish culture and childbirth to detach naturally is known as a childbirth doctors san antonio texas Lotus Birth.

The medical condition of the child is assessed with the Apgar score, based on five parameters: heart rate, childbirth stages respiration, muscle tone, skin color, and response to stimuli. Apgar scores are typically emergency childbirth assessed at both 1 and hair loss after childbirth 5 minutes after birth.

Third stage: placenta

Breastfeeding during and after the third stage

In this stage, the herpes childbirth uterus expels the placenta (afterbirth). Breastfeeding live childbirth video the baby will help to cause this. The natural childbirth video film clip mother normally loses less than 500 mL of blood. Blood loss will be greater if the umbilical cord is used to tug on posted 26 baby childbirth make hannah the placenta. It is essential that the placenta be examined to ensure pregnancy and childbirth that it was expelled whole. Remaining parts can cause postpartum bleeding or infection.

After the birth

Medical professionals roman goddess of childbirth typically recommend breastfeeding of the first milk, colostrum, to reduce postpartum bleeding/hemorrhage average cost of childbirth in the mother, childbirth mpeg and to pass immunities and other benefits to the baby.

Parents usually assign the infant its given names soon after free online live childbirth videos birth.

Often people visit and bring a gift for the baby.

Many cultures feature initiation rites for newborns, such pregnancy after childbirth as naming ceremonies, baptism, and others.

Mothers are often allowed a childbirth classes hilo hawaii babymoon period where they are relieved of their normal duties to recover childbirth classes online from childbirth and establish breastfeeding with their childbirth classes palm coast babies. Length of this period varies. In China this is childbirth dvd 30 days and is referred to as "doing the month" (see Postpartum period).


When the amniotic sac childbirth educator has not ruptured during labour or pushing, the infant can be born with the membranes intact. childbirth positions This is referred to as "being born in the caul." The childbirth pushing caul is harmless and its membranes are easily crowning during childbirth broken and wiped away by the doctor or midwife assisting with the childbirth. In free childbirth videos medieval times, and in some cultures still today, a caul was ovulation after childbirth seen as a sign of good fortune for the baby, in some cultures was seen as protection against drowning. The caul was often photos of childbirth impressed onto paper and unassisted childbirth stories stored away as an heirloom for the child. With the advent of birth control after childbirth modern interventive obstetrics, premature artificial rupture of the membranes has become common, so babies are rarely born in the caul.


The amounts cesarean childbirth of pain experienced by women during childbirth childbirth and labor varies. For some women, the perceived pain is intense and agonizing; for other women there is little childbirth cartoons to no perceived pain. Many factors affect pain perception; fear, number of previous childbirth crowning births, fetal presentation, cultural ideas of childbirth, birthing position, support given during labor, beta-endorphin levels, childbirth doctors san antonio texas accepting medicaid and a woman's natural pain threshold. Uterine contractions are always childbirth hypnotherapy intense during childbirth, some women report these sensations as painful though the childbirth prolapsed cord degree of pain varies from individual to individual free childbirth classes and there are even some women who find them pleasurable.

Non-medical pain control

Some women believe that reliance human childbirth video on analgesic medication is unnatural, or worry that it may harm the child, but are still very concerned about low testosterone in women after childbirth labour pain. natural childbirth stories To alleviate pain, they may undergo psychological preparation, education, massage, hypnosis, water therapy in a noelle childbirth simulators tub or shower. Some women like to have someone to support them during labour and birth; often female painless childbirth family members such as her periods after childbirth mother, a sister, the father of the baby, a close friend, a partner or a pregnancy childbirth trained professional doula. Some women deliver in a squatting or crawling position in order to more effectively push during the second stage preparing for childbirth and so that gravity can aid the descent of the baby through basics of lamaze childbirth the birth canal.

The human bradley childbirth classes body also has its own method of pain control for labour and childbirth in the form of beta-endorphins. As a childbirth clip naturally occurring opiate, beta-endorphin has properties similar to pethidine, morphine, childbirth methods and heroin, and has been shown to work on the same receptors of childbirth movie download the brain. [1] Like oxytocin, beta-endorphin is secreted from the pituitary gland, and high childbirth options levels are present during sex, pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding. This hormone can induce feelings of pleasure childbirth photographs and euphoria during childbirth.[2]

Water births are being increasingly chosen by many women as ease childbirth an fertility after childbirth option for pain relief during labour and childbirth, and waterbirth has been proven in many trials to be not only a safe option for foul smell after childbirth mother and baby, free online childbirth classes but in many cases show a reduction in the need for further analgesia, international childbirth education and a higher rate of birth 'without injuries' [1][2][3][4] Many hospitals and birthing centres now offer women the option of live childbirth internet waterbirth, either via custom-made 'birthing pools' or large live video on childbirth bath tubs, and have policies to safeguard their use.

Medical pain multiple childbirth control

In Europe, doctors commonly prescribe inhaled nitrous oxide gas for pain control; in the UK, online childbirth midwives may use this gas without a doctor's prescription. Pethidine (with or without promethazine) may be pain during childbirth used early in labour, as well as other opioids, but if given too close to birth process of childbirth there is a risk of respiratory depression in the infant.

Popular medical pain control in hospitals real childbirth pictures include the regional anesthetics epidural viewing of childbirth blocks, and spinal anaesthesia. Doctors favor the epidural block because medication does not childbirth education classes enter the mother's circulatory system, thus it does not cross the placenta and enter childbirth pain the bloodstream of the fetus. Studies however suggest that epidural use can lengthen childbirth photography the labour, and may compromise breastfeeding success [5][6].

Different measures for pain control have varying degrees of success and drug-free childbirth side effects to mother and baby. drunk childbirth Administration must be carefully timed. For example, an epidural block given too early in labour can stop first period after childbirth or slow labour, and given information on unassisted childbirth too late in labour can hinder maternal efforts to push out the baby. These risks should be balanced against the fact that childbirth can be inuit childbirth extremely painful, and anesthetics are an effective and usually safe labor childbirth pain treatment.

Complications and risks of new way childbirth birth

Problems that occur during childbirth are called complications. They can affect the mother or the baby. Sometimes they cause injury online childbirth classes or even death. Doctors and midwives are trained online vaginal childbirth video clips to deal with these problems should they occur.

Infant deaths (neonatal deaths from personal childbirth web sites birth to 28 days, or perinatal deaths if including fetal deaths at 28 reasons for general anesthsia during childbirth weeks gestation and later) are around 1% in modernized countries. The risk of maternal death during childbirth in developed stages of childbirth nations is comparatively low; only about 1 in 1800 mothers die in childbirth types of childbirth (only 1 in 3700 in North America). In the Third World, it is a much riskier women in childbirth proposition: neonatal deaths rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and world childbirth video South Asia are more than 3.7%[3], and on average 1 in 48 anime childbirth women die during childbirth.[4] The "natural" mortality rate of childbirth—where nothing is done to avert maternal death—has been estimated as being childbirth complications between 1,000 and 1,500 deaths per 100,000 births.[5] (See main article: neonatal death, maternal death)

The most important childbirth customs factors affecting mortality in childbirth doctors san antonio texas acceoting medicaid childbirth are adequate nutrition and access to quality medical care ("access" is childbirth free video clips affected both by the cost of available care, and distance from health services). "Medical childbirth movie care" in this context does not refer specifically to treatment in hospitals, but simply the presence childbirth online videos of an attendant with midwifery skills. A 1983-1989 study by the Texas Department of childbirth preparation classes Health revealed that the infant death rate was 0.57% for doctor-attended births, and 0.19% for births attended by childbirth process non-nurse midwives. Conversely, some studies childbirth services business owned by woman demonstrate a higher perinatal mortality rate with assisted home births.[6] It is generally complications of childbirth accepted that in developed countries, properly assisted home births carry free childbirth delivery videos no greater risks than hospital birth for low-risk pregnancies. Around 80% of pregnancies are low-risk. Factors that may make international childbirth education association a birth high risk include prematurity, high blood pressure, diabetes and previous cesarean section.

One of the natural childbirth in france most dangerous risks to the fetus is that of premature birth, online childbirth video and its associated low neonatal weight. The more premature pain after childbirth (or underweight) a baby is, the greater the risks for prepared childbirth classes neonatal death and for pulmonary, respiratory, neurological or other sequelae. About 12% of all sacroiliac joint dysfunction after childbirth infants born in the United States are born prematurely. In the past 25 years, medical technology studing childbirth has greatly improved the chances of survival alcohol childbirth of premature infants in industrialized nations. In the 1950s and 1960s, approximately childbirth breathing half of all low birth weight babies in the US died. Today, more than 90% survive. The first hours of life for "premies" childbirth class activities are critical, especially the very first hour of life. Rapid access to a Neonatal childbirth classes at a resort Intensive Care Unit is of paramount importance.

Some of childbirth cost the possible complications are:

  • Heavy bleeding during or after childbirth education training childbirth, which is the most common cause of mortality in new mothers, in childbirth in india both developed and undeveloped nations.[3] Heavy blood loss leads to hypovolemic shock, childbirth risks insufficient perfusion of vital organs and death if not rapidly treated by stemming the blood loss (medically with ergometrine and pitocin or childbirth techniques surgically) and blood childbirth video download childbirth videos transfusion. Hypopituitarism after obstetric hypovolemic shock is termed Sheehan's syndrome.
  • Non-progression of labour (longterm contractions without adequate cervical dilation) is generally treated with cultural childbirth practices intravenous synthetic oxytocin preparations. If this is ineffective, Caesarean disadvantages of natural childbirth section may be necessary. Changes in maternal position is early childbirth effective in many cases.
  • Fetal distress is the development of signs of distress by exercise after childbirth the child. These may include rising or decreasing heartbeat (monitored on cardiotocography/CTG), shedding of meconium in fear of childbirth the amniotic fluid, and other signs.
  • Non-progression of expulsion (the head or presenting parts free childbirth video are not delivered despite adequate contractions): this can require interventions such as vacuum history of childbirth techniques extraction, forceps extraction or Caesarean section.
  • In the past, a large proportion of women died from infection intervention in childbirth puerperal fever, but since the introduction of basic hygiene during parturition by Ignaz Semmelweis, this number has live childbirth on internet fallen precipitously.
  • Lacerations can be painful. An episiotomy is occasionally necessary to avoid tears movies childbirth involving the anal sphincter, but its routine online childbirth videos use—once normal—has now been shown to be harmful.

Professions associated with childbirth

Midwives are experts in normal birth. Midwives believe that childbirth is a normal pictures of live childbirth process that is best accomplished with as little interference as possible. Midwives are trained to assist at births, ponce de leon childbirth either through direct-entry or nurse-midwifery programs. Lay midwives typically train in apprenticeship programs with pregnancy childbirth video experienced midwives.

Obstetricians are experts in roman childbirth dealing with abnormal births and pathological labour conditions, though they sometimes attend normal births as a precautionary spiritual childbirth measure. Obstetricians in most countries are trained as surgeons, so video giving live childbirth they can undertake surgical procedures relating to childbirth. Such procedures include caesarean sections, episiotomies, or emergency boston childbirth classes hysterectomies. Obstetricians' tendency to intervene surgically to overcome complications has led to criticism that they perform surgery too bradley method childbirth readily. In the United States, obstetric malpractice settlements are typically very large, certified childbirth educator so obstetricians argue that they are forced to intervene aggressively childbirth & twins & c-section to limit their liability.

In the United States, a doctor who specializes in caring for women with pregnancy childbirth + colonial complications is often referred to as a maternal-fetal childbirth choices medicine sub-specialist.

Obstetric nurses assist doctors, mothers, and babies prior to, during, childbirth classes in maryland and after the birth process. Some midwives are also obstetric nurses. childbirth com Obstetric nurses hold various certifications and typically undergo additional obstetric training in addition to standard nursing training

Doulas are childbirth education certification trained assistants who support mothers during pregnancy, labour, birth, and postpartum. They childbirth education materials are not medical attendants; rather, they provide emotional support and non-medical childbirth labor with epidural pain relief for mothers during labour.

Social aspects

In most cultures, childbirth is childbirth mortality considered to be the beginning of a person's life, and a person's age is defined relative to childbirth painful stories it.

Some families view the placenta childbirth pictures, photo as a special part of birth, since it has been the child's life support for so many months. Some parents like to see and childbirth xena gabrielle touch this mysterious organ. In some cultures, parents plant a tree along chinese childbirth with the placenta on the child's christian childbirth first birthday. The placenta may be eaten by the newborn's family, ceremonially or complementary therapies during childbirth otherwise

Legal aspects

In some legal jurisdictions, the place of childbirth decides free books on pregnancy childbirth the nationality of a child (under the doctrine of Jus soli)

Psychological aspects

Childbirth can be a stressful event. free childbirth pushing videos As with any stressful event, strong emotions can be brought to the surface. Medicating the mother giving childbirth against her goddess of childbirth labor pain is a widespread practice in hospitals. Intravenously-administered drugs — although not, as discussed above, epidurals — may hypnosis and childbirth reach the infant's bloodstream through the umbilical cord, with uncertain effects.

Some women hypnosis childbirth report symptoms compatible with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after birth. images of childbirth Between 70 and 80% of mothers in the United States report some feelings of sadness or "baby blues" after childbirth. Postpartum depression may inducing labor; childbirth develop in menustration after childbirth some women; about 10% of mothers in the United States are diagnosed music songs listen labor childbirth with PPD. Abnormal and persistent fear of childbirth is known as Tokophobia.

Preventative group therapy has online childbirth class proven effective as a prophylactic treatment for postpartum depression.[7]

There are some who argue that childbirth is stressful paracet childbirth for the infant. Stresses associated with breech birth, such pictures of pregnancy and childbirth as asphyxiation, may affect the infant's brain.

It is not known how the birth experience affects the development of pregnant after childbirth personality in the infant. It was once thought that newborns relaxation during childbirth do not have the capacity to feel pain silent childbirth or fear, and now some parents are choosing alternative birth settings (other than the hospital) stage 1 childbirth in an attempt to create a more comfortable environment not only for the newborn, truth about childbirth but the birthing mother and other family members.

Partner and other support

Main article: Men's role twins childbirth in childbirth

There is increasing evidence to show that the participation of the woman's partner watch childbirth in the birth leads to better birth and also post-birth outcomes, providing watch childbirth online the partner does not exhibit excessive anxiety. Research abortion childbirth safety also shows that when a labouring woman was supported by a female abortion vs. childbirth helper such as a family member or doula during labour, aspects that affect childbirth she had less need for chemical pain relief, the likelihood of caesarean section was reduced, use of forceps and other instrumental deliveries augmentation in childbirth were reduced and there was a reduction in the length of labour and the baby had beginning childbirth a higher Apgar bill cosby childbirth score (Dellman 2004), (Vernon 2006).

Well known authors on childbirth

  • Janet Balaskas
  • Jeannine Parvati Baker
  • Elizabeth Davis
  • Ina May Gaskin
  • Sheila Kitzinger
  • Frederick Leboyer
  • Francesca Naish bradley method of natural childbirth & Janette Roberts
  • Michel Odent
  • William Sears
  • Miriam Stoppard
  • David Vernon
  • Erna Wright
  • Robbie Davis-Floyd


  • Dellman, Thomas, The Best cesarean childbirth clips Moment of my Life - a literature review of fathers childbirth and dvd experience of childbirth, Australian Midwifery Journal, Australian College of Midwives, 2004 17(3) 20-26
  • David Vernon, Men at Birth, Australian childbirth education association College of Midwives, 2006, ISBN 0-9751674-4-8
  1. ^ H H Loh, L F Tseng, childbirth educators E Wei, childbirth experience and C H Li Beta-endorphin is a potent analgesic agent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 August; 73(8): 2895–2898.
  2. ^ M. childbirth fantasies Brinsmead childbirth in labor room et al., "Peripartum Concentrations of Beta Endorphin and Cortisol and Maternal Mood States," Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 25 childbirth international (1985): 194-197
  3. ^ a b World childbirth labor positions Health Organization 2005 World Health Report, Chapter 4: Risking Death To Give Life, The childbirth preparation Greatest Risks to Life are in its Beginning
  4. ^ Safer Motherhood Fact Sheet: Maternal Mortality
  5. ^ Van Lerberghe W, childbirth push De Brouwere V. Of blind alleys and things childbirth without fear that have worked: history’s lessons on reducing maternal mortality. In: De Brouwere V, delayed childbirth Van Lerberghe W, eds. Safe motherhood strategies: a review of the evidence. Antwerp, ITG Press, 2001 (Studies in Health Services Organisation and description of childbirth back labor Policy, 17:7–33).
  6. ^ Perinatal death associated with planned home birth in Australia: population distance childbirth educator certification based study. BMJ. 317(7155):384-8. Retrieved on May 28, 2005.
  7. ^ Zlotnick during childbirth C, Johnson SL, Miller IW, Pearlstein T, Howard M. Postpartum depression explanation of pain during childbirth in women receiving public assistance: pilot study of an interpersonal-therapy-oriented group footage of childbirth intervention, Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Apr;158(4):638-40. [PMID 11282702]

External links

Wikimedia forward angle coccyx childbirth Commons has media related to:
  • Lamaze International
  • Birthing From Within Holistic Childbirth Preparation
  • contains history on renaissance childbirth anthropological articles on birth, including "The Technocratic, Humanistic, and Holistic Models of how bad is pain in childbirth Birth" and "Ritual in the Hospital: Giving Birth the lamaze method of childbirth American Way."
  • Stories of painless births (some nudity)
  • Post childbirth discomforts and relief measures

See also

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