A case study is a particular method of qualitative research. Rather than using large casestudy samples and following a rigid protocol to examine a limited number of ase study variables, case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event: a case. They case studies provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data, case study analyzing information, and reporting the results. As a result the researcher may gain a employee theft case study sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did, and asbestos mesothelioma lawsuit case studies what might become important to look at more extensively in future research. business case studies Case studies lend themselves to both generating and testing hypotheses (Flyvbjerg 2006).
Yin, on the other business case study hand suggests, that case study should public policy case study be defined as a research strategy, an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. international business case studies Case study research means single- and multiple case studies, can include business case studies corporate strategy cases quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefits from the case studies business prior development of theoretical propositions. He notes that case studies should not be confused case study method with qualitative research and points benefits of business partnerships case studies out that they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence (Yin 2002). This is also supported and public relations case studies well-formulated in (Lamnek, 2005): "The case study special education case study is a research approach, situated between concrete data taking technique and methodologic paradigma".
- 1 The example of case study scope and relevance of case studies
- 2 Types of case study
- 2.1 Illustrative case studies
- 2.2 Exploratory business failures case studies case studies
- 2.3 Critical case disease lyme study instance case studies
- 2.4 Program harvard business review case studies implementation case studies
- 2.5 Program effects case studies
- 2.6 Prospective case studies
- 2.7 Cumulative proposal business strategies case studies case studies
- 2.8 Narrative benefits business partnerships case studies case studies
- 2.9 Medical case studies
- 2.10 Embedded case studies
- 3 Case free business case studies selection
- 4 Generalizing from how to write a case study case studies
- 5 History of the case study
- 6 Conclusions
- 7 Sources case study on international business in the philippines and further readings
The scope and relevance of case studies
Certain disciplines thrive on case studies: others find them less suitable in case study spinal cord injury given situations. Compare usage and perceived validity in the humanities, natural business law and case studies sciences, social sciences, pseudoscience and business.
Rogers, in Business Analysis for Marketing Managers (1978) cultural issues in international business case studies distinguishes case studies from case histories and projects. He describes a case history example of case study outline as an event or series of events set in an organisational case studies in business framework with or without free case studies a related environment. The events are described in some detail with the harvard business review wwwspringscom case study discus main and subsidiary points highlighted. Actions taken by subjects in the case are described; write case study reactions, responses and effects on other subjects are related, and events taken to a conclusion or business case harvard review study to a point that is irreversible. Medical cases are typical of the case studies for international business category. Symptoms are acuscan case study described, probable and possible causes suggested, treatment recommended, prognosis recorded, and the date when the patient was discharged or buried.
He defined the case business case studies in employee development and training study as also describing business owner case studies events in a framework within an environment. The problems are not always highlighted or even made international business case study clear; they emerge as the case material is subjected sample public policy case study to analysis. A conclusion is not necessarily stated nor is the situation reached in the case irreversible. It is usually small business case studies for education possible to ‘take over’ operations at a suitable business ethics and case studies point in the role of an case studies in business strategy external adviser or from a position in the case. Most business cases fall into this case study business research category.
The case project is a series of diverse continuous events, case study on international business set in an organizational framework and normally in a well-defined environment. Those family business case studies studying the case are led to a specific point in time and circumstance forensic case studies where they become a ‘participant’ in the case. They may be asked to assume the role of business case studies and problem solving or brainstorming a person in the case, appointed to a business communication case studies particular vacancy, or to advise from the position of case studies on business proposal an external consultant. The role is made explicit and it is from that viewpoint that analysis, views, arguments and recommendations must case study 27role of cio27 business strategy structure be made; there is thus a behavioural aspect introduced. If placed in the gcse business studies case study position of a newly appointed middle irwin legal studies in business case video manager, responses and suggestions are likely to be different from those of radio one inc2c harvard business case study an external consultant. Rogers developed the case business strategy simulation case study project in 1966 for the Chartered Institute of Marketing’s diploma final open book examination. To avoid pre-prepared scripts being submitted, cultural issues international business case studies the examination paper progressed the case by several special education case studies months from when it was published, introducing new material. This required candidates to modify the analyses and conclusions already advantages and disadvantages of case studies reached and write a true examination business process reengineering case study room report.
Types of case study
Illustrative case business studies case studies
Illustrative case studies describe a domain; they use one or two instances to analyze a situation. This helps case studies for business office interpret other data, especially when researchers have reason to believe that readers nursing case study care plan know too little about a program. These case studies serve case studies public policy to make the unfamiliar familiar, and give case studies shoulder injury and back pain readers a common language about the topic. The chosen site should typify important variations and case study method use in research contain a small number of cases to sustain readers' interest.
The presentation e business case studies of illustrative case studies may involve some pitfalls. Such studies harvard business review case study require presentation of in-depth information on each illustration; but the researcher may lack mathematics business case studies time on-site for in-depth examination. The most serious problem involves the selection of instances. The case(s) pray off your debts in 10 days or less - a short case study must adequately represent the situation or program. Where significant diversity exists, no single individual business information system case studies site may cover the field adequately. nkk
Exploratory case studies
Exploratory case business strategy case studies studies condense the case study process: researchers may undertake them carnival cruise lines case study before implementing a large-scale investigation. Where considerable uncertainty exists case studies on generalized anxiety disorder about program operations, goals, and results, exploratory case studies help identify questions, select measurement constructs, and develop measures; case studies policies examples of business ethics they radio one inc harvard business valuation case study also serve to safeguard investment in larger studies.
The greatest pitfall in the exploratory study involves premature conclusions: the findings may seem anxiety disorder case study convincing enough for inappropriate business case studies business case release as conclusions. Other pitfalls include the tendency to extend the exploratory phase, and inadequate representation case studies in business ethics of diversity.
Critical instance case studies
Critical instance case studies examine one case studies on reproductive health or a few sites for one of two purposes. A very frequent application involves caseplace business case studies and social impac the examination of a situation of unique interest, with little or no interest customer business reliance case study in generalizability. A second, rarer, application entails calling mathematics in business case studies into question a highly generalized or universal assertion and testing it by examining one instance. new century health clinic case study This method particularly suits answering cause-and-effect business business marketing case studies questions about the instance of concern.
Inadequate specification of the evaluation question forms the most serious pitfall in this type of study. business process reengineering and case study Correct application of the critical instance case study crucially involves case study research method probing the underlying concerns in a request.
Program implementation case studies
Program implementation case examples of bad business ethics and case studies studies help discern whether generalized anxiety disorder case study implementation complies with intent. These case studies may also prove useful when concern exists about implementation problems. Extensive, managerial accounting case study longitudinal reports of what has happened over mcdonalds case studies and international business time can set a context for interpreting a finding of implementation variability. In either case, researchers social anxiety disorder case study aim for generalization and must carefully negotiate the evaluation questions with business acquisition money method case study their customer.
Good program implementation case studies must business to business marketing case studies invest sufficient time to obtain longitudinal data and breadth of information. They typically case engine marketing search study require multiple sites to answer program implementation questions; this imposes demands on training and supervision needed for quality control. case studies articles on ethics in business The demands of data management, quality control, validation procedures, and case studies chase manhattan bankbefore bpr analytic modelling (within site, cross-site, etc.) may lead to cutting too many case study in business law corners to maintain quality.
Program effects case studies
Program effects case studies can determine the impact of programs and provide inferences about reasons for success or failure. As cfo business case studies with program implementation public health administration case studies case studies, the evaluation questions usually require generalizability and, for a highly diverse program, it may become difficult to answer royal palm threaded case study the questions adequately and retain a manageable number of what is a case study sites. But methodological solutions to this problem exist. One approach involves first conducting the case biomedical engineering case study team work studies in sites chosen for business case law study their representativeness, then verifying these findings through examination of administrative data, prior reports, or business case study example a survey. Another solution involves using other methods first. After identifying findings of specific interest, researchers may then business research methods case studies implement case studies in selected sites to maximize the usefulness of the information.
Prospective case studies
Case studies can be case studies on bipolar disorder used not only for inductive theory development, but also case studies sales and marketing business as quazi-experiments in deductive theory testing. In a prospective case study design, the cases in international finance c case studies researcher formulates a set of theory-based hypotheses in citibank launching the credit card case study respect to the evolution of an on-going social or cultural process and then tests these hypotheses at a pre-determined follow-up time in the ecommerce credit card case study future by comparing these hypotheses with the observed process food processing case studies outcomes using "pattern matching" (Campbell, 1966; Trochim, 1989) or a similar technique. havard business school case studies This prospective research design indian case study on business strategies consists of (1) a baseline case study, which is used to formulate a set of hypotheses in respect midstate university business placement office a case study to the evolving social process (i.e., "What predictions would a six sigma case study given theory make in respect to this process?"), establish the follow-up time, follow-up study methodology, and outcome evaluation spacedisk case study criteria; and (2) of a follow-up case study conducted at the startup service business case study predetermined follow-up voice over ip case study time. In this follow-up study, the formulated hypotheses are compared to the observed outcomes atheros communications harvard business school case studies of the social process, and the predictive power of the theory is, thus, evaluated.
Cumulative case studies
Cumulative case studies aggregate information from several sites collected at different times. case studies for thalassemia The cumulative case study can have a retrospective case studies in criminological/criminal justice research focus, collecting information across studies done in the past, or a prospective outlook, structuring a series case study international trade transaction of investigations for different times in the future. Retrospective case study on role of culture in the international business cumulation allows generalization without cost and time of conducting numerous new case studies; prospective cumulation also allows generalization customer segmentation case study without unmanageably large darden business publications case studies numbers of cases in process at any one time.
The techniques for ensuring sufficient comparability and how to conduct a case study quality and for aggregating the information constitute the "cumulative" part of the methodology. Features of the cumulative lincoln electric case study business case study include the case survey method pediatric case studies (used as a means of aggregating findings) and backfill seo case studies search engine optimization and placement techniques. The latter aid in retrospective cumulation as a means of obtaining information from sony case study international business authors that permits use of otherwise insufficiently detailed case studies.
Opinions vary spinal cord injury case studies as to the credibility of cumulative case studies for answering program implementation and effects questions. traumatic brain injury case studies One authority notes that publication biases may favor programs that seem to work, which could lead business case research studies to a misleading business failure case studies positive view (Berger, 1983). Others raise concerns about problems in verifying the quality of the original data business intelligence2f crm case study and analyses (Yin, 1989).
Narrative case studies
Case studies that present business law case studies high school students findings in a narrative format are called narrative case studies. This involves case studies of anxiety disorder presenting the case study
as events in an unfolding plot with actors and actions.
Medical case studies
In medical case studies of business ethics science case studies are considered "Class V" case study about diabetes mellitus evidence, and are thus the least suggestive of all forms case study business of medical evidence.
Embedded case studies
A case studies business case study containing more than one sub-unit of analysis is referred to as an embedded writing format of a business case study case study (Yin, 2002).
When selecting a asthma case studies case for a case study, researchers often use information-oriented sampling, as opposed to random sampling (Flyvbjerg 2006). business communications case studies This is because the typical or average case is business studies 2005 case study often not the richest in information. Extreme or atypical cases often reveal more information because they activate more basic mechanisms case study and business and more actors in the situation studied. In case study blair water purifier india addition, from both an understanding-oriented and an action-oriented perspective, it case study international business philippines is often more important to clarify the deeper causes case study of business proposals for mothers working at home behind a given problem and its consequences than to describe the case study on enterprise rent a car organziation symptoms of the problem and how frequently they occur. Random samples emphasizing representativeness will seldom be able to produce this case study research kind of insight; it is more appropriate to select some few cases chosen customer service case study for their validity.
The following three types of format of a business case study information-oriented cases may be distinguished: (1) Extreme or deviant cases, (2) Critical cases, and harvard business review case studys (3) Paradigmatic cases. The extreme case can be well-suited for getting a point across in an leadership case studies especially dramatic way, which often occurs for well-known case studies liver cancer case study such as Freud’s ‘Wolf-Man.’
A critical case psychological case studies can be defined as having strategic importance in relation to the the beer industry 3a a case study general problem. For example, an occupational medicine clinic wanted to investigate whether people working with organic solvents suffered brain damage. Instead writing case studies of choosing a representative sample among all those business case studies in employee development and enterprises in the clinic’s area that used organic solvents, business case studies on innovation the clinic strategically located a single workplace where all safety regulations on business case study allied products cleanliness, air quality, and the like, had been fulfilled. This model business process managment systems government case studies enterprise became a critical case: if brain damage related to organic solvents could business study case method be found at this particular facility, then it was likely that the same problem would exist at case obesity study other enterprises which were less careful with safety regulations for case studies international business organic solvents. Via this type of strategic sampling, one can save both time and case studies on business money in researching a given problem. Another example of critical case case studies on primavera project management software sampling is the strategic case studies sales marketing business selection of lead and feather for the test of whether different objects case study empowerment business decisions fall with equal velocity. The selection of materials provided the possibility to formulate a case study worksite health promotion programs generalization characteristic of critical cases, a generalization of the sort, ‘If it is international business enterprises case studies valid for this case, it is valid for all (or many) cases.’ In its negative international law case studies form, the generalization would be, ‘If it is not valid for law case studies this case, then it is not valid for any (or only few) cases.’
A paradigmatic case may be search internet case studies research papers defined as an exemplar or prototype. Thomas Kuhn has shown that the special education case study outline basic skills, or background practices, of bedroom case feng shui study natural scientists are organized in terms of ‘exemplars’ or 'paradigms' the role of borderline personality disorder case study which in the scientific process can be analyzed. Similarly, scholars like business berts bees case study Clifford Geertz and Michel Foucault have often organized their research around specific cultural paradigms: a paradigm business ethics case studies university of texas for Geertz lay for instance in the ‘deep play’ of the business forecasting case study Balinese cockfight, while for Foucault, European business practice case studies prisons and the ‘Panopticon’ are examples. Both instances are examples of paradigmatic cases, that is, cases that business process reengineering case studies highlight more general characteristics of the societies case engineering study or issues in question. Kuhn has shown that scientific paradigms cannot be expressed as rules or theories. There exists no case studies of succesful it projects predictive theory for how predictive theory comes about. A case studies of successful schools around the world scientific activity is acknowledged or rejected as good science by how close it is to one or case studies team management customer initiatives business more exemplars; case study creativity business decisions that is, practical prototypes of good scientific work. A paradigmatic case of how scientists do science is precisely such a case study of internet based business prototype. It operates as a reference point and may function as a focus for case study on philippines business the founding of schools of thought.
Careful case selection may help clinical systems2c business resumption2c case study generalizing from case studies education case studies (see next section).
For more on case selection, see 
Generalizing from case studies
The case psychological case study study is effective for generalizing using the type of the gillette company case study test that Karl Popper called falsification, which forms part of critical reflexivity (flyvbjerg 2006). Falsification is one of work breakdown structure case study the most rigorous tests to which write a case study a scientific proposition can be subjected: if just one observation does not fit with the proposition it is considered not valid antisocial personality disorder case study generally and must therefore be either basf china joint venture case study revised or rejected. Popper himself used the now famous example of, "All swans are white," and proposed that bioethical case studies just case studies in management accounting one observation of a single black swan would falsify this proposition and in this way have general significance and case studies of corporate social responsibility in stimulate further investigations and theory-building. The case case studies of failed business study is well suited for identifying "black swans" because of its in-depth approach: what case studies on bruxism appears to be "white" often turns out on closer case studies on business ethics examination to be "black."
For instance, Galileo’s rejection of Aristotle’s law of gravity was based on a case study selected case study evaluations program data by information-oriented sampling and not random case study franchise sampling. The rejection consisted primarily of a conceptual experiment and case study house later on of a practical one. These experiments, with the benefit of hindsight, case study international business are self-evident. Nevertheless, Aristotle’s incorrect view of gravity dominated scientific inquiry for nearly two thousand years before it was falsified. case study negotiation In his experimental thinking, Galileo reasoned as follows: case study on business process re engineering if two objects with the same weight are released from the same height at the same time, they erp case study in financial services will hit the ground simultaneously, having free business ethics case studies fallen at the same speed. If the two objects are then stuck together into on line education business case studies one, this object will have double the weight and will according rogaine case study to the Aristotelian view therefore fall faster than the two individual objects. This acs case study business conclusion seemed contradictory to Galileo. The only way to avoid answers brithinee electric case study the contradiction was to eliminate weight as asbestos mesothelioma lawsuit case study a determinant factor for acceleration in free fall. And that was what Galileo did. Historians of science continue to autism case studies discuss whether Galileo actually carried out the famous experiment from the leaning b case studies tower of Pisa, or whether it is simply a myth. In any event, Galileo’s experimentalism b2c e business case study did not involve a large random sample of bai food packaging inspection case studies trials of objects falling from a wide range of randomly selected banana republic case study research history heights under varying wind conditions, and so birth control case studies on. Rather, it was a matter of a single experiment, that is, a case study, if any experiment was conducted at all.
Galileo’s view business studies 2005 case continued to be subjected to doubt, however, and business studies gcse case study the Aristotelian view was not finally rejected until half a century later, with case construction management project study the invention of the air case house study pump. The air pump made it possible to conduct the ultimate experiment, known by every pupil, case studies in international marketing whereby a coin or a piece of lead case studies using the feminist theory inside a vacuum tube falls with the same speed as a case study and diabetes mellitus feather. After this experiment, Aristotle’s view could be maintained no longer. What is especially worth noting, however, is case study chiropractic business that the matter was settled by an individual case due to the clever choice of case study deutsche bank and bankers trust consolidation the extremes of metal and case study for virtual office feather. One might call it a critical case: for if Galileo’s thesis held for these materials, it could be expected case study framework to be valid for all or a large range of materials. Random and case study in business large samples were at no time part of the picture. Most skilled case study in business ethics scientists case study standardization business practices simply do not work this way with this type of problem.
By selecting cases strategically in this manner one may arrive at case studies depression case studies that ecommerce case study allow generalization.
For more on generalizing from case studies, see 
History of the case study
As a distinct approach to research, ethical case studies 2b business use of the case study originated family therapy review case study only in the early 20th century. The Oxford English Dictionary traces the phrase case study or case-study back as far as forensic science case studies 1934, j2ee case study after the establishment of the concept of a case history in medicine.
The use of case studies for the creation of new theory jollibee foods corporation case study in social sciences has been further jones blair case study developed by the sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss who presented their research method, Grounded theory, lean six sigma case study in 1967.
The popularity of case studies lincoln electric venturing abroad case study as research tools has developed only in recent decades. One of the areas in outline format for case study which case studies have been gaining popularity is education and pediatric nurse practitioner case studies in particular educational evaluation. Some of the prominent scholars in educational case study are Robert Stake and Jan Nespor (see plasma international case study references). Case studies have, radio inc2c harvard business case study of course, also been used as a teaching method and as part of professional development. They are well-known in search engine marketing case study business and legal education. The search engine optimization case study problem-based learning (PBL) movement is one of the examples. When used in (non-business) security case studies education and professional development, case studies are often referred to as critical incidents (see David Tripp in security case study references).
History of Business Cases. - When the Harvard Business School was started, the faculty simple case study outline quickly six sigma case studies realized that there were no textbooks suitable to a graduate program in business. Their first solution to this problem was to interview systems approach business excellence case studies leading practioners of business and to two-way symmetric case study write detailed accounts of what these managers were doing. writing a case study Of course the professors could not present these cases as practices to be emulated because there were no criteria available for writing a good case study determining what would succeed and what would not succeed. So the professors wto case study decisions instructed their students to read the cases and to come to class prepared a case study of vendor managed inventory campbell to adjustment disorder case study discuss the cases and to offer recommendations for appropriate courses of action. Basically that is the model still being used. aids disease case studies See a critique of this approach.
The case study offers a method answers to new century health clinic case study of learning about a complex instance through extensive description and contextual analysis. The product arthritis case rheumatoid study articulates why the instance occurred as it did, bank banking banks case study service services and what one might usefully explore in similar situations.
Case studies can generate business case studies employee development training a great deal of data that may defy straightforward analysis. For details on conducting a case business case study on motivation in times of india study, especially with regard to business continuity case studies bank data collection and analysis, see the references listed below.
Sources and further readings
Bent Flyvbjerg, "Five Misunderstandings About business review case studies Case Study Research." Qualitative Inquiry, vol. 12, no. 2, April 2006, career development programs and case study pp. 219-245. 
Siegfried Lamnek. Qualitative Sozialforschung. Lehrbuch. 4. Auflage. Beltz Verlag. Weihnhein, Basel, 2005
Charles C. Ragin and Howard S. Becker, eds., What is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992). 
Roland W. Scholz and Olaf Tietje. Embedded Case Study Methods. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Knowledge. Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks 2002, Sage. ISBN 0761919465
Robert E. Stake, The Art of Case Study Research (Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1995). 
Robert K. Yin. Case Study Research. Design and Methods. Third Edition. Applied social research method series Volume 5. Sage Publications. California, 2002. ISBN 0761925538
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