For other uses of these words, see gravitation (disambiguation), gravity (disambiguation).or both.
Classically, the gravitational attraction of the earth endows objects with gravatation weight and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped (the earth also moves toward gravitaion the object, but only by an infinitesimal amount). Moreover, gravitayion gravitation is the reason for the very existence of graviation the earth, the sun, and other celestial bodies; without it matter would not have coalesced gravutation into these bodies and life as we know it would not exist. Gravitation gravitaton is also responsible for keeping gravtiation the earth and the other planets in their orbits around the sun, the moon in its gravtation orbit around the earth, for the formation of tides, and for various other natural phenomena that gavitation we observe.
The
gravitational force keeps the planets in orbit about gravitation the sun.
Contents
 1 History of gravitational theory
 2 Newton's law of universal gravitation mp3 gravitation
 3 Gravitational potential
 4 General gravitation remix relativity
 5 Specifics
 5.1 Earth's gravitation manga gravity
 5.2 Equations for a falling body
 5.3 Gravity gravitation episode and astronomy
 5.4 Gravity versus gravitation
 6 Applications
 7 Alternative gravitation anime theories
 8 See gravitation episodes also
 9 Notes
 10 References
 11 External gravitation yaoi links

History of gravitational theory
Since the time of the Greek philosopher download gravitation episodes Aristotle in the 4th century BC, there have been many attempts to understand gravitation clips and explain gravity. matter and gravitation Aristotle believed that there was no effect without a cause, and therefore no motion without a force. He hypothesized gravitation music sheets that everything tried to move towards their proper place in the crystalline spheres of gravitation episode downloads the heavens, and that physical bodies gravitation theme fell toward the center of the Earth in proportion gravitation shuichi to their weight. Another example of an attempted explanation is that of the Indian astronomer Brahmagupta who, in 628 AD, wrote gravitation wallpaper that "bodies fall towards the earth gravitation episode 1 as it is in the nature of the earth to attract bodies, just as it gravitation k is in the nature of water to flow".
In 1687, English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton published gravitation super drive the famous Principia, which hypothesizes the inversesquare law of universal gravitation. In his own anime gravitation words, gravitation bad luck "I deduced that the forces which keep the planets in their orbs must be reciprocally as the squares of gravitation sleepless beauty their distances from the centers about which they revolve; and them answer gravitation subbed dvd price pretty nearly." Most modern nonrelativistic gravitational calculations are based on Newton's gravitation rage beat work.
Newton's law of universal gravitation

Main article: gravitation videos Newton's law of universal gravitation
In 1687 Newton published his work on the universal sakano gravitation law of gravity in his book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ( Latin:Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). bird gravitation Newton’s law of gravitation states that: every particle in the universe attracts every other gravitation glaring dream particle with a gravitation ova force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between gravitation screencaps them. If the reilly's law of retail gravitation particles have masses m_{1} and m_{2} and are separated by a distance glaring dream gravitation mp3 r (from their centers of gravity), the magnitude of this gravitational force is:
where:
 F is the gravitation music magnitude of the gravitational force between the two point masses
 G is gravitation rage beat mp3 the gravitational constant
 m_{1} is the mass of the first point mass
 m_{2} is the mass of the second gravitation downloads point mass
 r is gravitation ending the distance between the two point masses
To see the change in gravity on earth based on the gravitation screenshots altitude (r in the above equation) based on real shuichi gravitation examples, you can use the eXtreme High Altitude Calculator
Gravitational potential
The above gravitation opening equation leads to the equation for the work done in sleepless beauty gravitation mp3 moving a mass from a radius R to infinity, which is gravitation drama cd obtained by integrating the force of gravity over this distance:
The work done when moving predilection gravitation a mass from infinity to a radius R is therefore
 and this is known as the gravitational potential energy.
Using the ryuichi gravitation Earth as an example, the work done in moving a mass from smashing blue gravitation the Earth's surface to infinity is given by:
where G is gravitation blind game again the universal gravitational constant, m is the object's mass, r_{e} is the Earth's radius, and gravitation episode download m_{e} is the Earth's mass.
General relativity

Main article: Introduction to general relativity
Newton's conception and quantification of gravitation held until the gravitation no style beginning of the 20th century, when the gravitation shining collection Germanborn physicist Albert Einstein proposed the general theory of relativity. In gravitation subbed dvd this theory Einstein proposed that inertial motion occurs when objects are in freefall instead of when they are law of universal gravitation at rest with respect to a massive object such universal gravitation as the Earth (as is watch gravitation online the case in classical mechanics). The problem is that in flat spacetimes such as those of classical mechanics gravitation anime gallery and special relativity, there is no way gravitation character profiles that inertial observers can accelerate with respect to each other, as freefalling bodies can do as gravitation dvd they are each accelerated towards the center of a massive object.
To deal with this difficulty, Einstein proposed that gravitation live action spacetime is curved by the presence of matter, and that freefalling objects gravitation ovc are following the geodesics gravitation remix scanlations of the spacetime. More specifically, Einstein discovered the field equations gravitation superdrive of general relativity, which relate the presence of matter and the curvature of spacetime. The Einstein field equations are a gravitation theory set of 10 simultaneous, nonlinear, differential equations whose lost complex gravitation solutions give the components of the metric tensor of spacetime. reillys law of retail gravitation This metric tensor allows to calculate not only angles and distances the rage beat gravitation between spacetime intervals (segments) measured with the coordinates against which the spacetime manifold is being mapped but also the affineconnection gravitation galleries from gravitation gallery which the curvature is obtained, thereby describing the spacetime's geometrical structure. Notable solutions of the gravitation icons Einstein field equations include:
 The Schwarzschild solution, which describes spacetime surrounding a spherically symmetric gravitation soundtrack mp3 nonrotating uncharged massive object. For compact enough objects, this solution generated gravitation translations a black hole with a central singularity.
 The ReissnerNordström solution, in which the central object gravitation vocal collection has an electrical charge. For charges with a geometrized length which are less predilection gravitation mp3 than the geometrized length of the mass of the universal law of gravitation object, this solution produces black holes with two event horizons.
 The Kerr solution solution for rotating massive chibi gravitation objects. This solution also produces black holes with multiple formula of law of universal gravitation event horizons.
 The cosmological RobertsonWalker solution, which predicts the gravitation anime sketches expansion of the universe.
General relativity has enjoyed much success because of how its predictions gravitation in the moonlight have been regularly confirmed. For example:
 General relativity accounts for the anomalous precession of gravitation lyrics the planet Mercury.
 The prediction that time runs slower at lower potentials has been confirmed by the PoundRebka gravitation nittle grasper experiment, the HafeleKeating experiment, gravitation remix scanlation and the GPS.
 The prediction of the deflection of light was first confirmed by Arthur Eddington in 1919, and has more recently gravitation rpg been strongly confirmed through gravitation the novel the use of a quasar which passes behind the Sun as seen from the Earth. See also gravitational lensing.
 The time delay of light gravitation the rage beat passing close to a massive gravitation wallpapers object was first identified by Shapiro in 1964 in interplanetary no style gravitation spacecraft signals.
 Gravitational radiation has been indirectly confirmed through studies of binary pulsars.
 The expansion of the super drive gravitation universe (predicted by the RobertsonWalker metric) was confirmed by Edwin Hubble in 1929.
Specifics
Earth's gravity
Southern Ocean gravity anime manga gravitation field

Main article: Gravity (Earth)
Every planetary body, including download episode 1 gravitation the Earth, is surrounded by its own gravitational field, which exerts an attractive gravitation 3 force on any object that comes gravitation ep under its influence. This field is proportional to the body's mass and varies inversely with the square of distance gravitation episode 9 from the body. The gravitational field is numerically equal gravitation fanart to the acceleration of objects under its influence, and its value at the Earth's surface, gravitation hiro denoted g, is approximately 9.81 m/s² or 32.2 ft/s². This means that, ignoring air resistance, an object gravitation instrumentals falling freely near the earth's surface increases gravitation love in speed by 9.81 m/s (around 22 mph) for each gravitation magazines second of its descent. Thus, an object gravitation scanlations starting from rest will attain a speed of 9.81 m/s after one second, 19.62 m/s after two seconds, and so on. According to gravitation shirts Newton's 3rd Law, the earth itself experiences an equal and opposite gravitation spicy marmalade force to that acting on gravitation them song the falling object, meaning that the earth also accelerates towards the object. gravitation torrent However, because the mass of the earth is huge, the acceleration produced gravitation video music clips downloads on the earth by this same force is negligible.
Equations for a falling body

Main article: gravitation vocals Equations for a falling body
Under normal earthbound conditions, when objects move owing to a constant gravitation welcome to my romance mp3 gravitational force a set of kinematical and dynamical rage beat gravitation equations describe the resultant trajectories. For example, Newton’s law of gravitation simplifies the rage beat gravitation mp3 to F = mg, where anime manga gravitation mr. k m is the mass of the body. This assumption is reasonable for objects falling to earth over the relatively short vertical distances gravitation 4 of our everyday experience, but gravitation avatars is very much untrue over larger distances, such as spacecraft gravitation bird trajectories, because the acceleration far from the surface of the Earth will not in general be g. A gravitation characters further example is the expression that we use for gravitation eiri icons the calculation of potential energy of a body gravitation episode 3 = mgh. This expression can be used only over small distances from the earth. Similarly the expression for the maximum height reached by a gravitation episode 4 vertically projected body,"h = u^2/2g " is useful gravitation episode downlods for small heights and small initial velocities only. In case of gravitation manga downloads large initial velocities we have to use the principle of conservation of gravitation manga online energy to find the maximum height reached
Gravity and gravitation megamix astronomy

Main article: Gravity (astronomy)
The discovery and application of Newton's law of gravity accounts for the detailed information we gravitation mp3s have gravitation music downlods about the planets in our solar system, the mass of the sun, the distance to stars gravitation nittle grasper wallpaper and even the theory of dark matter. Although we haven't traveled to all the gravitation part one planets nor to the sun, we know their mass. The gravitation predilection mass is obtained by applying the laws of gravity to the measured characteristics of the orbit. In space an gravitation scans object maintains its orbit because of the gravitation shuichi and yuki force of gravity acting upon it. Planets orbit stars, stars orbit galactic centers, galaxies orbit a center gravitation simfile of mass in clusters, and gravitation super drive mp3 clusters orbit in superclusters.
Gravity versus gravitation
It is important to note, in some gravitation video episodes contexts, that gravitation is not gravity, per se. Gravitation is a phenomenon independent of any lyrics to rockin station by gravitation particular cause. Some theorize mad soldiers gravitation mp3 that it is possible for gravitation to exist without a force; according to general relativity, that is indeed the case. In shuichi eiri gravitation common usage shuichi shindou gravitation "gravity" and "gravitation" are either used interchangeably, or the distinction is sometimes made that "gravity" is universal constant of gravitation specifically the attractive force of the earth, while "gravitation" is the yuki with shuichi gravitation general property of mutual attraction between bodies of matter. In technical usage, "gravitation" is the tendency of bodies to accelerate anime gravitation music download badluck  gravitation towards one another, and "gravity" is the force that some theories use to explain this acceleration.
Gravity was rather poorly understood until Isaac Newton formulated gravitation  rage beat gravitation blind game again mp3 his law of gravitation in the 17th century. Newton's theory is still widely used for many practical purposes, though for more advanced work gravitation constant it has been gravitation drama cd for english supplanted by Einstein's general relativity. While a great deal is now gravitation episode 2 known about the properties of gravity, the ultimate cause of gravitation remains an open question and gravitation episode 5 gravity remains an important topic of scientific research.
Applications
Shot Tower, 1856 Dubuque, Iowa
A vast gravitation episode one number of mechanical contrivances depend in some way on gravity for their operation. For gravitation glaring dream mp3 example, a height difference can provide a useful pressure gravitation hiro images differential in a liquid, as in the case of an intravenous drip or a water tower. The gravitational potential gravitation in the moonlight mp3 energy of water gravitation kumagoro can be used to generate hydroelectricity as well as to haul a tramcar up an incline, using a system gravitation mad soldiers mp3 of water tanks and pulleys; the Lynton and Lynmouth Cliff Railway [1] in Devon, gravitation music video England employs just such gravitation nittle mp3 a system. Also, a weight hanging from a cable over a pulley provides a constant tension in the cable, including the part on gravitation of love mp3 the other side of gravitation of shuichi the pulley to the weight.
Examples are numerous: For example molten lead, when poured into gravitation op the top of a shot tower, will coalesce into a rain of spherical lead shot, first separating into gravitation ova 2 downloads droplets, forming molten spheres, and finally freezing solid, undergoing many of gravitation pngs the same effects as meteoritic tektites, gravitation predilection mp3 which will cool into spherical, or nearspherical shapes in freefall. Also, gravitation shuichi theme mp3 a fractionation tower can be used to manufacture some materials by separating out the gravitation shuichi's theme mp3 material components based on their specific gravity. Weightdriven clocks gravitation soundtrack are powered by gravitational potential energy, and pendulum clocks depend on gravity to regulate time. gravitation tshirts Artificial satellites are an application of gravitation which was mathematically gravitation time in my heart mp3 described in Newton's Principia.
Gravity is used in geophysical exploration to investigate density contrasts gravitation tv collection in the subsurface of the Earth. Sensitive gravimeters use a complicated spring and mass system (in most cases) gravitation video to measure the strength of the "downward" component of gravitation winamp skins the gravitational force at a point. Measuring many law of gravitation stations over an area reveals anomalies measured in mGal or microGal (1 gal is 1 cm/s^2. Average gravitational acceleration is makun gravitation about 981 gal, or 981,000 mGal.). After corrections newton's law of gravitation for the obliqueness of the Earth, elevation, terrain, instrument sleepless beauty gravitation drift, etc., these anomalies reveal areas of higher or lower density in the crust. This method is super drive gravitation mp3 used extensively in mineral and petroleum exploration, as well as timelapse groundwater modeling. yuki and shuichi gravitation The newest instruments are sensitive enough to read cavendish gravitation the gravitational pull of the operator standing over drive me high gravitation them.
Alternative theories

Main article: Alternatives to general relativity
Historical alternative theories
 Aristotelian theory of gravity
 Le Sage's eiri yuki gravitation theory of gravitation (1784) also called LeSage gravity, proposed by GeorgesLouis Le Sage, based gravitation 2 on a fluidbased explanation where a light gas fills the entire universe.
 Nordström's theory gravitation 8 of gravitation (1912, 1913), an early competitor of general relativity.
 Whitehead's theory gravitation anime bios of gravitation (1922), another early competitor of general relativity.
Recent alternative gravitation anime episodes theories
 BransDicke theory of gravity (1961)
 Induced gravity (1967), a proposal by Andrei Sakharov according to gravitation anime movies which general relativity might arise from gravitation anti nostalgic quantum field theories of matter.
 Rosen bimetric theory of gravity
 In the modified Newtonian gravitation bewegter k?rper dynamics (MOND) (1981), Mordehai Milgrom proposes a modification of Newton's Second Law of motion for small accelerations.
 The new and gravitation big al highly controversial Process Physics theory gravitation downlods attempts to address gravity
 The selfcreation cosmology theory of gravity (1982) by G.A. Barber in which the gravitation eiri BransDicke theory is modified to allow mass creation.
 Nonsymmetric gravitational gravitation episode 6 theory (NGT) (1994) by John Moffat
 The satirical theory of Intelligent gravitation intro falling (2002, in its first incarnation as "Intelligent grappling")
 Tensorvectorscalar gravity (TeVeS) (2004), a relativistic modification of gravitation items MOND by Jacob Bekenstein
electrogavitics, magnetogravitics, gravity wave harmonics: electrogravitics: (eg. see books published by integrity research gravitation ltd institute [2] and Starlane Publications [3]) basic principle: gravitation music video downlods electrons push, protons pull  using this principle, Nikola Tesla predicted gravitational repulsion in the 1880s, experimented with gravitation nittle it gravitation novel downlods in the 1890s, & designed the cigar shaped aircraft in the early 20th century. The BiefeldBrown effect (1923) demonstrates this & Thomas Townsend gravitation personality quizzes Brown later designed gravitation pics asymmetric capacitors suchas the disc shaped aircraft with a negatively electrical charged (repulsion) plate on gravitation pictures the bottom & the positively charged (attraction) plate on top. gravity wave harmonics (eg. see book: How gravitation shuichi and yuki music video to Build a Flying Saucer and Other Proposals in Speculative Engineering, T.B. Pawlicki): gravitation songs gravity is a wave like any other  all the gravitation stepmania planets rest at harmonic intervals in a standing wave from the source gravitation the cat came back of the wave, the sun.
See also
 Artificial gravity
 Escape velocity
 General relativity
 Gravitational radiation (gravitational waves)
 Gravitational binding energy
 Gravity Research Foundation
 Gravity and the divergence theorem
 Kepler's third gravitations mp3 law of planetary motion

 Newton's laws of newton's theory of gravitation motion
 nbody problem
 The Pioneer spacecraft anomaly
 Scalar Gravity
 Speed of gravity
 Standard gravitational parameter
 Weight
 Weightlessness

Notes
 Note 1: Proposition newton's universal law of gravitation history 75, Theorem 35: p.956  I.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, translators: Isaac ringtones gravitation Newton, The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's shiuchi shuoinduo and eiri yuki gravitation Principia, by I. Bernard Cohen. University of shounen ai, gravitation California Press 1999 ISBN 0520088166 ISBN 0520088174
 Note 3: Max Born (1924), shuichi shindou and eiri yuki gravitation Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition, page 348 lists a table shuichi with yuki gravitation documenting the observed and calculated shuichi yuki gravitation values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, Venus, and Earth.)
References
 Halliday, David, suck it Robert Resnick; Kenneth S. Krane (2001). Physics v. 1. New York: John superdrive gravitation Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471320579.
 Serway, Raymond A., Jewett, John W. (2004). thorne gravitation price Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6th ed., Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0534408427.
 Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics, 5th ed., W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0716708094.
 Jefimenko, Oleg D., "Causality, electromagnetic yuki gravitation induction, and gravitation : a 8th flight gravitation different approach to the theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields". Star abracadabra gravitation City [West Virginia] : Electret Scientific Co., c1992. ISBN 0917406095
 Heaviside, Oliver, "A gravitational and electromagnetic analogy". The Electrician, 1893.
MONICA
External links
 Gravity Probe B Experiment The Official Einstein website from Stanford University
 Center for Gravity, Electrical, and Magnetic Studies
The Four Fundamental "Forces" of Physics 

Gravitation  Electromagnetism  Strong Force  Weak Force 
Categories: Gravity  Introductory physics  Celestial mechanics